Research into the causes of disease in human populations makes use of epidemiological methods for recognizing avoidable risk factors which may be active prior to the occurrence of malignant tumours. With the exception of the risks or irradiation, the aetiology of bone tumours remains unclear, and it is particularly striking that in the literature to date and in a survey of research currently in progress there are no epidemiological studies which involve other than radiation-exposed populations. This is the reason why it has only been possible to obtain initial suggestions of potential areas of risk from ecologic correlations based on the evaluation of mortality and morbidity rates with respect to environmental factors. Several results obtained from systematic comparisons of mortality in the countries of the world and two correlative relationships are reported, and the difficulties in interpreting the results are discussed. Population-based registration of bone tumours and case-control studies based on registries are recommended.
Recent developments in the tobacco industry in several countries are described: 1) in the USSR the policy is not to encourage smoking but to produce pleasant cigarettes which are as harmless as possible; 2) in the US, a survey shows that in 1975 not more than 12.4% of men over age 21 smoked a pipe; 3) in Britain a new cigarette tax structure will cripple the cigarette industry's coupon scheme of which manufacturers make great use to secure brand loyalty; 4) in the Philippines a proposal to print a health warning on cigarette packets and in advertisements might affect cigarette and tobacco taxes, which contribute 47% of government income; 5) in the Netherlands health warnings will be printed on cigarette packs, 6) in Austria there has been an increase of 4.2% in cigarette smoking since late 1975; 7) in Poland anti-smoking officials have proposed that the name of the popular "Sport" cigarette be changed; 8) in Indonesia there has been a recovery in kretek sales; 9) in Denmark cigarette consumption increased 6% from 1974; and 10) in western Europe it has been shown that up to 99% of grocery stores in Ireland sell tobacco products, 91% in Britain, 30% in Austria, 17% in Spain, and 7% in Italy.