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21st-century modeled permafrost carbon emissions accelerated by abrupt thaw beneath lakes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297387
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 15; 9(1):3262
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
08-15-2018
Author
Katey Walter Anthony
Thomas Schneider von Deimling
Ingmar Nitze
Steve Frolking
Abraham Emond
Ronald Daanen
Peter Anthony
Prajna Lindgren
Benjamin Jones
Guido Grosse
Author Affiliation
Water and Environmental Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA. kmwalteranthony@alaska.edu.
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 15; 9(1):3262
Date
08-15-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Alaska
Carbon - chemistry
Carbon Cycle
Carbon Dioxide - chemistry
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods - trends
Freezing
Geography
Geologic Sediments - chemistry
Global warming
Lakes - chemistry
Methane - chemistry
Models, Theoretical
Permafrost - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Abstract
Permafrost carbon feedback (PCF) modeling has focused on gradual thaw of near-surface permafrost leading to enhanced carbon dioxide and methane emissions that accelerate global climate warming. These state-of-the-art land models have yet to incorporate deeper, abrupt thaw in the PCF. Here we use model data, supported by field observations, radiocarbon dating, and remote sensing, to show that methane and carbon dioxide emissions from abrupt thaw beneath thermokarst lakes will more than double radiative forcing from circumpolar permafrost-soil carbon fluxes this century. Abrupt thaw lake emissions are similar under moderate and high representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), but their relative contribution to the PCF is much larger under the moderate warming scenario. Abrupt thaw accelerates mobilization of deeply frozen, ancient carbon, increasing 14C-depleted permafrost soil carbon emissions by ~125-190% compared to gradual thaw alone. These findings demonstrate the need to incorporate abrupt thaw processes in earth system models for more comprehensive projection of the PCF this century.
PubMed ID
30111815 View in PubMed
Less detail

Abundant Trimethylornithine Lipids and Specific Gene Sequences Are Indicative of Planctomycete Importance at the Oxic/Anoxic Interface in Sphagnum-Dominated Northern Wetlands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273730
Source
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015 Sep;81(18):6333-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Eli K Moore
Laura Villanueva
Ellen C Hopmans
W Irene C Rijpstra
Anchelique Mets
Svetlana N Dedysh
Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté
Source
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015 Sep;81(18):6333-44
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acidobacteria - chemistry - isolation & purification
Bacteria - chemistry - genetics - isolation & purification
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Lipids - analysis - chemistry
Oxidation-Reduction
Phylogeny
RNA, Bacterial - genetics
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Russia
Soil - chemistry
Soil Microbiology
Sphagnopsida - chemistry - genetics - microbiology
Sweden
Wetlands
Abstract
Northern wetlands make up a substantial terrestrial carbon sink and are often dominated by decay-resistant Sphagnum mosses. Recent studies have shown that planctomycetes appear to be involved in degradation of Sphagnum-derived debris. Novel trimethylornithine (TMO) lipids have recently been characterized as abundant lipids in various Sphagnum wetland planctomycete isolates, but their occurrence in the environment has not yet been confirmed. We applied a combined intact polar lipid (IPL) and molecular analysis of peat cores collected from two northern wetlands (Saxnäs Mosse [Sweden] and Obukhovskoye [Russia]) in order to investigate the preferred niche and abundance of TMO-producing planctomycetes. TMOs were present throughout the profiles of Sphagnum bogs, but their concentration peaked at the oxic/anoxic interface, which coincided with a maximum abundance of planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA gene sequences. The sequences detected at the oxic/anoxic interface were affiliated with the Isosphaera group, while sequences present in the anoxic peat layers were related to an uncultured planctomycete group. Pyrosequencing-based analysis identified Planctomycetes as the major bacterial group at the oxic/anoxic interface at the Obukhovskoye peat (54% of total 16S rRNA gene sequence reads), followed by Acidobacteria (19% reads), while in the Saxnäs Mosse peat, Acidobacteria were dominant (46%), and Planctomycetes contributed to 6% of the total reads. The detection of abundant TMO lipids in planctomycetes isolated from peat bogs and the lack of TMO production by cultures of acidobacteria suggest that planctomycetes are the producers of TMOs in peat bogs. The higher accumulation of TMOs at the oxic/anoxic interface and the change in the planctomycete community with depth suggest that these IPLs could be synthesized as a response to changing redox conditions at the oxic/anoxic interface.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26150465 View in PubMed
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Accumulation and distribution of mercury in fruiting bodies by fungus Suillus luteus foraged in Poland, Belarus and Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276806
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Feb;23(3):2749-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Martyna Saba
Jerzy Falandysz
Innocent C Nnorom
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Feb;23(3):2749-57
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agaricales - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism
Fruiting Bodies, Fungal - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism
Mercury - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism
Poland - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism
Republic of Belarus - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism
Soil - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism
