The acrylamide levels in breast milk and the main categories of Swedish baby food products, i.e. breast milk substitute (infant formula), gruel, porridge and canned baby food, have been analysed. Furthermore, the acrylamide intake from these products by children up to one year of age has been estimated. Other kind of foods e.g. biscuits, are not included. Because of the expected low concentrations of acrylamide, a new sample extraction method for detection by liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, was developed and validated. The lower limit of quantification was 0.5 microg kg(-1) for liquid samples and 2 microg kg(-1) for other samples. The average levels found for gruel, porridge and canned baby food, all ready to eat, were 1.4, 26, and 7.8 microg/kg respectively. We found great variations in the acrylamide levels between and in different food categories,
Dental amalgam restorations are a significant source of mercury exposure in the human population, but their potential to cause systemic health effects is highly disputed. We examined effects on the immune system by giving genetically mercury-susceptible Brown Norway (BN) rats and mercury-resistant Lewis (LE) rats silver amalgam restorations in 4 molars of the upper jaw, causing a body burden similar to that described in human amalgam-bearers (from 250 to 375 mg amalgam/kg body weight). BN rats with amalgam restorations, compared with control rats given composite resinous restorations, developed a rapid activation of the immune system, with a maximum 12-fold increase of the plasma IgE concentration after 3 wks (p 0.05). After 12 wks, BN rats with amalgam restorations showed significantly increased (p spleen > cerebrum occipital lobe > cerebellum > liver > thymus, and the tissue silver concentration was significantly (p
In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties and soft characteristics of etiprednol dicloacetate (BNP-166) a new steroid, which has been developed for the treatment of asthma, were investigated in this study. The compound effectively decreased cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide stimulated lymphocytes and attenuated lectin-induced proliferation of blood mononuclear cells in tissue culture. In an animal model of allergen sensitized and challenged Brown Norway rats, using topical treatment, etiprednol dicloacetate substantially attenuated the extent of allergen induced bronchoalveolar fluid eosinophilia. At every examined parameter its pharmacological effects were comparable to those of budesonide. By means of in vitro biological and analytical methods the soft character of BNP-166 was also investigated. The anti-inflammatory effect of etiprednol dicloacetate in vitro was shown to be the function of the quantity of serum components, present in the assay. This loss of activity was most likely the result of the fast metabolism of etiprednol dicloacetate, which in the presence of sera could have been demonstrated by LC/MS/MS. Our data indicate that the significant local effect of the compound will very likely be accompanied with a drastically reduced systemic activity indicating an encouraging selectivity of the pharmacological action of etiprednol dicloacetate.
Double-focusing sector-field, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used for the determination of 71 elements in scalp hair and fingernail samples from an urban population group living in the north-east of Sweden. Samples (n = 114 for hair and n = 96 for nails) were taken from subjects without known occupational exposure to metals. From these results, concentration ranges were calculated and compared with published intervals. Statistical analysis was used to elucidate differences according to sex, age and smoking habit. It was found that significant correlations exist between different elements in hair and nails, as well as between hair and nail concentrations for several elements. Strong positive correlation for Hg, Cd, Pb, Sb and Bi levels between these media confirms that both can be used for exposure assessment for these elements. Several examples on the use of distribution patterns for the rare-earth elements (REE) and of Pb isotope ratios for assessment of exposure are given.
In 1983 WHO, defined "The Sick Building Syndrome". Various conditions influence the indoor climate, among others the degassing of chemicals. An epidemic of sick building syndrome is described in a two year old office building. The symptoms appeared after exposure to toxic chemicals released by a stink bomb--a form of exposure not previously described in the literature. Gas chromatographic analysis of the content of the stink bomb revealed 22 different chemicals likely to be remains from an alcoholic fermentation process. Twenty-four employees were exposed. A questionnaire investigation of the employees revealed that seven had symptoms related to the exposure. A clinical investigation of those who claimed to have symptoms took place. Six of the seven patients were investigated. They all had toxic rhinitis with bleeding. Owing to an unsystematic procedure it took more than two months before the indoor climate was normalized. The toxic rhinitis and other symptoms gradually decreased over more than four months. In order to minimize potential health damage due to the sick building syndrome, we recommend that experts should be consulted within this particular field.
One fluorescent compound previously named TDP-2 was isolated and purified from a rice culture of Fusarium equiseti (Alaska 2-2). Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicated that it is a C-3'-N-acetyl derivative of fusarochromanone, a newly discovered mycotoxin. Time course studies of synthesis of these two compounds on autoclaved rice and Czapek-Dox medium enriched with soybean peptone indicated that fusarochromanone was converted to TDP-2 in the cultures. A high concentration of peptone in the liquid medium may stimulate both fusarochromanone synthesis and its conversion to TDP-2.
Placental transfer and metabolism of carbamazepine (CBZ) was studied in a dual recirculating placental cotyledon perfusion system and was also evaluated in 16 pairs of maternal venous and cord blood samples. Among the parameters studied as possible indicators of a successful perfusion, volume changes in perfusate divided the perfusions into two groups, whereas no significant differences between perfusions were noted in blood gas analysis or in antipyrine transfer. CBZ added into the maternal circulation crosses the placenta in the beginning quicker than antipyrine which is in agreement with the different lipid solubilities of these compounds. Because the transfer rates of antipyrine and CBZ were about the same, the mechanism of transfer of CBZ is probably similar to that of antipyrine (passive diffusion). No metabolites of CBZ could be detected in the perfusate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. With the improved HPLC methodology for CBZ metabolites, six metabolites were detected in clinical samples, including 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydro-CBZ (10-OH-CBZ), which has been described earlier in only 1 uremic patient. Relative levels of metabolites showed significant individual differences. CBZ crosses perfused placenta rapidly, but this does not contribute to CBZ metabolites detected in maternal and fetal circulation.
Perfluoroalkyl substances were determined in liver tissues and blood of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from five locations in the North American Arctic and two locations in the European Arctic. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, heptadecafluorooctane sulfonamide, and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates with C(8)-C(15) perfluorinated carbon chains were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. PFOS concentrations were significantly correlated with age at four of seven sampling locations, while gender was not correlated to concentration for any compound measured. Populations in South Hudson Bay (2000-2730 ng/g wet wt), East Greenland (911-2140 ng/g wet wt), and Svalbard (756-1290 ng/g wet wt) had significantly (P