Skip header and navigation

Refine By

812 records – page 1 of 82.

A 15-year surveillance study of antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in a cohort of young girls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49320
Source
J Infect. 1992 Sep;25(2):147-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1992
Author
B. Christenson
M. Böttiger
A. Svensson
S. Jeansson
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health and Infectious Diseases Control, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
J Infect. 1992 Sep;25(2):147-54
Date
Sep-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Cohort Studies
Female
Herpes Simplex - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Simplexvirus - immunology
Species Specificity
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
A cohort of 839 young girls at the ages of 14 and 15 years was screened for total antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) and, if positive, for specific antibodies to HSV-2, by means of a sensitive, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cohort was followed from 1972-1987. Blood samples were obtained on six occasions during these 16 years. In total, 2270 blood samples were taken. The number of sero-converting girls was studied in relation to calendar time. Two methods were constructed for the statistical analyses. The first of these gave an estimate of the sero-prevalence at different points in time. This analysis showed that the sero-prevalence which was 23% against HSV-1 in 1972 had increased to 36% in 1976. At the end of the study in 1987, 50% of the cohort had sero-converted against HSV-1. The proportion of girls who had sero-converted against HSV-2 was 0.4% in the 14-15-year-olds and had reached 22% by the end of the study. The second statistical method used all the available information implicit in the observations so as to obtain a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate of the prevalence. The ML estimates were slightly more precise, but the two estimates did not differ significantly. The observations were further analysed by the Mantel-Haenszel test in order to see if there was any dependence between positivity to HSV-1 and HSV-2 respectively but none was found.
PubMed ID
1331244 View in PubMed
Less detail

1996-1997 influenza season: Canadian laboratory diagnoses and strain characterization.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207546
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1997 Sep 15;23(18):137-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-15-1997
Author
S. Zou
Author Affiliation
National Laboratory for Special Pathogens, Bureau of Microbiology, LCDC, Ottawa, ON.
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1997 Sep 15;23(18):137-41
Date
Sep-15-1997
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Clinical Laboratory Techniques
Disease Outbreaks
Humans
Incidence
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - virology
Orthomyxoviridae - classification
Seasons
Species Specificity
PubMed ID
9376820 View in PubMed
Less detail

Abundance and diversity of human-biting flies (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Simuliidae) around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, northwestern Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169895
Source
J Vector Ecol. 2005 Dec;30(2):263-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2005
Author
M V Kozlov
N K Brodskaya
A. Haarto
K. Kuusela
M. Schäfer
V. Zverev
Author Affiliation
Section ofEcology, Department ofBiology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
Source
J Vector Ecol. 2005 Dec;30(2):263-71
Date
Dec-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bites and Stings - epidemiology
Ceratopogonidae - growth & development
Copper - toxicity
Culicidae - growth & development
Diptera - growth & development
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Humans
Nickel - toxicity
Population Density
Population Dynamics
Russia
Seasons
Simuliidae - growth & development
Species Specificity
Abstract
In the summers of 2001 and 2002, we quantitatively sampled human-biting flies in twelve sites located 1.6 to 63 km from a large copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. We collected 429 specimens of three species of Ceratopogonidae, 92 specimens of seven species of Culicidae, 76 specimens of seven species of Tabanidae, and 4,788 specimens of 19 species of Simuliidae. Culicoides chiropterus was for the first time reported from the Kola Peninsula. Catches of Culicidae and Simuliidae decreased near the smelter, presumably due to the combined action of toxicity of pollutants, pollution-induced forest damage, and decline in vertebrate density. An abundance of Ceratopogonidae and Tabanidae, the size of the most common black fly species, Simulium pusillum, and the diversity of all families did not change along the pollution gradient.
PubMed ID
16599161 View in PubMed
Less detail

Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate in marine mammals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6747
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2001 Apr 15;35(8):1593-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-2001
Author
K. Kannan
J. Koistinen
K. Beckmen
T. Evans
J F Gorzelany
K J Hansen
P D Jones
E. Helle
M. Nyman
J P Giesy
Author Affiliation
National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Department of Zoology, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA. kuruntha@msu.edu
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2001 Apr 15;35(8):1593-8
Date
Apr-15-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood - pharmacokinetics
Animals
Carnivora
Dolphins
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood - pharmacokinetics
Geography
Liver - chemistry
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seals, Earless
Seawater
Species Specificity
Whales
Abstract
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluorinated molecule that has recently been identified in the sera of nonindustrially exposed humans. In this study, 247 tissue samples from 15 species of marine mammals collected from Florida, California, and Alaskan coastal waters; and northern Baltic Sea; the Arctic (Spitsbergen); and Sable Island in Canada were analyzed for PFOS. PFOS was detected in liver and blood of marine mammals from most locations including those from Arctic waters. The greatest concentrations of PFOS found in liver and blood were 1520 ng/g wet wt in a bottlenose dolphin from Sarasota Bay, FL, and 475 ng/mL in a ringed seal from the northern Baltic Sea (Bothnian Sea), respectively. No age-dependent increase in PFOS concentrations in marine mammals was observed in the samples analyzed. The occurrence of PFOS in marine mammals from the Arctic waters suggests widespread global distribution of PFOS including remote locations.
PubMed ID
11329707 View in PubMed
Less detail