Soil Pollutants - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism
Spectrophotometry, Atomic - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism
Sweden - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism
Vegetables - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - analysis - metabolism - chemistry - growth & development - metabolism
Abstract
Presented in this paper is result of the study of the bioconcentration potential of mercury (Hg) by Suillus luteus mushroom collected from regions within Central, Eastern, and Northern regions of Europe. As determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy, the Hg content varied from 0.13 ? 0.05 to 0.33 ? 0.13 mg kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 0.038 ? 0.014 to 0.095 ? 0.038 mg kg(-1) dry matter in stems. The Hg content of the soil substratum (0-10 cm layer) underneath the fruiting bodies showed generally low Hg concentrations that varied widely ranging from 0.0030 to 0.15 mg kg(-1) dry matter with mean values varying from 0.0078 ? 0.0035 to 0.053 ? 0.025 mg kg(-1) dry matter, which is below typical content in the Earth crust. The caps were observed to be on the richer in Hg than the stems at ratio between 1.8 ? 0.4 and 5.3 ? 2.6. The S. luteus mushroom showed moderate ability to accumulate Hg with bioconcentration factor (BCF) values ranging from 3.6 ? 1.3 to 42 ? 18. The consumption of fresh S. luteus mushroom in quantities up to 300 g week(-1) (assuming no Hg ingestion from other foods) from background areas in the Central, Eastern, and Northern part of Europe will not result in the intake of Hg exceeds the provisional weekly tolerance limit (PTWI) of 0.004 mg kg(-1) body mass.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26446731 View in PubMed
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Acidification of animal slurry--a review.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263539
Source
J Environ Manage. 2015 Feb 1;149:46-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-2015
Author
David Fangueiro
Maibritt Hjorth
Fabrizio Gioelli
Source
J Environ Manage. 2015 Feb 1;149:46-56
Date
Feb-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acids - chemistry
Agriculture - methods
Ammonia - analysis - chemistry
Animals
Denmark
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Manure - analysis
Soil - chemistry
Abstract
Ammonia emissions are a major problem associated with animal slurry management, and solutions to overcome this problem are required worldwide by farmers and stakeholders. An obvious way to minimize ammonia emissions from slurry is to decrease slurry pH by addition of acids or other substances. This solution has been used commonly since 2010 in countries such as Denmark, and its efficiency with regard to the minimization of NH3 emissions has been documented in many studies. Nevertheless, the impact of such treatment on other gaseous emissions during storage is not clear, since the studies performed so far have provided different scenarios. Similarly, the impact of the soil application of acidified slurry on plant production and diffuse pollution has been considered in several studies. Also, the impact of acidification upon combination with other slurry treatment technologies (e.g. mechanical separation, anaerobic digestion …) is important to consider. Here, a compilation and critical review of all these studies has been performed in order to fully understand the global impact of slurry acidification and assess the applicability of this treatment for slurry management.
PubMed ID
25463570 View in PubMed
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Afforestation effects on SOC in former cropland: oak and spruce chronosequences resampled after 13 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261397
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Sep;20(9):2938-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Teresa G Bárcena
Per Gundersen
Lars Vesterdal
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Sep;20(9):2938-52
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Carbon - analysis
Carbon Sequestration - physiology
Denmark
Forests
Linear Models
Picea - growth & development
Quercus - growth & development
Soil - chemistry
Species Specificity
Time Factors
Abstract
Chronosequences are commonly used to assess soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration after land-use change, but SOC dynamics predicted by this space-for-time substitution approach have rarely been validated by resampling. We conducted a combined chronosequence/resampling study in a former cropland area (Vestskoven) afforested with oak (Quercus robur) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) over the past 40 years. The aims of this study were (i) to compare present and previous chronosequence trends in forest floor and top mineral soil (0-25 cm) C stocks; (ii) to compare chronosequence estimates with current rates of C stock change based on resampling at the stand level; (iii) to estimate SOC changes in the subsoil (25-50 cm); and (iv) to assess the influence of two tree species on SOC dynamics. The two chronosequence trajectories for forest floor C stocks revealed consistently higher rates of C sequestration in spruce than oak. The chronosequence trajectory was validated by resampling and current rates of forest floor C sequestration decreased with stand age. Chronosequence trends in topsoil SOC in 2011 did not differ significantly from those reported in 1998, however, there was a shift from a negative rate (1998: -0.3 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) ) to no change in 2011. In contrast SOC stocks in the subsoil increased with stand age, however, not significantly (P = 0.1), suggesting different C dynamics in and below the former plough layer. Current rates of C change estimated by repeated sampling decreased with stand age in forest floors but increased in the topsoil. The contrasting temporal change in forest floor and mineral soil C sequestration rates indicate a shift in C source-sink strength after approximately 40 years. We conclude that afforestation of former cropland within the temperate region may induce soil C loss during the first decades followed by a recovery phase of yet unknown duration.
