In most subjects with Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, alpha-synuclein (alphaS) immunoreactive pathology is found not only in the brain but also in the autonomic nuclei of the spinal cord. However, neither has the temporal course of alphaS pathology in the spinal cord in relation to the brain progression been established, nor has the extent of alphaS pathology in the spinal cord been analyzed in population-based studies. Using immunohistochemistry, the frequency and distribution of alphaS pathology were assessed semiquantitatively in the brains and spinal cord nuclei of 304 subjects who were aged at least 85 in the population-based Vantaa 85+ study. alphaS pathology was common in the spinal cord; 102 (34%) subjects had classic alphaS pathology in the thoracic and/or sacral autonomic nuclei. Moreover, 134 (44%) subjects showed grain- or dot-like immunoreactivity in neuropil (mini-aggregates) without classic Lewy neurites or Lewy bodies (LBs). The latter type of alphaS accumulation is associated with age, but also the classic alphaS pathology was found more often in the oldest compared to the youngest age group. The severity of alphaS pathology in the spinal cord autonomic nuclei is significantly associated with the extent and severity of alphaS pathology in the brain. Of the subjects, 60% with moderate to severe thoracic alphaS pathology and up to 89% with moderate to severe sacral alphaS pathology had diffuse neocortical type of LB pathology in the brain. alphaS pathology exclusively in the spinal cord was rare. Our study indicates that in general alphaS pathology in the spinal cord autonomic nuclei is associated with similar pathology in the brain.
Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a common secondary complication experienced by community dwelling individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). There is a paucity of literature on the health economic impact of PU in SCI population from a societal perspective. The objective of this study was to determine the resource use and costs in 2010 Canadian dollars of a community dwelling SCI individual experiencing a PU from a societal perspective. A non-comparative cost analysis was conducted on a cohort of community dwelling SCI individuals from Ontario, Canada. Medical resource use was recorded over the study period. Unit costs associated with these resources were collected from publicly available sources and published literature. Average monthly cost was calculated based on 7-month follow-up. Costs were stratified by age, PU history, severity level, location of SCI, duration of current PU and PU surface area. Sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Among the 12 study participants, total average monthly cost per community dwelling SCI individual with a PU was $4745. Hospital admission costs represented the greatest percentage of the total cost (62%). Sensitivity analysis showed that the total average monthly costs were most sensitive to variations in hospitalisation costs.
The Canadian C-spine (cervical spine) Rule (CCR) and the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Low-Risk Criteria (NLC) are criteria designed to guide C-spine radiography in trauma patients. It is unclear how these 2 rules compare with young children.
This study retrospectively examined case-matched trauma patients 10 years or younger. Two cohorts were identified-cohort A where C-spine imaging was performed and cohort B where no imaging was conducted. The CCR and NLC criteria were then applied retrospectively to each cohort.
Cohort A contained 125 cases and cohort B with 250 cases. Seven patients (3%) had significant C-spine injuries. In cohort A, NLC criteria could be applied in 108 (86.4%) of 125 and CCR in 109 (87.2%) of 125. National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Low-Risk Criteria suggested that 70 (58.3%) cases required C-spine imaging compared to 93 (76.2%) by CCR. National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Low-Risk Criteria missed 3 C-spine injuries, and CCR missed one. In cohort B, NLC criteria could be applied in 132 (88%) of 150 and CCR in 131 (87.3%) of 150. The NLC criteria identified 8 cases and CCR identified 13 cases that would need C-spine radiographs. Fisher's 2-sided Exact test demonstrated that CCR and NLC predictions were significantly different (P = .002) in both cohorts. The sensitivity of CCR was 86% and specificity was 94%, and the NLC had a sensitivity of 43% and a specificity of 96%.
Although CCR and NLC criteria may reduce the need for C-spine imaging in children 10 years and younger; they are not sensitive or specific enough to be used as currently designed.
BACKGROUND: Most clinical data for multiple sclerosis are hospital based-that is, derived from patients referred to clinics specialising in the disease. OBJECTIVES: To present data derived from two population based multiple sclerosis populations, an incidence cohort and a prevalence population, from Västerbotten County, northern Sweden. METHODS: The two populations were identified from multiple sources, and case ascertainment was assured through a personal clinical review, including interviews and examination of the patients. RESULTS: Characteristics at onset for the different clinical subtypes of multiple sclerosis are presented, including the clinical spectrum of the first attack, the anatomical correlation between the first and second attacks, sex distribution, and disability distribution. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the comparison of present and earlier natural history data, multiple sclerosis appears to be a slightly more benign disease than previously recognised.
Previous qualitative and survey studies have suggested women with spinal cord injury (SCI) are screened less often for cervical cancer compared with the general population. We investigated whether cervical cancer screening rates differ between population-based women with and without traumatic SCI, matched for age and geography.
