The aim of this study is to describe structural characteristics and staff resources of child psychiatric and adolescent psychiatric hospital wards in Finland. The target group of the survey consisted of 69 child and adolescent psychiatric hospital units in Finland. Information was obtained from 64 units (93%). Most of the wards were based on 24-h-a-day provision. There were only 7-day-treatment programmes including two family wards. When compared internationally, the numbers of units, beds and staff levels were high in Finland, with all members of staff qualified. The nurse-patient ratio and psychiatrist resources were rather satisfactory. However, in many units there was a lack of psychologists, social workers and occupational therapists. General recommendations and guidelines for staff resources in child and adolescent hospital treatment wards are warranted.
This study analyzed the relationship between social network dynamics and initial help-seeking behaviors. The primary social network was reconstructed for the period beginning with initial observation of unusual behavior and ending with first psychiatric hospitalization. The social network's influence was analyzed based on the concept of social network cohesion, considering both structure and content of social ties. The results demonstrate that networks succeed in referring the family member to services and in maintaining a clinical follow-up to the degree that they are cohesive. When a network lacks cohesiveness, the onset and development of problem behaviors are less easily recognized. These findings confirm the importance of social and interactional contexts in decision-making processes leading to use of psychiatric services and specify the roles they play.
The needs of lesbian and gay adolescents for service provision are discussed in this paper. These needs are identified through research investigating milestones in the coming-out process. In addition, the way in which the research results influenced community development initiatives is described. The social context in which the research was conducted is also described.
The Norwegian Government has decided to reform the care of the mentally retarded by placing the responsibility for medical and social care with the local authorities. From 1 January 1991 the mentally retarded are to be integrated into the community. Persons with Down syndrome constitute 20-30% of the mentally retarded in institutions. The syndrome is the most common single cause of mental retardation. It represent both a medical challenge and a challenge in regard to home support, work, leisure activities and habilitation. Habilitation means identifying the fundamental deficiencies, incorporating this knowledge into plans for treatment and evaluating progress in social functioning and individual capacity. This presentation emphasizes clinically important information about the syndrome and medical complications both in the early stage of life, and among youths and adults in particular. Owing to difficulties in communication, there are often diagnostic problems. However, when recognized, many of the complications can be treated effectively.
Achieving independence in society following hospitalization is difficult for people with mental illness. Using quantitative and qualitative research methods, this study examines rehabilitation procedures and identifies possible deficiencies. Patients (n = 150) and employees (n = 50) were invited to participate. The results show little coordination among professionals, patients, and programs. Employees generally believe rehabilitation is more beneficial than do users. Better results could possibly be achieved if the interactional model was used along with the medical model. The findings emphasize the validity of giving patients voices that can lead to better rehabilitation and quality of life.
Critical intersectorial problems of co-operation are revealed through an organizational psychological analysis focusing on intergroup dynamics. The aim of the paper is to examine and improve the intersectorial co-operation in psychiatry and present a new trio-interview design that includes patients as well as staff.
Results from a follow-up study investigating the co-operation between Psychiatric Center Amager (PCA) and socialpsychiatric institutions (SPI) in Copenhagen is presented and analysed. The study was based on data gathered via structured interviews with patients and staff from both sectors (n = 60 in 2005, n = 87 in 2007), employing quantitative as well as qualitative methods. The newly developed trio-interview design with informant-triads for studies of the quality of intersectorial co-operation in psychiatry was applied to the study.
Quantitative data from the patients showed that the co-operation was generally considered to be unsatisfactory in 2005 and 2007. SPI satisfaction estimates concerning the latest hospitalization period were higher in 2007 than in 2005. Staff from both sectors estimated that co-operation was significantly higher during 2007 than during 2005. Qualitative data showed that in 2007, staff was the decisive factor.
The co-operation was estimated to be unsatisfactory in 2005 and 2007. Measures to strengthen intersectorial co-operation were implemented in 2006, but had limited effect.