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Assessment of chemical and material contamination in waste wood fuels--A case study ranging over nine years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278428
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Mar;49:311-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Mar Edo
Erik Björn
Per-Erik Persson
Stina Jansson
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Mar;49:311-9
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biofuels - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Solid Waste - analysis
Sweden
Waste Management - instrumentation - methods
Wood - analysis
Abstract
The increased demand for waste wood (WW) as fuel in Swedish co-combustion facilities during the last years has increased the import of this material. Each country has different laws governing the use of chemicals and therefore the composition of the fuel will likely change when combining WW from different origins. To cope with this, enhanced knowledge is needed on WW composition and the performance of pre-treatment techniques for reduction of its contaminants. In this study, the chemical and physical characteristics of 500 WW samples collected at a co-combustion facility in Sweden between 2004 and 2013 were investigated to determine the variation of contaminant content over time. Multivariate data analysis was used for the interpretation of the data. The concentrations of all the studied contaminants varied widely between sampling occasions, demonstrating the highly variable composition of WW fuels. The efficiency of sieving as a pre-treatment measure to reduce the levels of contaminants was not sufficient, revealing that sieving should be used in combination with other pre-treatment methods. The results from this case study provide knowledge on waste wood composition that may benefit its management. This knowledge can be applied for selection of the most suitable pre-treatments to obtain high quality sustainable WW fuels.
PubMed ID
26709051 View in PubMed
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Assessment of mobility and bioavailability of contaminants in MSW incineration ash with aquatic and terrestrial bioassays.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263258
Source
Waste Manag. 2014 Oct;34(10):1871-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
V. Ribé
E. Nehrenheim
M. Odlare
Source
Waste Manag. 2014 Oct;34(10):1871-6
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aliivibrio fischeri - drug effects
Animals
Biological Availability
Coal Ash - pharmacokinetics - toxicity
Construction Materials - toxicity
Daphnia - drug effects
European Union
Germination
Incineration
Refuse Disposal - legislation & jurisprudence
Solid Waste - analysis
Sweden
Trifolium - drug effects - growth & development
Abstract
Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste treatment method which can be sustainable in terms of waste volume reduction as well as a source of renewable energy. In the process fly and bottom ash is generated as a waste material. The ash residue may vary greatly in composition depending on the type of waste incinerated and it can contain elevated levels of harmful contaminants such as heavy metals. In this study, the ecotoxicity of a weathered, untreated incineration bottom ash was characterized as defined by the H14 criterion of the EU Waste Framework Directive by means of an elemental analysis, leaching tests followed by a chemical analysis and a combination of aquatic and solid-phase bioassays. The experiments were conducted to assess the mobility and bioavailability of ash contaminants. A combination of aquatic and terrestrial bioassays was used to determine potentially adverse acute effects of exposure to the solid ash and aqueous ash leachates. The results from the study showed that the bottom ash from a municipal waste incineration plant in mid-Sweden contained levels of metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn, which exceeded the Swedish EPA limit values for inert wastes. The chemical analysis of the ash leachates showed high concentrations of particularly Cr. The leachate concentration of Cr exceeded the limit value for L/S 10 leaching for inert wastes. Filtration of leachates prior to analysis may have underestimated the leachability of complex-forming metals such as Cu and Pb. The germination test of solid ash and ash leachates using T. repens showed a higher inhibition of seedling emergence of seeds exposed to the solid ash than the seeds exposed to ash leachates. This indicated a relatively low mobility of toxicants from the solid ash into the leachates, although some metals exceeded the L/S 10 leaching limit values for inert wastes. The Microtox® toxicity test showed only a very low toxic response to the ash leachate exposure, while the D. magna immobility test showed a moderately high toxic effect of the ash leachates. Overall, the results from this study showed an ecotoxic effect of the solid MSW bottom ash and the corresponding ash leachates. The material may therefore pose an environmental risk if used in construction applications. However, as the testing of the solid ash was rather limited and the ash leachate showed an unusually high leaching of Cr, further assessments are required in order to conclusively characterize the bottom ash studied herein as hazardous according to the H14 criterion.
