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Abrupt changes in the composition and function of fungal communities along an environmental gradient in the high Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289464
Source
Mol Ecol. 2017 Sep; 26(18):4798-4810
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Oriol Grau
József Geml
Aaron Pérez-Haase
Josep M Ninot
Tatiana A Semenova-Nelsen
Josep Peñuelas
Author Affiliation
CSIC, Global Ecology Unit, CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain.
Source
Mol Ecol. 2017 Sep; 26(18):4798-4810
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
DNA, Fungal - genetics
Ecosystem
Fungi - classification
Greenland
Mycobiome
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Soil Microbiology
Abstract
Fungi play a key role in soil-plant interactions, nutrient cycling and carbon flow and are essential for the functioning of arctic terrestrial ecosystems. Some studies have shown that the composition of fungal communities is highly sensitive to variations in environmental conditions, but little is known about how the conditions control the role of fungal communities (i.e., their ecosystem function). We used DNA metabarcoding to compare taxonomic and functional composition of fungal communities along a gradient of environmental severity in Northeast Greenland. We analysed soil samples from fell fields, heaths and snowbeds, three habitats with very contrasting abiotic conditions. We also assessed within-habitat differences by comparing three widespread microhabitats (patches with high cover of Dryas, Salix, or bare soil). The data suggest that, along the sampled mesotopographic gradient, the greatest differences in both fungal richness and community composition are observed amongst habitats, while the effect of microhabitat is weaker, although still significant. Furthermore, we found that richness and community composition of fungi are shaped primarily by abiotic factors and to a lesser, though still significant extent, by floristic composition. Along this mesotopographic gradient, environmental severity is strongly correlated with richness in all fungal functional groups: positively in saprotrophic, pathogenic and lichenised fungi, and negatively in ectomycorrhizal and root endophytic fungi. Our results suggest complex interactions amongst functional groups, possibly due to nutrient limitation or competitive exclusion, with potential implications on soil carbon stocks. These findings are important in the light of the environmental changes predicted for the Arctic.
PubMed ID
28664999 View in PubMed
Less detail

Abrupt changes in the composition and function of fungal communities along an environmental gradient in the high Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289622
Source
Mol Ecol. 2017 Sep; 26(18):4798-4810
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Oriol Grau
József Geml
Aaron Pérez-Haase
Josep M Ninot
Tatiana A Semenova-Nelsen
Josep Peñuelas
Author Affiliation
CSIC, Global Ecology Unit, CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain.
Source
Mol Ecol. 2017 Sep; 26(18):4798-4810
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
DNA, Fungal - genetics
Ecosystem
Fungi - classification
Greenland
Mycobiome
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Soil Microbiology
Abstract
Fungi play a key role in soil-plant interactions, nutrient cycling and carbon flow and are essential for the functioning of arctic terrestrial ecosystems. Some studies have shown that the composition of fungal communities is highly sensitive to variations in environmental conditions, but little is known about how the conditions control the role of fungal communities (i.e., their ecosystem function). We used DNA metabarcoding to compare taxonomic and functional composition of fungal communities along a gradient of environmental severity in Northeast Greenland. We analysed soil samples from fell fields, heaths and snowbeds, three habitats with very contrasting abiotic conditions. We also assessed within-habitat differences by comparing three widespread microhabitats (patches with high cover of Dryas, Salix, or bare soil). The data suggest that, along the sampled mesotopographic gradient, the greatest differences in both fungal richness and community composition are observed amongst habitats, while the effect of microhabitat is weaker, although still significant. Furthermore, we found that richness and community composition of fungi are shaped primarily by abiotic factors and to a lesser, though still significant extent, by floristic composition. Along this mesotopographic gradient, environmental severity is strongly correlated with richness in all fungal functional groups: positively in saprotrophic, pathogenic and lichenised fungi, and negatively in ectomycorrhizal and root endophytic fungi. Our results suggest complex interactions amongst functional groups, possibly due to nutrient limitation or competitive exclusion, with potential implications on soil carbon stocks. These findings are important in the light of the environmental changes predicted for the Arctic.
