Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUDÂ +Â DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5Â years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.
In the present study, pure-tone audiometry was used in 687 Finnish school children, aged 6-15 years, to determine the prevalence of a 6 kHz acoustic dip and related factors among three age groups. Trained audiometricians tested air conduction thresholds in a sound-proof room. A total of 57 children (8.3%) had a clear-cut dip of at least 20 dB at 6 kHz. This dip was more pronounced in older children and in boys. A thorough case history was obtained by questionnaire, with logistic regression analysis showing that low birth weight (
The paper highlights the milestones in the development of the UN idea of the Society for All Ages, originally announced as a motto of the International Year of Old Persons and later accepted as a central concept of the Madrid International Plan of Action on Aging (MIPA). In accord with MIPA building of the Society for All Ages will be a major issue in policies and programmes on aging in the XXI century. According to the UN experts opinion demographic tendencies may produce considerable impact on economy, social sphere and safety of Russia. The issues of aging are far from being completely and rapidly included into national development strategies on priority basis.
In a large, community-based cardiovascular disease prevention study in Eastern Finland, independent random population samples were surveyed in 1972, 1977 and 1982. The leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), occupational physical activity (OPA), and socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed. In men and women aged 30-59, the proportion with high LTPA increased from 1972 to 1982 by approximately one half (p less than 0.001), whereas that of high OPA decreased during the same period (p less than 0.001). In both sexes, high overall physical activity fell from 1972 to 1977 (p less than 0.001), but no more from 1977 to 1982. The proportion of entirely sedentary remained stable. Education, income and younger age showed a positive, body mass index, smoking and OPA a graded, negative association with high LTPA in 1972 and 1982. Significant (p less than 0.001) differences in 10-year trends of changes in LTPA were observed: men and women with low education or income increased LTPA more than those with high education and income. Socioeconomic factors, such as income and education, appear to have lost importance as determinants of population-wide exercise, whereas the clustering of low physical activity with overweight and smoking has increased.
Diabetes prevalence is associated with low socioeconomic status (SES), but less is known about the relationship between SES and diabetes incidence.
Data from eight cycles of the National Population Health Survey (1994/1995 through 2008/2009) are used. A sample of 5,547 women and 6,786 men aged 18 or older who did not have diabetes in 1994/1995 was followed to determine if household income and educational attainment were associated with increased risk of diagnosis of or death from diabetes by 2008/2009. Three proportional hazards models were applied for income and for education--for men, for women and for both sexes combined. Independent variables were measured at baseline (1994/1995). Diabetes diagnosis was assessed by self-report of diagnosis by a health professional. Diabetes death was based on ICD-10 codes E10-E14.
Among people aged 18 or older in 1994/1995 who were free of diabetes, 7.2% of men and 6.3% of women had developed or died from the disease by 2008/2009. Lower-income women were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than were those in high-income households. This association was attenuated, but not eliminated, by ethno-cultural background and obesity/overweight. Associations with lower educational attainment in unadjusted models were almost completely mediated by demographic and behavioural variables.
Social gradients in diabetes incidence cannot be explained entirely by demographic and behavioural variables.
Of 45 first admission schizophrenics from 1963, an incidence by first admission group for northern Alberta, 43 were followed-up 14 years later. Based on these figures the expectancy was found to be 0.49%. The proportion of patients who were married was less than expected in comparison with the general population, but amongst the married, fertility was probably comparable to the population's. At follow-up about half the patients were managing well with little or no disability, one quarter had moderate to marked disability and the remainder were socially, psychiatrically and occupationally disabled. From the time of first admission, patients had spent an average of 15% of their time in hospital and lost 28% of the total time due to psychiatric disability.
AIM: To reveal trends in incidence rates of acute cardiovascular diseases (ACD) in a large industrial city of the West Siberia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies on WHO programs "Acute Myocardial Infarction Register" and "MONICA" have been performed in three districts of Novosibirsk. The diagnostic categories were detected without difference. The observation covered stable population of 500,000 residents aged 25-64 years. Trends in the myocardial infarction (MI) mortality, morbidity and lethality were analysed for 1977-1996. RESULTS: The above trends were stable except for 1986 when MI mortality, morbidity and lethality decreased and 1988 and 1994 when they went up. The reduction was due to 7-year prevention program while the rise was consequent to discontinuation of the preventive measures. Major risk factors of ischemic heart disease, according to screenings conducted in 1984, 1988 and 1994 remained at about the same level. Social stress closely correlates with a rise in MI morbidity and mortality. The latter in 1994 grew owing to higher rates of MI mortality and morbidity among the oldest men and females of different age groups. CONCLUSION: Urgent intensification of prophylactic measures is needed both at the populational level and the level of high risk strategy.