To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for the management of hypertension in adults.
For lifestyle and pharmacological interventions, evidence from randomized, controlled trials and systematic reviews of trials was preferentially reviewed. Changes in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were the primary outcomes of interest. For lifestyle interventions, blood pressure (BP) lowering was accepted as a primary outcome given the lack of long-term morbidity/mortality data in this field. For treatment of patients with kidney disease, the development of proteinuria or worsening of kidney function was also accepted as a clinically relevant primary outcome.
MEDLINE searches were conducted from November 2004 to October 2005 to update the 2005 recommendations. In addition, reference lists were scanned and experts were contacted to identify additional published studies. All relevant articles were reviewed and appraised independently by content and methodological experts using prespecified levels of evidence.
Lifestyle modifications to prevent and/or treat hypertension include the following: perform 30 min to 60 min of aerobic exercise four to seven days per week; maintain a healthy body weight (body mass index of 18.5 kg/m2 to 24.9 kg/m2) and waist circumference (less than 102 cm for men and less than 88 cm for women); limit alcohol consumption to no more than 14 standard drinks per week in men or nine standard drinks per week in women; follow a diet that is reduced in saturated fat and cholesterol and that emphasizes fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products; restrict salt intake; and consider stress management in selected individuals. Treatment thresholds and targets should take into account each individual's global atherosclerotic risk, target organ damage and comorbid conditions. BP should be lowered to less than 140/90 mmHg in all patients, and to less than 130/80 mmHg in those with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (regardless of the degree of proteinuria). Most adults with hypertension require more than one agent to achieve these target BPs. For adults without compelling indications for other agents, initial therapy should include thiazide diuretics. Other agents appropriate for first-line therapy for diastolic hypertension with or without systolic hypertension include beta-blockers (in those younger than 60 years), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (in nonblack patients), long-acting calcium channel blockers or angiotensin receptor antagonists. Other agents for first-line therapy for isolated systolic hypertension include long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers or angiotensin receptor antagonists. Certain comorbid conditions provide compelling indications for first-line use of other agents: in patients with angina, recent myocardial infarction or heart failure, beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors are recommended as first-line therapy; in patients with diabetes mellitus, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists (or in patients without albuminuria, thiazides or dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers) are appropriate first-line therapies; and in patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, ACE inhibitors are recommended. All hypertensive patients should have their fasting lipids screened, and those with dyslipidemia should be treated using the thresholds, targets and agents recommended by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program Working Group on the management of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Selected patients with hypertension, but without dyslipidemia, should also receive statin therapy and/or acetylsalicylic acid therapy.
All recommendations were graded according to strength of the evidence and voted on by the 45 members of the Canadian Hypertension Education Program Evidence-Based Recommendations Task Force. All recommendations reported here achieved at least 95% consensus. These guidelines will continue to be updated annually.
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In the study reported here, we examined blood pressure and endocrine responses in cold conditions during salt load in young healthy subjects who had previously shown increased resting blood pressure during acutely increased sodium intake. Subjects (n = 53) added 121 mmol sodium into their normal diet for 1 week. If their mean arterial pressure had increased by a minimum of 5 mmHg compared to the previous measure they were selected for subsequent experiments. The subjects (n = 8) were given 121 mmol supplemental sodium.day-1 for 14 days. They were then put into a wind tunnel for 15 min (temperature--15 degrees C, wind speed 3.5.ms-1). Their blood pressure increased (P
It is recommended that individuals with diabetes restrict their dietary sodium intake. However, although salt intake is correlated with BP (blood pressure), it also partly determines the activation state of the RAAS (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), a key mediator of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. apoE KO (apolipoprotein E knockout) mice were allocated for the induction of diabetes with streptozotocin or citrate buffer (controls) and further randomized to isocaloric diets containing 0.05%, 0.3% or 3.1% sodium with or without the ACEi [ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor] perindopril. After 6 weeks of study, plaque accumulation was quantified and markers of atherogenesis were assessed using RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) and ELISA. The association of sodium intake and adverse cardiovascular and mortality outcomes were explored in 2648 adults with Type 1 diabetes without prior CVD (cardiovascular disease) from the FinnDiane study. A 0.05% sodium diet was associated with increased plaque accumulation in diabetic apoE KO mice, associated with activation of the RAAS. By contrast, a diet containing 3.1% sodium suppressed atherogenesis associated with suppression of the RAAS, with an efficacy comparable with ACE inhibition. In adults with Type 1 diabetes, low sodium intake was also associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and new-onset cardiovascular events. However, high sodium intake was also associated with adverse outcomes, leading to a J-shaped relationship overall. Although BP lowering is an important goal for the management of diabetes, off-target actions to activate the RAAS may contribute to an observed lack of protection from cardiovascular complications in patients with Type 1 diabetes with low sodium intake.
