Retrospective analysis and retrospective follow-up.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients have today a nearly normal lifespan. Avoidance of medical complications is key to this end. The aim of the study was to analyse health in individuals surviving 25 years or more after traumatic SCI in Stockholm and Florence, and compare medical complications.
Data from the databases of the Spinal Unit of Florence and from the Spinalis, Stockholm were analysed. Patients included were C2-L 2, American Spinal Cord Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) A-C, and =25 years post traumatic SCI. Patients underwent a thorough neurological and general examination, and were interviewed about medical events during those years. Analysed data include: gender, age at injury, current age, neurological level, AIS, cause of injury, presence of neuropathic pain (NP), and spasticity and medical complications.
A total of 66 Italian patients and 74 Swedish patients were included. The only statistical difference between the groups was cause of injury due to falls was higher in the Florence group (P
To update the 2005 Cancer Care Ontario practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of adult patients with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of extradural malignant spinal cord compression (MESCC).
A review and analysis of data published from January 2004 to May 2011. The systematic literature review included published randomized control trials (RCTs), systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and prospective/retrospective studies.
An RCT of radiation therapy (RT) with or without decompressive surgery showed improvements in pain, ambulatory ability, urinary continence, duration of continence, functional status, and overall survival. Two RCTs of RT (30 Gy in eight fractions vs. 16 Gy in two fractions; 16 Gy in two fractions vs. 8 Gy in one fraction) in patients with a poor prognosis showed no difference in ambulation, duration of ambulation, bladder function, pain response, in-field failure, and overall survival. Retrospective multicenter studies reported that protracted RT schedules in nonsurgical patients with a good prognosis improved local control but had no effect on functional or survival outcomes.
If not medically contraindicated, steroids are recommended for any patient with neurologic deficits suspected or confirmed to have MESCC. Surgery should be considered for patients with a good prognosis who are medically and surgically operable. RT should be given to nonsurgical patients. For those with a poor prognosis, a single fraction of 8 Gy should be given; for those with a good prognosis, 30 Gy in 10 fractions could be considered. Patients should be followed up clinically and/or radiographically to determine whether a local relapse develops. Salvage therapies should be introduced before significant neurologic deficits occur.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence and character of chronic abdominal pain in a group of patients with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess predictors of abdominal pain. STUDY DESIGN: Postal survey. SETTING: Members of the Danish Paraplegic Association. METHODS: We mailed a questionnaire to 284 members of the Danish Paraplegic Association who met the inclusion criteria (member for at least 10 years). The questionnaire contained questions about cause and level of spinal injury, colorectal function and pain/discomfort. RESULTS: Seventy percent returned the questionnaire (133 men and 70 women). Mean age was 47 years. Thirty-four percent reported having chronic abdominal pain or discomfort. Onset of pain was later than 5 years after their SCI in 53%. Low defecation frequency was more common in patients with abdominal pain/discomfort and constipation more often affected their quality of life compared to patients without abdominal pain/discomfort. The most common descriptors were annoying, cramping/tightening, tender, sickening and shooting/jolting. There was no relation to age, time since injury or level of injury, but more women than men reported abdominal pain/discomfort. There was no relation of abdominal pain to other types of pain. CONCLUSION: Chronic pain located in the abdomen is frequent in patients with long-term SCI. The delayed onset following SCI and the relation to constipation suggest that constipation plays an important role for this type of pain in the spinal cord injured.
To describe physical capacity, autonomic function, and perceptions of exercise among adults with subacute spinal cord injury (SCI).
Two inpatient SCI rehabilitation programs in Canada.
Participants (N=41; mean age ± SD, 38.9 ± 13.7y) with tetraplegia (TP; n=19), high paraplegia (HP; n=8), or low paraplegia (LP; n=14) completing inpatient SCI rehabilitation (mean ± SD, 112.9 ± 52.5d postinjury).
Peak exercise capacity was determined by an arm ergometry test. As a measure of autonomic function, orthostatic tolerance was assessed by a passive sit-up test. Self-efficacy for exercise postdischarge was evaluated by a questionnaire.
There was a significant difference in peak oxygen consumption and heart rate between participants with TP (11.2 ± 3.4;mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) 113.9 ± 19.7 beats/min) and LP (17.1 ± 7.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 142.8 ± 22.7 beats/min). Peak power output was also significantly lower in the TP group (30.0 ± 6.9W) compared with the HP (55.5 ± 7.56W) and LP groups (62.5 ± 12.2W). Systolic blood pressure responses to the postural challenge varied significantly between groups (-3.0 ± 33.5 mmHg in TP, 17.8 ± 14.7 mmHg in HP, 21.6 ± 18.7 mmHg in LP). Orthostatic hypotension was most prevalent among participants with motor complete TP (73%). Results from the questionnaire revealed that although participants value exercise and see benefits to regular participation, they have low confidence in their abilities to perform the task of either aerobic or strengthening exercise.
Exercise is well tolerated in adults with subacute SCI. Exercise interventions at this stage should focus on improving task-specific self-efficacy, and attention should be made to blood pressure regulation, particularly in individuals with motor complete TP.
To quantify relationships among 3 sets of factors: demographic factors, health and disability factors, and quality of life (QOL).
Part of a program of longitudinal research on aging and spinal cord injury (SCI) involving 3 populations: American, British, and Canadian. The present analysis uses data from the 1999 interval.
