The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of people with neurological conditions who take the chronic disease self-management (CDSM) programme. The CDSM programme is used to teach skills to manage chronic conditions, and prevent secondary conditions. Few studies have explored the use of the CDSM programme with people with neurological conditions, in spite of the long standing and sometimes unpredictable nature of those conditions.
This qualitative study explored the experience of people with stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI) who participated in the CDSM programme. We completed individual interviews using a semi-structured interview guide with 22 individuals with stroke, MS and SCI.
Five categories emerged from the interview discussions including: (1) pre-programme influences; (2) group; (3) factors affecting learning opportunities; (4) workshop content and (5) outcomes.
The results of this study provide insights regarding the optimal way to present the CDSM programme to people with neurological conditions.
Neurosurgical Department, Federal State Budgetary Scientific and Practical Centre for Medical and Social Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons in Novokuznetsk, Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Russian Federation, Novokuznetsk, Russian Federation.
(1) To use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) profile to assess the functioning of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) admitted to a rehabilitation center; (2) To determine the role of the ICF in the operation of a rehabilitation center in Russia.
This study was conducted in the Federal center for disability rehabilitation in Novokuznetsk, Russia.
Eighty-one patients with SCI (59 men and 22 women; 31 with cervical, 41 with thoracic and 9 with lumbar level of injury) were included in the study. We determined the odds ratios of more pronounced impairments in ICF categories according to the duration of SCI and degree of neurological deficit.
Mean age of patients was 34.9±11.1 years, men/women ratio was 2.7:1 and the median of time from injury was 2.5 (1.5-6) years. On the basis of American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS), most patients had AIS A (N=31, 38.3%). Patients with tetraplegia and AIS A or AIS B were at risk for more significant impairments in b620 'urination functions' and b640 'sexual functions'. Patients with paraplegia and AIS A or AIS B were at risk for more significant impairments in b735 'muscle tone functions'.
Using the ICF, we were able to describe the range and extent of functioning problems experienced by patients with SCI who were admitted in our rehabilitation center. Moreover, the use of the ICF improved the interaction between specialists.
The British Columbia Paraplegic Association (BCPA) sought a research partnership to evaluate where its activities should be focused. A survey of members with disabilities of the BCPA included questions on employment and identified three priorities related to employment. These were the need for assistance in finding appropriate work, the impact of policies of government and insurance agencies, and attitudes of employers. This paper examines the social and political environment related to employment following spinal cord injury in British Columbia, Canada. There is no coherent set of goals underlying government employment and income programs in Canada. Incremental development of particular employment and income programs during the 20th century led to a patchwork of policies and programs, which deal with people differently according to the cause of their disability. Federal and provincial governments have attempted to educate employers and reduce barriers to employment of those with disabilities by focusing on anti-discrimination legislation and individual rights (e.g. the Employment Equity Act and the Canadian Human Rights Act). However, people with disabilities face non-accommodating environments, inadequate income support, lack of opportunities and little political influence which stem from an unfair distribution of societal resources, not from discrimination. Joint efforts of the BCPA and other disability organizations are likely to have the most impact on legislative changes.
PURPOSE: The primary objective was to study factors influencing post-injury employment and withdrawal from work in persons who sustained traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) more than 20 years ago. A secondary objective was to study life satisfaction in the same patients. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with retrospective data of 165 SCI-patients admitted to Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital 1961-1982. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify predictors for obtaining work post-injury. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to study factors influencing early withdrawal from work, i.e. time from injury until discontinuing employment. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of the participants were employed at some point after the injury. Thirty-five percent still had work at the time of the survey. The odds of obtaining work after injury were higher in persons of younger age at injury, higher in males versus females, higher for persons with paraplegia versus tetraplegia, and for persons classified as Frankel D-E compared to a more severe SCI. Factors associated with shorter time from injury until discontinuing employment were higher age at injury, incidence of injury after 1975 versus before, and a history of pre-injury medical condition(s). Life satisfaction was better for currently employed participants. CONCLUSION: The study indicates a low employment-rate in persons with SCI, even several years after injury. From the results, we suggest more support, especially to persons of older age at injury and/or with a history of pre-injury medical condition(s), to help them to obtain work and sustain employed for more years after injury.
To determine employment outcomes of adults with pediatric-onset spinal cord injury (SCI) and factors associated with those outcomes.
Structured interview, including standardized measures.
Individuals who sustained an SCI at age 18 years or younger, were 24 years or older at follow-up, did not have a significant brain injury, and were living in the United States or Canada. A total of 195 subjects were interviewed. Mean age at injury was 14 years (0-18 y), mean age at interview was 29 years (24-37 y), and mean duration of injury was 15 years (7-28 y). All participants had been enrolled in SCI programs.
A structured interview, the FIM instrument, the Craig Handicap Assessment and Recording Technique, the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale.
Of the participants, 99 (51%) were employed, 78 (40%) were unemployed, 12 (6%) were students, and 6 (3%) were homemakers. A predictive model of employment identified 4 factors associated with employment: education, community mobility, functional independence, and decreased medical complications. Other variables significantly associated with employment included community integration, independent driving, independent living, higher income, and life satisfaction.
Compared with the general population, the high rate of unemployment among adults with pediatric-onset SCI is a cause for concern. Risk factors associated with adult unemployment provide guidelines for targeting rehabilitation resources and strategies.