Brown Norway (BN) rats are much less susceptible to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) than Lewis rats. Nevertheless, BN rats developed severe EAE, even paralysis, when immunized with rat spinal cord and carbonyl iron adjuvant. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was much less effective. The use of both CFA and pertussis vaccine with rat cord was moderately, but not consistently, effective. Guinea pig spinal cord was weakly encephalitogenic to BN rats with all adjuvant combinations. We were not able to produce EAE in BN rats with purified myelin basic protein from either rat or guinea pig. Inoculations directly into lymph nodes or into the blood stream proved that the low susceptibility of BN rats was not due to lack of absorption from the site of inoculation, but may be related to peculiarities of processing antigen in draining lymph nodes. The severity of EAE in F1 hybrids was intermediate between the BN and Lewis parental strains when tested with an immunizing procedure of appropriate strength. The fact that F1 hybrids were less reactive than Lewis mandates modification of the theory that susceptibility to EAE is inherited through a single autosomal dominant gene.
A survey is presented of 160 children from the Nordic countries who had their antileukemic therapy discontinued prior to November 1976. Twenty-seven of the 160 cases (17%) had suffered a relapse before May, 1977. Sixty-nine cases had their therapy stopped in the first ten months of 1976. All cases have been reported as acute lymphocytic leukemia. Different types of therapy schedules have been used. Thirty-five cases in sustained remission for more than 3 years without cessation of therapy are also included in the report, seventeen of whom had relapsed while still on therapy. Central nervous system or testicular relapse occurred in 21 of the total 44 cases who relapsed after three or more years of continuous remission, and whether they were on therapy or not.
In 273 completely paralyzed cord injured patients, the 1-year mortality was 34% in the patients with cervical fractures and 7% in the patients with thoracic and thoracolumbar fractures. Recovery of useful motor function return occurred in 6.7% of the cervical and 11% of the thoracic and thoracolumbar patients; only 1% of the patient population became completely normal. No specific treatment could be singled out as aiding recovery. A case with recovery from complete paralysis after C5--6 fracture-dislocation is presented.
One hundred and one patients with histologically confirmed ependymomas were studied over a 22-year period. Choroid plexus papilloma and sub-ependymoma were not included. About half of the tumors were intracranial, with the majority of these infratentorial. The intraspinal tumors were equally divided between intramedullary and the "cauda" group. The majority of the intracranial tumors occurred in children, while almost all the intraspinal tumors were in adults. The histologic classification consisted of "typical ependymoma" (cellular, papillary and myxopapillary patterns) and "anaplastic ependymoma". The intracranial and intramedullary tumors showed a predominantly cellular pattern, while the myxopapillary type was found only in the "cauda" group. The histology seems to be of limited value in assessing the prognosis in an individual patient with ependymoma. The postoperative prognosis was poor in the intracranial tumors, although radiotherapy increased the survival time without affecting the eventual fatal outcome. The prognosis in the intraspinal group was much better, with three-fourths of the patients living for at least 10 years. No patient with an anaplastic tumor survived for more than 6 years.