Occurrence of airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel was investigated. The aims of this study were to assess trichloramine exposure levels and exhaled nitric oxide in relation to the prevalence of airway symptoms in swimming pool facilities and to determine protein effects in the upper respiratory tract.
The presence of airway symptoms related to work was examined in 146 individuals working at 46 indoor swimming pool facilities. Levels of trichloramine, as well as exhaled nitric oxide, were measured in five facilities with high prevalence of airway irritation and four facilities with no airway irritation among the personnel. Nasal lavage fluid was collected, and protein profiles were determined by a proteomic approach.
17 % of the swimming pool personnel reported airway symptoms related to work. The levels of trichloramine in the swimming pool facilities ranged from 0.04 to 0.36 mg/m(3). There was no covariance between trichloramine levels, exhaled nitric oxide and prevalence of airway symptoms. Protein profiling of the nasal lavage fluid showed that the levels alpha-1-antitrypsin and lactoferrin were significantly higher, and S100-A8 was significantly lower in swimming pool personnel.
This study confirms the occurrence of airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel. Our results indicate altered levels of innate immunity proteins in the upper airways that may pose as potential biomarkers. However, swimming pool facilities with high prevalence of airway irritation could not be explained by higher trichloramine exposure levels. Further studies are needed to clarify the environmental factors in indoor swimming pools that cause airway problems and affect the immune system.
For the environmental monitoring of coral, mucus appears to be an appropriate biological matrix due to its array of functions in coral biology and the non-intrusive manner in which it can be collected. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using mucus of the stony coral Lophelia pertusa (L. pertusa) as an analytical matrix for discovery of biomarkers used for environmental monitoring. More specifically, to assess whether a mass-spectrometry-based proteomic approach can be applied to characterize the protein composition of coral mucus and changes related to petroleum discharges at the seafloor. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) screening analyses of orange and white L. pertusa showed that the mucosal protein composition varies significantly with color phenotype, a pattern not reported prior to this study. Hence, to reduce variability from phenotype difference, L. pertusa white individuals only were selected to characterize in more detail the basal protein composition in mucus using liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In total, 297 proteins were identified in L. pertusa mucus of unexposed coral individuals. Individuals exposed to drill cuttings in the range 2 to 12 mg/L showed modifications in coral mucus protein composition compared to unexposed corals. Although the results were somewhat inconsistent between individuals and require further validation in both the lab and the field, this study demonstrated preliminary encouraging results for discovery of protein markers in coral mucus that might provide more comprehensive insight into potential consequences attributed to anthropogenic stressors and may be used in future monitoring of coral health.
The primary aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from healthy adults in the community. Healthy adults (n = 114) were swabbed on six body sites; both armpits, both knee pits and both sides of the groin. Species determination was performed using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) and susceptibility testing for 11 relevant antimicrobials was performed by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration gradient test. In total, 693 CoNS isolates were identified. Susceptibility testing was done on 386 isolates; one CoNS from each species found on each participant from the different body sites. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in the CoNS isolates were; erythromycin (24.6%), fusidic acid (19.9%), tetracycline (11.4%), clindamycin (7.8%), gentamicin (6.2%) and cefoxitin (4.1%). Multidrug resistance was observed in 5.2% of the isolates. Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. hominis were the first and second most prevalent species on all three body sites. We conclude that CoNS isolates from healthy adults in the community have a much lower prevalence of antimicrobial resistance than reported in nosocomial CoNS isolates. Still, we believe that levels of resistance in community CoNS should be monitored as the consumption of antimicrobials in primary care in Norway is increasing.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the PTPN22 gene encoding the lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp) has recently been identified as a functional variant associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes, and systemic lupus erythematosus. To determine whether association of this variant (PTPN22 1858T) with RA is reproducible and is also observed in another autoimmune condition, Crohn's disease, we investigated the association between the PTPN22 1858T allele and RA and Crohn's disease in a Canadian population.
Two RA case-control cohorts representing a total of 1,234 patients and 791 healthy controls as well as a cohort of 455 patients with Crohn's disease and 190 controls were genotyped for the PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism, and genotype frequencies were compared between patients and controls.
Significant association of the PTPN22 1858T allele with RA was detected in both the Toronto-based RA cohort (P = 1.6 x 10(-6), odds ratio [OR] 1.8) and the Halifax-based RA cohort (P = 9.4 x 10(-4), OR 1.94). Association of the risk allele with RA was not affected by sex, age at disease onset, or the presence of either rheumatoid factor or rheumatoid nodules. No association between the PTPN22 risk allele and Crohn's disease was detected.
These observations confirm the association of RA susceptibility with the PTPN22 1858T allele. However, the data also reveal a lack of association between this variant and Crohn's disease, suggesting that the PTPN22 1858T allele is a risk allele for multiple, but not all, autoimmune diseases.