PubMed ID
24753073 View in PubMed
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Ammonium citrate as enhancement for electrodialytic soil remediation and investigation of soil solution during the process.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266325
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Jan;119:889-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
Celia Dias-Ferreira
Gunvor M Kirkelund
Lisbeth M Ottosen
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Jan;119:889-95
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chromium - analysis - chemistry
Citric Acid - chemistry
Copper - analysis - chemistry
Denmark
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Electrochemistry - methods
Environmental Restoration and Remediation - methods
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Soil Pollutants - analysis - chemistry
Time Factors
Abstract
Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm(-2)), concentration of enhancing agent (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 M) and remediation times (21, 42 and 117 d) for the removal of Cu and Cr from a calcareous soil. To gain insight on metal behavior, soil solution was periodically collected using suction cups. It was seen that current densities higher than 1.0 mA cm(-2) did not increase removal and thus using too high current densities can be a waste of energy. Desorption rate is important and both remediation time and ammonium citrate concentration are relevant parameters. It was possible to collect soil solution samples following an adaptation of the experimental set-up to ensure continuous supply of ammonium citrate to the soil in order to keep it saturated during the remediation. Monitoring soil solution gives valuable information on the evolution of remediation and helps deciding when the soil is remediated. Final concentrations in the soil ranged from 220 to 360 mg Cu kg(-1) (removals: 78-86%) and 440-590 mg Cr kg(-1) (removals: 35-51%), being within the 500 mg kg(-1) limit for a clean soil only for Cu. While further optimization is still required for Cr, the removal percentages are the highest achieved so far, for a real Cu and Cr-contaminated, calcareous soil. The results highlight EDR potential to remediate metal polluted soils at neutral to alkaline pH by choosing a good enhancement solution.
PubMed ID
25240953 View in PubMed
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Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition enhances carbon sequestration in boreal soils.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272603
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Aug;21(8):3169-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2015
Author
Nadia I Maaroufi
Annika Nordin
Niles J Hasselquist
Lisbet H Bach
Kristin Palmqvist
Michael J Gundale
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Aug;21(8):3169-80
Date
Aug-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Carbon - analysis
Carbon Sequestration
Ecosystem
Nitrogen - analysis
Soil - chemistry
Soil Microbiology
Sweden
Taiga
Abstract
It is proposed that carbon (C) sequestration in response to reactive nitrogen (Nr ) deposition in boreal forests accounts for a large portion of the terrestrial sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. While studies have helped clarify the magnitude by which Nr deposition enhances C sequestration by forest vegetation, there remains a paucity of long-term experimental studies evaluating how soil C pools respond. We conducted a long-term experiment, maintained since 1996, consisting of three N addition levels (0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) ) in the boreal zone of northern Sweden to understand how atmospheric Nr deposition affects soil C accumulation, soil microbial communities, and soil respiration. We hypothesized that soil C sequestration will increase, and soil microbial biomass and soil respiration will decrease, with disproportionately large changes expected compared to low levels of N addition. Our data showed that the low N addition treatment caused a non-significant increase in the organic horizon C pool of ~15% and a significant increase of ~30% in response to the high N treatment relative to the control. The relationship between C sequestration and N addition in the organic horizon was linear, with a slope of 10 kg C kg(-1) N. We also found a concomitant decrease in total microbial and fungal biomasses and a ~11% reduction in soil respiration in response to the high N treatment. Our data complement previous data from the same study system describing aboveground C sequestration, indicating a total ecosystem sequestration rate of 26 kg C kg(-1) N. These estimates are far lower than suggested by some previous modeling studies, and thus will help improve and validate current modeling efforts aimed at separating the effect of multiple global change factors on the C balance of the boreal region.
PubMed ID
25711504 View in PubMed
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Application of synchrotron microprobe methods to solid-phase speciation of metals and metalloids in house dust.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132165
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Oct 1;45(19):8233-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2011
Author
S R Walker
H E Jamieson
P E Rasmussen
Author Affiliation
Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering, Queen's University , Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada.