[A complex of blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the focus of West Nile fever in the Volgograd Region. III. Species feeding on birds and man and the rhythms of their nocturnal activity].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158763
Source
Med Parazitol (Mosk). 2007 Oct-Dec;(4):37-43
Publication Type
Article
Author
Iu V Lopatina
O V Bezzhonova
M V Fedorova
T V Bulgakova
A E Platonov
Source
Med Parazitol (Mosk). 2007 Oct-Dec;(4):37-43
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Chickens
Circadian Rhythm
Culicidae - classification
Disease Vectors - classification
Ecosystem
Humans
Insect Bites and Stings - classification
Population Density
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Seasons
Species Specificity
West Nile Fever - prevention & control
Abstract
The rate and nocturnal rhythm of mosquito attacks of birds and human beings were studied in the open biotopes of Volgograd and its vicinity in 2004. Thirteen and 11 species of the subfamily Culicinae were collected under the Berezantsev bell and from the traps containing a chicken (a hen), respectively; of them 9 species were common. The mosquitoes of an Anopheles maculipennis complex were caught in a small portion to the traps of both types. Most species of Aedes were highly anthropophilic, showed the minimum activity at night and their abundance considerably decreased by the early transmission period. Among the species that were active during the transmission period, Ae. vexans, Coq. richiardii, and Cx. modestus more intensively attacked a human being than birds and Cx. pipiens was frequently attracted into the hen traps. The attraction of each species of the caught varied during the transmission period. The maximum attacks of Cx. modestus and Cx. pipiens on man and birds coincide and those of Coq. Richiardii and Cx. pipiens on man was observed earlier than on birds. A possible role of mosquitoes of different species in the epizootic and epidemiological processes is discussed.
PubMed ID
18277420 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acoustic detection and satellite-tracking leads to discovery of rare concentration of endangered North Pacific right whales.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166227
Source
Biol Lett. 2006 Sep 22;2(3):417-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-22-2006
Author
Paul Wade
Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Kim Shelden
Jay Barlow
James Carretta
John Durban
Rick LeDuc
Lisa Munger
Shannon Rankin
Allan Sauter
Charles Stinchcomb
Author Affiliation
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Seattle WA 98115, USA.
Source
Biol Lett. 2006 Sep 22;2(3):417-9
Date
Sep-22-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acoustics
Animals
Biopsy
Female
Genetic Variation
Humans
Male
Pacific Ocean
Spatial Behavior - physiology
Species Specificity
Time Factors
Vocalization, Animal - physiology
Whales - genetics
Abstract
The North Pacific right whale, Eubalaena japonica, is one of the most endangered species of whale in the world. On 10 August 2004, two right whales were located in the Bering Sea using headings to right whale calls provided by directional sonobuoys. A satellite-monitored radio tag attached to one of these whales functioned for 40 days. Over the 40-day period, this whale moved throughout a large part of the southeast Bering Sea shelf, including areas of the outer-shelf where right whales have not been seen in decades. In September, multiple right whales were acoustically located and subsequently sighted by another survey vessel approaching a near-real-time position from the tag. An analysis of photographs confirmed at least 17 individual whales (not including the tagged whales). Genetic analysis of biopsy samples identified 17 individuals: 10 males and 7 females. The discovery of seven females was significant, as only one female had been identified in the past. Genetics also confirmed the presence of at least two calves. Although the future of this population is highly uncertain, the discovery of additional females and calves gives some hope that this most critically endangered of all whale populations may still possess the capacity to recover.
Notes
Cites: Mol Ecol. 1999 Oct;8(10):1763-510583845
Cites: Mol Ecol. 1997 Sep;6(9):893-59301078
Cites: Mol Ecol. 1996 Feb;5(1):151-69147690
Cites: Mol Ecol. 1996 Aug;5(4):571-58794563
PubMed ID
17148419 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of white phosphorus in mute swans, Cygnus olor.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3505
Source
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1999 Apr;36(3):316-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1999
Author
D W Sparling
D. Day
P. Klein
Author Affiliation
U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 11510 American Holly Dr., Laurel, Maryland 20708, USA.
Source
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1999 Apr;36(3):316-22
Date
Apr-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Birds - blood
