The objective was to test the hypothesis that a described association between homozygosity for a 50bp deletion in the SOD1 promoter 1684bp upstream of the SOD1 ATG and an increased age of onset in SALS can be replicated in additional SALS and control sample sets from other populations. Our second objective was to examine whether this deletion attenuates expression of the SOD1 gene. Genomic DNA from more than 1200 SALS cases from Ireland, Scotland, Quebec and the USA was genotyped for the 50bp SOD1 promoter deletion. Reporter gene expression analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies were utilized to examine the functional effects of the deletion. The genetic association for homozygosity for the promoter deletion with an increased age of symptom onset was confirmed overall in this further study (p=0.032), although it was only statistically significant in the Irish subset, and remained highly significant in the combined set of all cohorts (p=0.001). Functional studies demonstrated that this polymorphism reduces the activity of the SOD1 promoter by approximately 50%. In addition we revealed that the transcription factor SP1 binds within the 50bp deletion region in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest the hypothesis that this deletion reduces expression of the SOD1 gene and that levels of the SOD1 protein may modify the phenotype of SALS within selected populations.
The objective of this work was to explore the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) in lipid metabolism in humans.
PPARD is a nuclear receptor involved in lipid metabolism in primates and mice. We screened the 5'-region of the human gene for polymorphisms to be used as tools in association studies. Four polymorphisms were detected: -409C/T in the promoter region, +73C/T in exon 1, +255A/G in exon 3, and +294T/C in exon 4. The frequencies of the rare alleles were 4.2%, 4.2%, 1.2% and 15.6%, respectively, in a population-based group of 543 healthy men. Only the +294T/C polymorphism showed significant association with a metabolic trait. Homozygotes for the rare C allele had a higher plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration than homozygotes for the common T allele, which was verified in an independent cohort consisting of 282 healthy men. Transfection studies showed that the rare C allele had higher transcriptional activity than the common T allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that the +294T/C polymorphism influenced binding of Sp-1. An interaction with the PPAR alpha L162V polymorphism was also detected for several lipid parameters.
These findings suggest that PPARD plays a role in cholesterol metabolism in humans.
We recently identified a polymorphic Sp1 binding site in an enhancer at the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) locus (tPA -7,351C/T), which was associated with vascular tPA release. Subjects homozygous for the -7,351C allele had twice the tPA release rate compared to subjects carrying the -7,351T allele. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the tPA -7,351C/T polymorphism is associated with myocardial infarction (MI). In a population-based prospective nested case-control study within northern Sweden, genotypes were determined among 61 MI cases and 120 controls. In a multivariate model, the tPA -7,351C/T polymorphism (OR 2.68 for T allele carriers; 95% CI 1.31-5.50), tPA antigen (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.07-1.25) and apo A-I (OR, 0.997; 95% CI 0.995-0.999) were independently associated with a first MI. These findings suggest that genetic markers of local tPA release and circulating steady-state tPA levels carry independent prognostic information.