Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is an interventional radiological procedure for the treatment of pain in patients with vertebral compressions caused by osteoporosis, metastases or hemangioma. The method was introduced by Professors P Galibert and H Deramond at the University Hospital of Amiens, France in 1984. It consists of percutaneous injection of bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate) into the vertebral body under fluoroscopy guidance. PV has proved to be effective and safe. Permanent complete or partial pain relief is obtained within hours or days in more than 90% of cases. The complication rate is low, less than 3% for patients with osteoporosis and up to 10% in patients with metastases. We report on the first 17 patients (11 with osteoporosis, 3 with metastases and 3 with hemangiomas) treated in Sweden at the Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Sahlgrenska Hospital, GÃ¶teborg University. We obtained complete pain relief in 71% and partial pain relief in 17% of cases. The majority of the patients improved in mobility and quality of life. We had no clinical complications.