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Oct 1;45(19):8233-40
Date
Oct-1-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arsenates - chemistry
Canada
Dust - analysis
Humans
Lead - isolation & purification
Metalloids - isolation & purification
Metals - isolation & purification
Molecular Probe Techniques
Soil - chemistry
Solid Phase Extraction - methods
Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission
Synchrotrons
Wood - chemistry
X-Ray Diffraction
Zinc - isolation & purification
Abstract
Determination of the source and form of metals in house dust is important to those working to understand human and particularly childhood exposure to metals in residential environments. We report the development of a synchrotron microprobe technique for characterization of multiple metal hosts in house dust. We have applied X-ray fluorescence for chemical characterization and X-ray diffraction for crystal structure identification using microfocused synchrotron X-rays at a less than 10 µm spot size. The technique has been evaluated by application to archived house dust samples containing elevated concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, and Pb and As in living room dust. The technique was also applied to a sample of soil from the corresponding garden to identify linkages between indoor and outdoor sources of metals. Paint pigments including white lead (hydrocerussite) and lithopone (wurtzite and barite) are the primary source of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, probably related to renovation activity in the home at the time of sampling. The much lower Pb content in the living room dust shows a relationship to the exterior soil and no specific evidence of Pb and Zn from the bedroom paint pigments. The technique was also successful at confirming the presence of chromated copper arsenate treated wood as a source of As in the living room dust. The results of the study have confirmed the utility of this approach in identifying specific metal forms within the dust.
PubMed ID
21842879 View in PubMed
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Are horse paddocks threatening water quality through excess loading of nutrients?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264846
Source
J Environ Manage. 2015 Jan 1;147:306-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2015
Author
Mohammed Masud Parvage
Barbro Ulén
Holger Kirchmann
Source
J Environ Manage. 2015 Jan 1;147:306-13
Date
Jan-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Animal Husbandry - methods
Animals
Horses
Housing, Animal - statistics & numerical data
Linear Models
Nitrogen - analysis
Phosphorus - analysis
Soil - chemistry
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Quality - standards
Abstract
The Baltic Sea is one of the most eutrophied water bodies in northern Europe and more than 50% of its total anthropogenic waterborne phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) loads derive from agricultural sources. Sweden is the second largest contributor of waterborne N and the third largest contributor of waterborne P to the Baltic Sea. Horse farms now occupy almost 10% of Swedish agricultural land, but are not well investigated with regard to their environmental impact. In this study, potential P, N and carbon (C) leaching losses were measured from two representative horse paddock topsoils (0-20 cm; a clay and a loamy sand) following simulated rainfall events in the laboratory. Results showed that the leachate concentrations and net release of P, N and dissolved organic C (DOC) from paddock topsoils were highest in feeding and excretion areas and considerably higher from the loamy sand than the clay paddock topsoil. Leaching losses of dissolved reactive P (DRP) were significantly (p
PubMed ID
25284798 View in PubMed
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Arsenic, antimony, and nickel leaching from northern peatlands treating mining influenced water in cold climate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298194
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Mar 20; 657:1161-1172
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-20-2019
Author
Uzair Akbar Khan
Katharina Kujala
Soile P Nieminen
Marja Liisa Räisänen
Anna-Kaisa Ronkanen
Author Affiliation
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: uzair.khan@oulu.fi.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Mar 20; 657:1161-1172
Date
Mar-20-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Antimony - analysis
Arctic Regions
Arsenic - analysis
Finland
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Mining
Nickel - analysis
Oxygen - analysis
Soil - chemistry
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Temperature
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Purification - methods
Abstract
Increased metal mining in the Arctic region has caused elevated loads of arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), nickel (Ni), and sulfate (SO42-) to recipient surface or groundwater systems. The need for cost-effective active and passive mine water treatment methods has also increased. Natural peatlands are commonly used as a final step for treatment of mining influenced water. However, their permanent retention of harmful substances is affected by influent concentrations and environmental conditions. The effects of dilution, pH, temperature, oxygen availability, and contaminant accumulation on retention and leaching of As, Sb, Ni, and sulfate from mine process water and drainage water obtained from treatment peatlands in Finnish Lapland were studied in batch sorption experiments, and discussed in context of field data and environmental impacts. The results, while demonstrating effectiveness of peat to remove the target contaminants from mine water, revealed the risk of leaching of As, Sb, and SO42- from treatment peatlands when diluted mine water was introduced. Sb was more readily leached compared to As while leaching of both was supported by higher pH of 9. No straightforward effect of temperature and oxygen availability in controlling removal and leaching was evident from the results. The results also showed that contaminant accumulation in treatment peatlands after long-term use can lead to decreased removal and escalated leaching of contaminants, with the effect being more pronounced for As and Ni.
PubMed ID
30677883 View in PubMed
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