The Canadian sample was derived from the member database of the Ontario and Manitoba divisions of the Canadian Paraplegic Association. The British sample was recruited from a national and a regional SCI center in England. The American sample was recruited through a hospital in Colorado.
A sample of 352 participants was assembled from 4 large, well-established databases. The sample included individuals who had incurred an SCI at least 20 years earlier, were admitted to rehabilitation within 1 year of injury, and were between the ages of 15 and 55 at the time of injury.
A combination of self-completed questionnaires and interviews. Data included demographics, injury-related variables, health and disability-related factors, QOL, and perceptions about aging.
Using linear structural relationships modeling, we found that QOL was affected both directly and indirectly by age, health and disability problems, and perceptions of aging. Two surprising findings were as follows: those who experienced fewer disability-related problems were more likely to report a qualitative disadvantage in aging, and the younger members of the sample were more likely to report fatigue.
Fatigue is a concern because of the relationship of fatigue with perceived temporal disadvantage in aging, health problems, and disability problems. This finding highlights the need for clinical vigilance among those just beginning to experience the effects of aging.
To assess the validity of different administrative data sources available for the identification of traumatic spinal cord injured (TSCI) patients.
Retrospective validation study.
Adult patients seen in tertiary outpatient spinal cord rehabilitation clinics after 1 April 2002.
Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicative values of diagnostic ICD10 codes from Canadian Institutes of Health Discharge Abstracts (CIHI-DAD), Rehabilitation Coding Groups (RCG) from that National Rehabilitation System (NRS), and spinal cord injury fee codes from the Ontario Healthcare Insurance Plan (OHIP). Secondary outcome was the agreement between actual lesion level and RCG/ICD10 coded lesion level.
The RCG codes in the NRS have high sensitivity (92%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 87-95%) and specificity (97%, 95% CI: 94-99%) for the identification of true TSCI patients, whereas CIHI-DAD ICD10 codes are highly specific (99%, 95% CI: 95-100) and moderately sensitive (76%, 95% CI: 79-87%). OHIP fee codes had poor sensitivity (64%, 95% CI: 57-71%). Agreement between true lesion level and the NRS and CIHI-DAD coding is good (Kappa of 0.65-0.88 and 0.56-0.70, respectively).
This study demonstrated that the NRS is able to accurately discriminate between patients with and without a TSCI. A large population of incident and prevalent TSCI patients are identifiable using administrative data.
This study was funded by a grant from the Division of Urology, Western University.
This study was conducted in subjects who became paraplegic or quadreplegic after accidental traumatic injury to the spinal cord. The aim was to determine the effect of different personal factors and of environment on their quality of life. Data obtained from the patients in the different questionnaires completed during interviews were analysed to determine the Linear Structural Relationships. The results demonstrated a direct significant impact of three quality of life variables: a) the amount of caring expressed in the behaviour and attitudes of the individual's family during his childhood and infancy, b) the current level of self-estime and c) self-involvement and personal activities (for example in studies or employment). Other relationships between the different study factors also appeared and contributed to an explanation of the subject's life style after the accidental trauma to the spinal cord.
The authors conducted a retrospective review of the clinical and treatment characteristics and outcomes in 28 pediatric patients with anaplastic ependymoma treated with radiation therapy since the advent of computerized tomography (CT) (1978-1994). Twelve patients received craniospinal irradiation followed by a boost to the primary site, two received whole-brain radiation therapy followed by a boost to the primary site, and the remaining 14 were treated with focal radiation therapy. The mean dose to the primary site was 5486 cGy. With a median follow-up period of 86 months for the 14 surviving patients (range 31-201 months), the median disease-free survival, measured from the date of diagnosis to the time of recurrence after radiation therapy, was 40 months. The median disease-free survival measured from the start of radiation therapy was 32 months. The median overall survival rate has not been reached and the actuarial estimates of overall survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 56% and 38%, respectively. According to univariate analysis, the disease-free survival rate was significantly improved (p
To examine seasonal variation in total moderate-to-vigorous leisure-time physical activity (MV-LTPA), exercise and sport participation in a cohort of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).
Community (Ontario, Canada).
Participants with SCI (n=695) completed telephone interviews regarding their involvement in MV-LTPA along with social cognitive predictors of MV-LTPA. Logistic regression was used to predict the impact of season on participation in MV-LTPA, exercise and sport. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine seasonal variation in min per day of MV-LTPA in the active sub-cohort (n=342) with a specific focus on exercise (for example, wheeling), and sport (for example, sledge hockey).
Logistic regressions revealed that season did not predict whether participants engaged in MV-LTPA, exercise or sport. Linear regressions revealed that individuals in the active sub-cohort who completed the questionnaire during the winter reported engaging in less MV-LTPA than those who were interviewed in summer (ßsummer=0.14, P
The objective of this study is to compare arterial stiffness between those with spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied (AB) individuals when matched for habitual level of physical activity.
A total of 17 SCI and 17 AB individuals were matched for sex, age, weight, blood pressure, and levels of self-reported habitual physical activity (Godin-Shephard). Measures included central pulse wave velocity (PWV) (carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV)) and lower limb PWV (femoral--toe PWV(ftPWV)) as well as large and small arterial compliance.
The cfPWV was significantly elevated (7.3 ± 2.1 vs. 5.7 ± 1.4 m·s, P