PubMed ID
28664999 View in PubMed
Less detail

The abundance of health-associated bacteria is altered in PAH polluted soils-Implications for health in urban areas?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287930
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0187852
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Anirudra Parajuli
Mira Grönroos
Sari Kauppi
Tomasz Plociniczak
Marja I Roslund
Polina Galitskaya
Olli H Laitinen
Heikki Hyöty
Ari Jumpponen
Rauni Strömmer
Martin Romantschuk
Nan Hui
Aki Sinkkonen
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0187852
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacteria - isolation & purification
Finland
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - analysis
Soil Microbiology
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Abstract
Long-term exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been connected to chronic human health disorders. It is also well-known that i) PAH contamination alters soil bacterial communities, ii) human microbiome is associated with environmental microbiome, and iii) alteration in the abundance of members in several bacterial phyla is associated with adverse or beneficial human health effects. We hypothesized that soil pollution by PAHs altered soil bacterial communities that had known associations with human health. The rationale behind our study was to increase understanding and potentially facilitate reconsidering factors that lead to health disorders in areas characterized by PAH contamination. Large containers filled with either spruce forest soil, pine forest soil, peat, or glacial sand were left to incubate or contaminated with creosote. Biological degradation of PAHs was monitored using GC-MS, and the bacterial community composition was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing. Proteobacteria had higher and Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes had lower relative abundance in creosote contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. Earlier studies have demonstrated that an increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria and decreased abundance of the phyla Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes are particularly associated with adverse health outcomes and immunological disorders. Therefore, we propose that pollution-induced shifts in natural soil bacterial community, like in PAH-polluted areas, can contribute to the prevalence of chronic diseases. We encourage studies that simultaneously address the classic "adverse toxin effect" paradigm and our novel "altered environmental microbiome" hypothesis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29145477 View in PubMed
Less detail

Abundant Trimethylornithine Lipids and Specific Gene Sequences Are Indicative of Planctomycete Importance at the Oxic/Anoxic Interface in Sphagnum-Dominated Northern Wetlands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273730
Source
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015 Sep;81(18):6333-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Eli K Moore
Laura Villanueva
Ellen C Hopmans
W Irene C Rijpstra
Anchelique Mets
Svetlana N Dedysh
Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté
Source
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015 Sep;81(18):6333-44
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acidobacteria - chemistry - isolation & purification
Bacteria - chemistry - genetics - isolation & purification
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Lipids - analysis - chemistry
Oxidation-Reduction
Phylogeny
RNA, Bacterial - genetics
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Russia
Soil - chemistry
Soil Microbiology
Sphagnopsida - chemistry - genetics - microbiology
Sweden
Wetlands
Abstract
Northern wetlands make up a substantial terrestrial carbon sink and are often dominated by decay-resistant Sphagnum mosses. Recent studies have shown that planctomycetes appear to be involved in degradation of Sphagnum-derived debris. Novel trimethylornithine (TMO) lipids have recently been characterized as abundant lipids in various Sphagnum wetland planctomycete isolates, but their occurrence in the environment has not yet been confirmed. We applied a combined intact polar lipid (IPL) and molecular analysis of peat cores collected from two northern wetlands (Saxnäs Mosse [Sweden] and Obukhovskoye [Russia]) in order to investigate the preferred niche and abundance of TMO-producing planctomycetes. TMOs were present throughout the profiles of Sphagnum bogs, but their concentration peaked at the oxic/anoxic interface, which coincided with a maximum abundance of planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA gene sequences. The sequences detected at the oxic/anoxic interface were affiliated with the Isosphaera group, while sequences present in the anoxic peat layers were related to an uncultured planctomycete group. Pyrosequencing-based analysis identified Planctomycetes as the major bacterial group at the oxic/anoxic interface at the Obukhovskoye peat (54% of total 16S rRNA gene sequence reads), followed by Acidobacteria (19% reads), while in the Saxnäs Mosse peat, Acidobacteria were dominant (46%), and Planctomycetes contributed to 6% of the total reads. The detection of abundant TMO lipids in planctomycetes isolated from peat bogs and the lack of TMO production by cultures of acidobacteria suggest that planctomycetes are the producers of TMOs in peat bogs. The higher accumulation of TMOs at the oxic/anoxic interface and the change in the planctomycete community with depth suggest that these IPLs could be synthesized as a response to changing redox conditions at the oxic/anoxic interface.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26150465 View in PubMed
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Activity and diversity of methane-oxidizing bacteria along a Norwegian sub-Arctic glacier forefield.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299197
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 05 01; 94(5):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-01-2018
Author
Alejandro Mateos-Rivera
Lise Øvreås
Bryan Wilson
Jacob C Yde
Kai W Finster
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Bergen, NO-5020, Bergen, Norway.