PubMed ID
24502934 View in PubMed
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Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273917
Source
Waste Manag. 2015 Oct;44:39-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
K. Pivnenko
G A Pedersen
E. Eriksson
T F Astrup
Source
Waste Manag. 2015 Oct;44:39-47
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Benzhydryl Compounds - analysis
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Paper
Phenols - analysis
Solid Waste - analysis
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical produced in large volumes. Its main use is associated with polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and thermal paper. In contrast to other applications, thermal paper contains BPA in its un-reacted form as an additive, which is subjected to migration. Receiving a significant amount of attention from the scientific community and beyond, due to its controversial endocrine-disrupting effects, the industry is attempting to substitute BPA in variety of applications. Alternative phenolic compounds have been proposed for use in thermal paper; however, information to what extent BPA alternatives have been used in paper is sparse. The aim of the present work was to quantify BPA and its alternatives (bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), 4-cumylphenol (HPP) and bisphenol F (BPF)) in waste paper and board from Danish households, thermal paper receipts, non-carbon copy paper and conventional printer paper. BPA was found in all waste paper samples analysed, while BPS was identified in 73% of them. Only BPB was not identified in any of the samples. BPA and BPS were found in the majority of the receipts, which contained no measurable concentrations of the remaining alternatives. Although receipts showed the highest concentrations of BPA and BPS, office paper, flyers and corrugated boxes, together with receipts, represented the major flux of the two compounds in waste paper streams.
PubMed ID
26194879 View in PubMed
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Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269991
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Jul 7;49(13):7675-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-7-2015
Author
Nicolas Morin
Hans Peter H Arp
Sarah E Hale
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Jul 7;49(13):7675-83
Date
Jul-7-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adsorption
Air
Benzhydryl Compounds - analysis
Dust - analysis
Environment
Norway
Particulate Matter - chemistry
Phenols - analysis
Resins, Synthetic - chemistry
Solid Waste - analysis
Temperature
Waste Disposal Facilities
Water - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 µg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate.
PubMed ID
26055751 View in PubMed
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Characterisation of excavated fine fraction and waste composition from a Swedish landfill.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281139
Source
Waste Manag Res. 2016 Dec;34(12):1292-1299
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2016
Author
Yahya Jani
Fabio Kaczala
Charlotte Marchand
Marika Hogland
Mait Kriipsalu
William Hogland
Anders Kihl
Source
Waste Manag Res. 2016 Dec;34(12):1292-1299
Date
Dec-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Metals - analysis
Methane - biosynthesis
Particle Size
Plastics
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Solid Waste - analysis
Sweden
Waste Disposal Facilities
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Wood
Abstract
The present research studies the characterisation and the physico-chemical properties of an excavated fine fraction (
PubMed ID
27742875 View in PubMed
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Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278328
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Apr;50:39-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Irina Naroznova
Jacob Møller
Charlotte Scheutz
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Apr;50:39-48
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Methane - analysis
Solid Waste - analysis
Waste management
Abstract
This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties in relation to BMP, protein content, lipids, lignocellulose biofibres and easily degradable carbohydrates (carbohydrates other than lignocellulose biofibres). The three components in lignocellulose biofibres, i.e. lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, were differentiated, and theoretical BMP (TBMP) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition in Denmark (untreated) was calculated, and the BMP contribution of the individual material fractions was then evaluated. Material fractions of the two general waste types, defined as "food waste" and "fibre-rich waste," were found to be anaerobically degradable with considerable BMP. Material degradability of material fractions such as vegetation waste, moulded fibres, animal straw, dirty paper and dirty cardboard, however, was constrained by lignin content. BMP for overall SSOHW (untreated) was 404 mL CH4 per g VS, which might increase if the relative content of material fractions, such as animal and vegetable food waste, kitchen tissue and dirty paper in the waste, becomes larger.