In order to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms G(+2722)C and 3020insC in CARD15 gene and Asp299Gly in TLR4 gene contribute to atopic bronchial asthma we performed a comparative analysis of alleles and genotypes frequencies of these polymorphisms in Russian patients from Moscow. DNA samples from 283 patients with atopic bronchial asthma and 227 healthy donors were genotyped. There were associations neither of G(+2722)C and 3020insC in CARD15 gene and Asp299Gly in TLR4 gene with asthma nor of markers of CARD15 gene with asthma severity. Haplotype frequency analysis of CARD15 gene polymorphisms did not reveal significant difference between groups. However, a strong association was found between Asp299Gly and asthma severity. Allele Asp of this marker showed association with mild atopic bronchial asthma and allele Gl--with moderate/severe asthma = 0.47, 95% CI [0.24-0.93] i OR = 2.12, 95% CI [1.08-4.18] respectively).
Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts.
Reverse-phase HPLC was used to fractionate 40S ribosomal proteins from human placenta. Application of a C4 reverse-phase column allowed us to obtain 27 well-resolved peaks. The protein composition of each chromatographic fraction was established by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and N-terminal sequencing. N-terminally blocked proteins were cleaved with endoproteinase Lys-C, and suitable peptides were sequenced. All sequences were compared with those of ribosomal proteins available from data bases. This allowed us to identify all proteins from the 40S human ribosomal subunit in the HPLC elution profile. By matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry the masses of the 40S proteins were determined and checked for the presence of post-translational modifications. For several proteins differences to the deduced sequences and the calculated masses were found to be due to post-translational modifications.
Climate change causes permafrost thawing, and we are confronted with the unpredictable risk of newly discovered permafrost microbes that have disease-causing capabilities. Here, we first characterized the detailed chemical structure of the lipid A moiety from a Pseudomonas species that was isolated from thawing arctic permafrost using MALDI-based mass spectrometric approaches (i.e., MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-QIT-TOF MSn). The MALDI multi-stage mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of lipid A extracted from the Pseudomonas sp. strain PAMC 28618 demonstrated that the hexaacyl lipid A ([M-H]- at m/z 1616.5) contains a glucosamine (GlcN) disaccharide backbone, two phosphates, four main acyl chains and two branched acyl chains. Moreover, the lipid A molecule-based structural activity relationship with other terrestrial Gram-negative bacteria indicated that strain PAMC 28618 has an identical lipid A structure with the mesophilic Pseudomonas cichorii which can cause rot disease in endive (Cichorium endivia) and that their bacterial toxicities were equivalent. Therefore, the overall lipid A validation process provides a general strategy for characterizing bacteria that have been isolated from arctic permafrost and analyzing their respective pathogenicities.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, clinical presentation, and prognosis of Actinotignum bacteremia in southern Sweden. Actinotignum isolates in blood cultures were identified retrospectively between 1st January 2012 and 31st March 2016 through searches in the clinical microbiology laboratory database. The population covered by this laboratory is approximately 1.3 million. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used for species determination. Etests were used for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. The patients' medical charts were reviewed. Fifty-eight episodes in fifty-seven patients with Actinotignum bacteremia were identified (A. schaalii?=?53, A. sanguinis?=?1, A. urinale?=?2, and Actinotignum species?=?3), which corresponds to an incidence of 11 cases per million inhabitants. Fifty-one percent of the isolates were in pure culture. The MICs were low for ß-lactam antibiotics, whereas high MICs were recorded for ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim. Patients had a median age of 82 years, 72% were male, and a majority had underlying urological conditions. Thirty-six of the patients were diagnosed with a focus from the urinary tract. Thirty-one patients developed severe sepsis and nine patients died during the hospital stay. Our study is the largest of Actinotignum bacteremia and demonstrates that it is a condition with a significant fatality that affects elderly persons with underlying conditions. ß-Lactams represent a rational treatment option.
To define the clinical presentation of aerococcal infective endocarditis (IE) and the prevalence of synergy between penicillin and gentamicin on aerococcal isolates.
Cases of aerococcal IE between 2002 and 2014 were identified in the Swedish Registry of Infective Endocarditis (SRIE). MALDI-TOF MS was used to confirm species determination. The medical records were analysed and compared to cases reported to the SRIE caused by other pathogens.
Sixteen cases of aerococcal IE, fourteen with Aerococcus urinae and two with Aerococcus sanguinicola, were confirmed. Etest-based methods and time-kill experiments suggested synergy between penicillin and gentamicin towards seven of fifteen isolates. The patients with aerococcal IE were significantly older than those with streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus IE. Most of the patients had underlying urinary tract diseases or symptoms suggesting a urinary tract focus of the infection. Seven patients with aerococcal IE presented with severe sepsis but ICU treatment was needed only in one patient and there was no fatality. Valve exchange surgery was needed in four patients and embolization was seen in three patients.
This report is the largest on aerococcal IE and suggests that the prognosis is relatively favourable despite the fact that the patients are old and have significant comorbidities.