To evaluate the methods of self-reported bladder management, the frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI) and subjective disturbance of bladder problems of all those individuals with traumatic spinal cord lesion (SCL) living in Helsinki area.
: Helsinki, Finland.
A total of 152 persons with SCL were found in the Helsinki area (546 000 inhabitants). A structured questionnaire was sent to all subjects and they were invited to a clinical visit.
The final study-group consisted of 129 (85%) subjects. They were defined into seven specific subgroups of bladder management: 14 (11%) subjects in the normal voiding group, 15 (12%) in the controlled voiding group, 16 (12%) in the clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) group, 30 (23%) in the mixed group, 31 (24%) in the suprapubic tapping group, 16 (12%) in the compression or straining group and seven (5%) in the catheter or conduit group. The frequency of UTI was highest in the mixed group. The bladder management was a biggest bother to the subjects in the compression or straining group.
This prevalence study assesses the self-reported bladder management methods in all the persons with traumatic SCL in the Helsinki area. The subjects who used CIC and other methods for bladder management had more problems than others. These subjects might manage better by using either CIC or suprapubic tapping as the only method for bladder emptying.
Individual interview and questionnaire of a regional spinal cord-injured (SCI) population.
Local health care centres are mainly responsible for the SCI patients health care and rehabilitation after initial hospitalization in Finland. The purpose of the present study was to study aspects of the SCI patients life situation and their opinion of the health care services after 1 year since the injury.
Regional study in Central Finland.
Subjects were individually interviewed in their homes using a semi-structured questionnaire, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
The female/male ratio was 1:4. The mean age at the time of injury was 34 years in female and 40 in male. Traffic accidents accounted for 46% of the injuries. In all, 48 subjects (63%) used electrical or manual wheelchair or both. Most subjects regarded their living conditions as good having enough personal assistance in their everyday life. Only 10% of the subjects were employed. Half of the subjects had had out-patient physiotherapy, but no other therapies after 1 year since the injury. More than half of the subjects were dissatisfied with the current health care services. Many had experienced complications after the initial hospitalization, especially urinary tract infections, decubitus ulcers and neurogenic-type pain. FIM classified well according to the disability groups. The motor complete tetraplegic group had the lowest mean scores (63) and the recovered group the highest ones (122). There was no association between the FIM and the BDI results. There was a correlation between the BDI and the subject's age at the time of the injury and the year of the injury. The older the subjects were when injured, the higher were the BDI scores, that is, they had more depressive symptoms. Those injured in the 1990s had the highest BDI scores. Nearly one-third of the subjects had mild, moderate or severe depression.
The reported medical complications, depression and dissatisfaction with the health care services support a life-long care for SCI patients in Jyväskylä Central hospital, not in the local health care centres. The psychological services, for example, prevention and treatment of depression, in particular, require more attention.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective register-based epidemiological study. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence rate of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) with special reference to ASIA Impairment Grade A-D. SETTING: Helsinki, Finland. METHODS: Cases were identified using the registers of the Kapyla Rehabilitation Centre, Helsinki University Central Hospital and the local organization for the disabled. Local health centres were informed about the study, residential service houses were contacted, and announcements were published in patient magazines. RESULTS: A regional population was found to have a prevalence rate of 28/100,000 inhabitants with SCI (ASIA Impairment Scale A-D). CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate in this study is consistent with the data published in other Nordic countries. SPONSORSHIP: The Finnish Cultural Foundation.