Body Weight - drug effects
Comparative Study
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Residues - analysis
Ducks - blood
Environmental Pollution - adverse effects
Female
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase - blood
Lethal Dose 50
Liver - chemistry - drug effects - pathology
Male
Phosphorus - analysis - toxicity
Species Specificity
Abstract
Among the waterfowl affected by white phosphorus (P4) at a military base in Alaska are tundra (Cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter (C. buccinator) swans. To estimate the toxicity of P4 to swans and compare the toxic effects to those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we dosed 30 juvenile mute swans (C. olor) with 0 to 5.28 mg P4/kg body weight. The calculated LD50 was 3.65 mg/kg (95% CI: 1.40 to 4. 68 mg/kg). However, many of the swans still had P4 in their gizzards after dying, as determined by "smoking gizzards" and characteristic odor, and a lower LD50 might be calculated if all of the P4 had passed into the small intestines. We attribute the retention of P4 in swans to the possibility that P4 pellets were mistaken for the similarly sized grit in their gizzards. Most swans took 1 to 4.5 days to die in contrast to the few hours normally required in mallards and death appeared to be related more to liver dysfunction than to hemolysis. White phosphorus affected several plasma constituents, most notably elevated aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and alanine aminotransferase.
PubMed ID
10047600 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adaptation of Circadian Neuronal Network to Photoperiod in High-Latitude European Drosophilids.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294233
Source
Curr Biol. 2017 Mar 20; 27(6):833-839
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-20-2017
Author
Pamela Menegazzi
Elena Dalla Benetta
Marta Beauchamp
Matthias Schlichting
Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Author Affiliation
Neurobiology and Genetics, Theodor Boveri Institute, Biocentre, University of Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.
Source
Curr Biol. 2017 Mar 20; 27(6):833-839
Date
Mar-20-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Circadian Clocks - genetics
Drosophila - genetics - physiology
Drosophila Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Finland
Locomotion
Male
Nerve Net - physiology
Photoperiod
Species Specificity
Tanzania
Abstract
The genus Drosophila contains over 2,000 species that, stemming from a common ancestor in the Old World Tropics, populate today very different environments [1, 2] (reviewed in [3]). We found significant differences in the activity pattern of Drosophila species belonging to the holarctic virilis group, i.e., D. ezoana and D. littoralis, collected in Northern Europe, compared to that of the cosmopolitan D. melanogaster, collected close to the equator. These behavioral differences might have been of adaptive significance for colonizing high-latitude habitats and hence adjust to long photoperiods. Most interestingly, the flies' locomotor activity correlates with the neurochemistry of their circadian clock network, which differs between low and high latitude for the expression pattern of the blue light photopigment cryptochrome (CRY) and the neuropeptide Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) [4-6]. In D. melanogaster, CRY and PDF are known to modulate the timing of activity and to maintain robust rhythmicity under constant conditions [7-11]. We could partly simulate the rhythmic behavior of the high-latitude virilis group species by mimicking their CRY/PDF expression patterns in a laboratory strain of D. melanogaster. We therefore suggest that these alterations in the CRY/PDF clock neurochemistry might have allowed the virilis group species to colonize high-latitude environments.
PubMed ID
28262491 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adherence of Escherichia coli to human urinary tract epithelial cells.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature247164
Source
Infect Immun. 1979 Jun;24(3):753-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1979
Author
A J Schaeffer
S K Amundsen
L N Schmidt
Source
Infect Immun. 1979 Jun;24(3):753-9
Date
Jun-1979
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Culture Media
Epithelial Cells
Escherichia coli - drug effects - physiology
Female
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Mannose - pharmacology
Menstruation
Species Specificity
Temperature
Urinary Tract - cytology - microbiology
Abstract