PubMed ID
26878771 View in PubMed
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Characterization of fine fraction mined from two Finnish landfills.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276212
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Jan;47(Pt A):34-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
Tiina J Mönkäre
Marja R T Palmroth
Jukka A Rintala
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Jan;47(Pt A):34-9
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Finland
Methane - analysis
Mining
Refuse Disposal
Solid Waste - analysis
Waste Disposal Facilities
Waste Management - methods
Abstract
A fine fraction (FF) was mined from two Finnish municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in Kuopio (1- to 10-year-old, referred as new landfill) and Lohja (24- to 40-year-old, referred as old landfill) in order to characterize FF. In Kuopio the FF (
PubMed ID
25817722 View in PubMed
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Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278341
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Mar;49:491-504
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Morten Bang Jensen
Jacob Møller
Charlotte Scheutz
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Mar;49:491-504
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anaerobiosis
Bioreactors
Denmark
Germany
Incineration
Refuse Disposal - standards
Solid Waste - analysis
Waste Management - methods
Abstract
This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34% of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively.
PubMed ID
26856446 View in PubMed
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Distribution and leaching characteristics of trace elements in ashes as a function of different waste fuels and incineration technologies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274831
Source
J Environ Sci (China). 2015 Oct 1;36:9-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2015
Author
Naeem Saqib
Mattias Bäckström
Source
J Environ Sci (China). 2015 Oct 1;36:9-21
Date
Oct-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biofuels - analysis
Coal Ash - chemistry
Hot Temperature
Incineration
Industrial Waste - analysis
Solid Waste - analysis
Sweden
Trace Elements - analysis
Wood - analysis
Abstract
Impact of waste fuels (virgin/waste wood, mixed biofuel (peat, bark, wood chips) industrial, household, mixed waste fuel) and incineration technologies on partitioning and leaching behavior of trace elements has been investigated. Study included 4 grate fired and 9 fluidized boilers. Results showed that mixed waste incineration mostly caused increased transfer of trace elements to fly ash; particularly Pb/Zn. Waste wood incineration showed higher transfer of Cr, As and Zn to fly ash as compared to virgin wood. The possible reasons could be high input of trace element in waste fuel/change in volatilization behavior due to addition of certain waste fractions. The concentration of Cd and Zn increased in fly ash with incineration temperature. Total concentration in ashes decreased in order of Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Sb>As>Mo. The concentration levels of trace elements were mostly higher in fluidized boilers fly ashes as compared to grate boilers (especially for biofuel incineration). It might be attributed to high combustion efficiency due to pre-treatment of waste in fluidized boilers. Leaching results indicated that water soluble forms of elements in ashes were low with few exceptions. Concentration levels in ash and ash matrix properties (association of elements on ash particles) are crucial parameters affecting leaching. Leached amounts of Pb, Zn and Cr in >50% of fly ashes exceeded regulatory limit for disposal. 87% of chlorine in fly ashes washed out with water at the liquid to solid ratio 10 indicating excessive presence of alkali metal chlorides/alkaline earths.
PubMed ID
26456601 View in PubMed
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Elements affecting food waste in the food service sector.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281913
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Oct;56:446-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Lotta Heikkilä
Anu Reinikainen
Juha-Matti Katajajuuri
Kirsi Silvennoinen
Hanna Hartikainen
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Oct;56:446-53
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Finland
Garbage
Restaurants
Solid Waste - analysis
Waste Management - methods
Abstract
Avoidable food waste is produced in the food service sector, with significant ecological and economical impacts. In order to understand and explain better the complex issue of food waste a qualitative study was conducted on the reasons for its generation in restaurants and catering businesses. Research data were collected during three participatory workshops for personnel from three different catering sector companies in Finland. Based on synthesized qualitative content analysis, eight elements influencing production and reduction of food waste were identified. Results revealed the diversity of managing food waste in the food service sector and how a holistic approach is required to prevent and reduce it. It is crucial to understand that food waste is manageable and should be an integral component of the management system. The model of eight factors provides a framework for recognition and management of food waste in the food service sector.
PubMed ID
27373724 View in PubMed
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30 records – page 1 of 3.