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 05 01; 94(5):
Date
05-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Biodiversity
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Ice Cover - microbiology
Methane - metabolism
Methylococcaceae - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Norway
Soil Microbiology
Abstract
Methane (CH4) is one of the most abundant greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and identification of its sources and sinks is crucial for the reliability of climate model outputs. Although CH4 production and consumption rates have been reported from a broad spectrum of environments, data obtained from glacier forefields are restricted to a few locations. We report the activities of methanotrophic communities and their diversity along a chronosequence in front of a sub-Arctic glacier using high-throughput sequencing and gas flux measurements. CH4 oxidation rates were measured in the field throughout the growing season during three sampling times at eight different sampling points in combination with laboratory incubation experiments. The overall results showed that the methanotrophic community had similar trends of increased CH4 consumption and increased abundance as a function of soil development and time of year. Sequencing results revealed that the methanotrophic community was dominated by a few OTUs and that a short-term increase in CH4 concentration, as performed in the field measurements, altered slightly the relative abundance of the OTUs.
PubMed ID
29617984 View in PubMed
Less detail

Aerobic and anaerobic de-epoxydation of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol by bacteria originating from agricultural soil.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122520
Source
World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012 Jan;28(1):7-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Rafiqul Islam
Ting Zhou
J Christopher Young
Paul H Goodwin
K Peter Pauls
Author Affiliation
Guelph Food Research Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 93 Stone Road West, Guelph, ON, N1G 5C9, Canada. mislam@uoguelph.ca
Source
World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012 Jan;28(1):7-13
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bacteria, Aerobic - genetics - isolation & purification - metabolism
Bacteria, Anaerobic - genetics - isolation & purification - metabolism
Biotransformation
Food Contamination - prevention & control
Genes, Bacterial
Humans
Metabolic Detoxication, Drug
Ontario
RNA, Bacterial - genetics
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Soil Microbiology
Trichothecenes - metabolism - toxicity
Abstract
One hundred and fifty soil samples collected from different crop fields in southern Ontario, Canada were screened to obtain microorganisms capable of transforming deoxynivalenol (DON) to de-epoxy DON (dE-DON). Microbial DON to dE-DON transformation (i.e. de-epoxydation) was monitored by using liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-mass spectrometry (LC-UV-MS). The effects of growth substrates, temperature, pH, incubation time and aerobic versus anaerobic conditions on the ability of the microbes to de-epoxydize DON were evaluated. A mixed microbial culture from one composite soil sample showed 100% DON to dE-DON biotransformation in mineral salts broth (MSB) after 144 h of incubation. Treatments of the culture with selective antibiotics followed an elevated temperature (50°C) for 1.5 h considerably reduced the microbial diversity. Partial 16S-rRNA gene sequence analysis of the bacteria in the enriched culture indicated the presence of at least six bacterial genera, namely Serratia, Clostridium, Citrobacter, Enterococcus, Stenotrophomonas and Streptomyces. The enriched culture completely de-epoxydized DON after 60 h of incubation. Bacterial de-epoxydation of DON occurred at pH 6.0-7.5, and a wide array of temperatures (12-40°C). The culture showed rapid de-epoxydation activity under aerobic conditions compared to anaerobic conditions. This is the first report on microbial DON to dE-DON transformation under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures. The culture could be used to detoxify DON contaminated feed and might be a potential source for gene(s) for DON de-epoxydation.
PubMed ID
22806774 View in PubMed
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Aerobic microbial taxa dominate deep subsurface cores from the Alberta oil sands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299361
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 06 01; 94(6):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-01-2018
Author
Christina M Ridley
Gerrit Voordouw
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada.