A double cohort design was used, comparing women with SCI to the general population (1:4) using administrative data for Ontario, Canada. Women with SCI, identified using the Discharge Abstract Database for the fiscal years 1995-1996 to 2001-2002, were female residents of Ontario between the ages of 25 and 66, admitted to an acute care facility with a traumatic SCI (ICD-9 CM code 806 or 952). Women in the general Ontario population were randomly matched by age and geography. Screening rates were calculated from fee codes related to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests for a 3-year period preinjury and postinjury.
There were 339 women with SCI matched to 1506 women in the general Ontario population. Screening rates pre-SCI were 55% for women with SCI and 57% during this same time period for matched women in the general population; post-SCI rates were 58% for both the two groups. Factors predicting the likelihood of receiving a Pap test for SCI cases included younger age and higher socioeconomic status.
Utilization data suggest that there are no significant differences in screening rates for women with SCI compared with the general population. However, screening rates for women with SCI were significantly influenced by age as well as income.
STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To compare the demographic data of the included population with other studied spinal cord injury (SCI) populations in the international literature. SETTING: Eight Dutch rehabilitation centers with a specialized SCI unit. METHODS: A total of 205 individuals with SCI participated in this study. Information about personal, lesion and rehabilitation characteristics were collected at the beginning of active rehabilitation by means of a questionnaire. RESULTS: The research group mainly consisted of men (74%), of individuals with a paraplegia (59%), and had a complete lesion (68%). The SCI was mainly caused by a trauma (75%), principally due to a traffic accident (42%). The length of clinical rehabilitation varied between 2 months and more than a year, which seemed to be dependent on the lesion characteristics and related comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: The personal and lesion characteristics of the subjects of the multi-center study were comparable to data of other studies, although fewer older subjects and subjects with an incomplete lesion were included due to the inclusion criteria 'age' and 'wheelchair-dependent'. The length of stay in rehabilitation centers in The Netherlands was longer compared to Denmark but much longer than in eg Australia and the USA.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of depression following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and identify risk factors associated with depression. METHODS: This population-based cohort study followed individuals from date of SCI to 6 years after injury. Administrative data from a Canadian province with a universal publicly funded health care system and centralized databases were used. A Cox proportional hazards model was developed to identify risk factors. RESULTS: Of 201 patients with SCI, 58 (28.9%) were treated for depression. Individuals at highest risk were those with a pre-injury history of depression [hazard rate ratio (HRR) 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3], a history of substance abuse (HRR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.3) or permanent neurological deficit (HRR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1). CONCLUSION: Depression occurs commonly and early in persons who sustain an SCI. Both patient and injury factors are associated with the development of depression. These should be used to target patients for mental health assessment and services during initial hospitalization and following discharge into the community.
The objective was to quantify direct health care costs attributable to traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI).
This population-based cohort study followed individuals with SCI from date of injury to 6 years postinjury. SCI cases were matched to a comparison group randomly selected from the general population. Administrative data from a Canadian province with a universal publicly funded health care system and centralized health databases were used. Costs included hospitalizations, physician services, home care, and long-term care.
Attributable costs in the first year were $121,600 (2002 $CDN) per person with a complete SCI, and $42,100 per person with an incomplete injury. In the subsequent 5 years, annual costs were $5,400 and $2,800 for persons with complete and incomplete SCIs, respectively.
Direct costs in the first year after SCI are substantial. In the subsequent 5 years, individuals with SCI will continue to accrue greater costs than the general public.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of early versus late surgical decompression on motor neurological recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI).
Canadian acute care and SCI rehabilitation facilities.
A prospective cohort study of patients within the Ontario Spinal Cord Injury Registry program was performed. We considered SCI patients with an admission American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) grade of A through D, with magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed spinal cord compression. Grouped analysis was performed comparing the cohort of patients who received early surgery (
This paper describes the rationale and methodology for the Study of Health and Activity in People with Spinal Cord Injury (SHAPE SCI). The study aims to (1) describe physical activity levels of people with different injury levels and completeness, (2) examine the relationship between physical activity, risk and/or presence of secondary health complications and risk of chronic disease, and (3) identify determinants of physical activity in the SCI population.
Seven hundred and twenty men and women who have incurred a traumatic SCI complete self-report measures of physical activity, physical activity determinants, secondary health problems and subjective well-being during a telephone interview. A representative subsample (n=81) participate in chronic disease risk factor testing for obesity, insulin resistance and coronary heart disease. Measures are taken at baseline, 6 and 18 months.
SHAPE SCI will provide much-needed epidemiological information on physical activity patterns, determinants and health in people with SCI. This information will provide a foundation for the establishment of evidence-based physical activity guidelines and interventions tailored to the SCI community.