Lifestyle factors, such as diet, are believed to be involved in modifying bone health, although the results remain controversial, particularly in children and adolescents. The objective of the study was to identify associations between dietary factors and whole body bone measurements in 10-year-old children. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of a random sample of 105 healthy Danish children, aged 10 years (9.97+/-0.09). Whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The influence of diet (7 day food records) on BMC and BA were examined in bi- and multivariate analyses. The mean intakes of calcium, protein, phosphorus and sodium were 1226 mg, 78 g, 1523 mg and 3.3 g, respectively. In bivariate analyses, BMC and BA were strongly positively correlated with height (p
Consomic rats (SS.BN13), in which chromosome 13 from normotensive inbred Brown Norway rats from a colony maintained at the Medical College of Wisconsin (BN/Mcw) was introgressed into the background of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS/Mcw) rats, also maintained in a colony at the Medical College of Wisconsin, were bred. The present studies determined the mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to salt and renal and peripheral vascular responses to norepinephrine and angiotensin II; 24-hour protein excretion and histological analyses were used to assess renal pathology in rats that received a high salt (4% NaCl) diet for 4 weeks. MAP of rats measured daily during the fourth week averaged 170+/-3.3 mm Hg in SS/Mcw rats, 119+/-2.1 mm Hg in SS.BN13 rats, and 103+/-1.3 mm Hg in BN/Mcw rats. After salt depletion, MAP fell an average of 27+/-4.5 mm Hg in SS/Mcw rats, 9+/-2.6 mm Hg in SS.BN13 rats, and 11+/-3.0 mm Hg in BN/Mcw rats. Protein excretion of SS/Mcw rats on a high salt diet averaged 189+/-30 mg/24 h, 63+/-18 mg/24 h in SS.BN13 rats, and 40+/-6.4 mg/24 h in BN/Mcw rats. Compared with SS.BN13 and BN/Mcw rats, SS/Mcw rats exhibited significantly greater increases of renal vascular resistance in response to intravenous norepinephrine and angiotensin II. Severe medullary interstitial fibrosis and tubular necrosis after a high salt diet were found consistently in SS/Mcw rat kidneys but were largely absent in the SS.BN13 and BN/Mcw rat kidneys. A similar degree of glomerular sclerosis was found in both SS/Mcw and SS.BN13 rats. In rats fed a 0.4% salt diet, the glomerular filtration rate of SS/Mcw rats was significantly less than that of BN/Mcw and SS.BN13 rats. These results reveal a powerful gene, or set of genes, within chromosome 13 of BN/Mcw rats that confers protection from the detrimental effects of high salt to the SS/Mcw rats.
Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada's dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of the Sodium Work Group and report back to them.