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 06 01; 94(6):
Date
06-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Alberta
Bacteria, Aerobic - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Biodegradation, Environmental
Fungi - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Hydrocarbons - metabolism
Microbiota - genetics
Oil and Gas Fields - microbiology
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Soil Microbiology
Abstract
Little is known about the microbial ecology of the subsurface oil sands in Northern Alberta, Canada. Biodegradation of low molecular weight hydrocarbons by indigenous microbes has enriched high molecular weight hydrocarbons, resulting in highly viscous bitumen. This extreme subsurface environment is further characterized by low nutrient availability and limited access to water, thus resulting in low microbial biomass. Improved DNA isolation protocols and increasingly sensitive sequencing methods have allowed an in-depth investigation of the microbial ecology of this unique subsurface environmental niche. Community analysis was performed on core samples (n = 62) that were retrieved from two adjacent sites located in the Athabasca Oil Sands at depths from 220 to 320 m below the surface. Microbial communities were dominated by aerobic taxa, including Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Only one core sample microbial community was dominated by anaerobic taxa, including the methanogen Methanoculleus, as well as Desulfomicrobium and Thauera. Although the temperature of the bitumen-containing subsurface is low (8°C), two core samples had high fractions of the potentially thermophilic taxon, Thermus. Predominance of aerobic taxa in the subsurface suggests the potential for in situ aerobic hydrocarbon degradation; however, more studies are required to determine the functional role of these taxa within this unique environment.
PubMed ID
29688331 View in PubMed
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Alpine soil microbial ecology in a changing world.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301151
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 09 01; 94(9):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Date
09-01-2018
Author
Johanna Donhauser
Beat Frey
Author Affiliation
Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 09 01; 94(9):
Date
09-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Biodiversity
Climate change
Ice Cover
Permafrost - chemistry - microbiology
Soil Microbiology
Tundra
Abstract
Climate change has a disproportionally large impact on alpine soil ecosystems, leading to pronounced changes in soil microbial diversity and function associated with effects on biogeochemical processes at the local and supraregional scales. However, due to restricted accessibility, high-altitude soils remain largely understudied and a considerable heterogeneity hampers the comparability of different alpine studies. Here, we highlight differences and similarities between alpine and arctic ecosystems, and we discuss the impact of climatic variables and associated vegetation and soil properties on microbial ecology. We consider how microbial alpha-diversity, community structures and function change along altitudinal gradients and with other topographic features such as slope aspect. In addition, we focus on alpine permafrost soils, harboring a surprisingly large unknown microbial diversity and on microbial succession along glacier forefield chronosequences constituting the most thoroughly studied alpine habitat. Finally, highlighting experimental approaches, we present climate change studies showing shifts in microbial community structures and function in response to warming and altered moisture, interestingly with some contradiction. Collectively, despite harsh environmental conditions, many specially adapted microorganisms are able to thrive in alpine environments. Their community structures strongly correlate with climatic, vegetation and soil properties and thus closely mirror the complexity and small-scale heterogeneity of alpine soils.
PubMed ID
30032189 View in PubMed
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An analysis of respiratory activity, Q(10), and microbial community composition of soils from high and low tussock sites at Toolik, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99462
Source
J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2010 Mar;57(2):218-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2010
Author
O Roger Anderson
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964, USA. ora@ldeo.columbia.edu
Source
J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2010 Mar;57(2):218-9
Date
Mar-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Bacteria - isolation & purification - metabolism
Biodiversity
Eukaryota - isolation & purification - metabolism
Oxygen consumption
Soil Microbiology
Ubiquinone - analogs & derivatives - analysis
Abstract
High latitude microbial communities, incurring increased global warming, are a potential major source of respiratory CO2 contributing to an enhanced greenhouse effect. Data on respiration and microbial density are presented for a moist, high tussock site compared with a low, water saturated site. The density of bacteria and eukaryotic microbes was nearly equivalent at both sites and potentially could yield substantial release of respiratory CO2 with continued warming. Respiratory rates for soil from the high site were greater than the low. The Q(10) of 2.4 for the high tussock sample was approximately 1.3 x that of the low site sample (Q(10) of 1.7).
PubMed ID
20021543 View in PubMed
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310 records – page 1 of 31.