The adherence of Escherichia coli to human uroepithelial cells obtained from midstream urine specimens of healthy women was studied. Bacteria labeled with [(3)H]uridine were used, and unattached organisms were separated from the epithelial cells by vacuum filtration with 5-mum-pore-size Nucleopore membrane filters. These techniques allowed adherence to be measured in large numbers of epithelial cells and overcame the problem of distinguishing experimental bacteria from the indigenous organisms present on uroepithelial cells. Adherence was not appreciably affected by temperature. Adherence was maximal at pH 4 to 5 and at bacterial-to-epithelial-cell ratios of 5,000 or more. The latter observation suggested that there are a limited number of receptors on the epithelial cell surface, an idea which was supported by competition experiments. Adherence occurred within 1 min and then decreased gradually or quickly, depending on the type of bacterial growth medium, to a stationary level of adherence, approximately 50% of that observed initially. The ability of epithelial cells from a single individual to bind E. coli varied in a cyclical and repetitive pattern. Adherence tended to be higher during the early phase of the menstrual cycle and diminished shortly after the time of expected ovulation; adherence frequently correlated with the value obtained on the same day of the menstrual cycle during the preceding months. Adherence was markedly enhanced by bacterial incubation in broth for 72 h and inhibited by alpha-d-mannose. These results suggest that adherence is a complex phenomenon perhaps mediated in part by bacterial pili and mannose residues on uroepithelial cells.
Notes
Cites: J Exp Med. 1977 Nov 1;146(5):1182-9421933
Cites: Infect Immun. 1977 Dec;18(3):767-7422493
Cites: Lancet. 1976 Sep 4;1(7984):490-274461
Cites: Lancet. 1978 Sep 9;2(8089):540-379914
Cites: J Urol. 1975 Aug;114(2):261-3240038
Cites: J Urol. 1977 Apr;117(4):472-6321809
Cites: Nature. 1977 Feb 17;265(5595):623-5323718
Cites: J Urol. 1977 Jul;118(1 Pt 2):221-4327107
Cites: J Urol. 1978 Sep;120(3):315-8355660
Cites: Infect Immun. 1978 Jul;21(1):229-37361565
Cites: Infect Immun. 1978 Oct;22(1):247-54365746
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1977 Nov;34(5):534-40563215
Cites: Acta Paediatr Scand. 1976 Jan;65(1):81-7766563
Cites: J Urol. 1975 Feb;113(2):214-7803573
Cites: Infect Immun. 1976 Jul;14(1):240-5985805
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1976 Nov;134(5):486-91033231
Cites: Trans N Y Acad Sci. 1965 Jun;27(8):1003-545318403
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1977 Mar;33(3):556-6216345207
PubMed ID
38207 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adjuvant-induced arthritis in four inbred strains of rats. An in vitro study of peripheral T and B lymphocytes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature14754
Source
Agents Actions. 1976 Feb;6(1-3):219-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1976
Author
A. Kahan
F. Perlik
A. Le Go
F. Delbarre
J P Giroud
Source
Agents Actions. 1976 Feb;6(1-3):219-27
Date
Feb-1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arthritis, Rheumatoid - immunology
B-Lymphocytes - immunology
Freund's Adjuvant
Lymphocyte Activation - drug effects
Mitogens - pharmacology
Rats
Rats, Inbred Strains
Skin Tests
Species Specificity
T-Lymphocytes - immunology
Abstract
The lymphoblastic response (LTT) to non-specific mitogens (PHA, PWM and ConA) of peripheral lymphocytes was investigated at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after adjuvant injection in four strains of inbred rats: Wistar (WAG), Long Evans (LE), Lewis (LEW) and Brown Norway (BN). LTT was assessed by using 18 hours H3 TdR incorporation in 5 days cultures of whole blood (micromethod). The statistical treatment of data, using principal components multifactorial analysis and analysis of variance showed a striking difference between strains. In control animals the responses to PHA and PWM were correlated and were higher in LE and WAG than in LEW and BN (BN=LEW less than LE=WAG). The response to ConA was independent of that to the other mitogens. It was generally low, but significantly higher in LEW and BN than in WAG and LE. In adjuvant-injected animals the responses to PHA and PWM were still correlated, but modified compared to control: in LE and LEW, but not in WAG and BN, a marked decrease of the response was found, reaching a minimum value within days 7 and 14. In the same time the response to ConA increased in the four strains, later in LE than in the others. However the intensity of the ConA response varied from one strain to another: it was constantly low in LE and WAG compared to LEW and BN. So the most striking modification of LTT were observed in LE and LEW, which both developed the most severe arthritis. However these different behaviours after adjuvant injection were not explained by the initial level of LTT to the different mitogens. These data suggest that the development of intense arthritis is associated with the proliferation and the release into the blood stream of a lymphocyte subpopulation, which exhibits a low response to PHA and PWM and a high response to ConA. These LTT modifications are not paralleled by quantitative variations of B-cells assessed by surface Ig immunofluorescent staining and EAC rosetting.
PubMed ID
1085095 View in PubMed
Less detail

812 records – page 1 of 82.