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The KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) 2012 clinical practice guideline for the management of blood pressure (BP) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) provides the structural and evidence base for the Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN) commentary on this guideline's relevancy and application to the Canadian health care system. While in general agreement, we provide commentary on 13 of the 21 KDIGO guideline statements. Specifically, we agreed that nonpharmacological interventions should play a significant role in the management of hypertension in patients with CKD. We also agreed that the approach to the management of hypertension in elderly patients with CKD should be individualized and take into account comorbid conditions to avoid adverse outcomes from excessive BP lowering. In contrast to KDIGO, the CSN Work Group believes there is insufficient evidence to target a lower BP for nondiabetic CKD patients based on the presence and severity of albuminuria. The CSN Work Group concurs with the Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) recommendation of a target BP for all non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients without diabetes of =140 mm Hg systolic and =90 mm Hg diastolic. Similarly, it is our position that in diabetic patients with CKD and normal urinary albumin excretion, raising the threshold for treatment from
In the European Project on Genes in Hypertension (EPOGH), we investigated in three populations to what extent in a family-based study, left ventricular mass (LVM) was associated with the C-532T and G-6A polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene. We randomly recruited 221 nuclear families (384 parents and 440 offspring) in Cracow (Poland), Novosibirsk (Russia), and Mirano (Italy). Echocardiographic LVM was indexed to body surface area, adjusted for covariables, and subjected to multivariate analyses, using generalized estimating equations and quantitative transmission disequilibrium tests in a population-based and family-based approach, respectively. We found significant differences between the two Slavic centres and Mirano in left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (94.9 vs 80.4 g/m2), sodium excretion (229 vs 186 mmol/day), and the prevalence of the AGT -6A (55.7 vs 40.6%) and -532T (16.8 vs 9.4%) alleles. In population-based as well as in family-based analyses, we observed positive associations of LVMI and mean wall thickness (MWT) with the -532T allele in Slavic, but not in Italian male offspring. Furthermore, in Slavic male offspring, LVMI and MWT were significantly higher in carriers of the -532T/-6A haplotype than in those with the -532C/-6G or -532C/-6A allele combinations. In women, LVMI was neither associated with single AGT gene variants nor with the haplotypes (0.19
Echocardiographically determined left ventricular (LV) mass predicts adverse cardiovascular events in the general population. We have assessed the correlates of LV mass in a population-based study focusing on lifestyle and salt intake.
A random sample of 120 persons born in 1954 was invited; 93 (42 men) entered the study. The subjects' physical activity and alcohol, tobacco, and coffee consumption were quantified by 2-month dairy follow-up, and sodium intake was quantified by 7-day food records. Blood pressure was averaged for casual cuff measurements made 2 months apart. LV mass was determined by M-mode echocardiography, and stroke volume was determined by Doppler. Hematocrit and serum insulin were measured. In multiple linear regression analysis, LV mass was related positively and independently (P
Poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle can contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Our aim was to compare diet and physical activity of patients with NAFLD and healthy controls with current recommendations.
This was a cross-sectional study.
Seventy-four patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (33 simple steatosis and 41 steatohepatitis [NASH]) and 27 healthy controls participated between 2003 and 2011.
Food records and activity logs were completed for 7 days. Results were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes and Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines. Plasma vitamin C was measured to assess food record accuracy.
Intake/activity for each participant was compared with the recommendations and proportion of subjects not meeting the requirements was calculated. Groups were compared by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test or z-test with Bonferroni adjustment.
More patients with NASH (58.5%) were obese compared with patients with simple steatosis (24.2%) and healthy controls (7.4%; P80% of subjects did not consume enough linoleic or linolenic acid, vitamin D, and vitamin E, and >60% exceeded the upper intake level for sodium. Only 53.1% of patients with simple steatosis and 53.8% of patients with NASH, but 84.6% of healthy controls, met recommendations for physical activity (P=0.020). Plasma vitamin C was normal, similar among groups, and correlated with vitamin C intakes.
All participants followed a similar Western diet with high fat and sodium intakes and suboptimal micronutrient intakes. However, physical activity was lower in NAFLD compared with healthy controls and was associated with higher body mass index and insulin resistance.