Social-emotional competence may be a protective factor for academic achievement among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. This study used Fisher's r to Z transformations to test for group differences in the magnitude of relationships between social-emotional competence and achievement. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine the variance in academic achievement explained by student race, poverty, and social-emotional competence, and the schoolwide percentage of students by race. Data are from 335 students across 6 schools. This study suggests that promoting social-emotional competence among AI/AN students could be a strategy for reducing disparities in academic achievement and the consequences of these disparities.
Understanding of personality as an independent risk factor for serious mental illness (SMI) remains limited. Recently, overlap between the polygenic basis for specific personality traits and specific SMIs has been identified.
To determine the association of the adolescent personality domains of social maturity, mental energy, and emotional stability with later diagnosis of SMI.
This longitudinal cohort study enrolled Swedish male military conscripts aged 18 or 19 years from January 1, 1974, through December 31, 1997. The diagnosis of an SMI was extracted from the National Patient Register for all inpatient treatment episodes in Sweden from January 1, 1974, through December 31, 2011. Data were analyzed from May 3 to September 16, 2016.
Social maturity, mental energy, and emotional stability assessed at conscription interview.
Inpatient diagnoses of bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, and other nonaffective psychoses occurring until December 31, 2011.
Of the 1?017?691 men included in the cohort, 4310 developed bipolar disorder; 784, schizoaffective disorder; 4823, schizophrenia; and 5013, other nonaffective psychoses. After adjustment, with use of mean scores as a reference, low social maturity (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.48-1.74), low mental energy (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.24-1.44), and low emotional stability (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.40-1.63) were inversely associated with schizophrenia in a dose-dependent fashion. Other nonaffective psychoses displayed a similar pattern. Bipolar disorder was associated with high (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.09-1.35) and low (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.25) social maturity and low emotional stability (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.46-1.78). Schizoaffective disorder was associated with low emotional stability (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.26-1.85).
Emotional stability is inversely associated with all SMI. Bipolar disorder has a unique U-shaped association with social maturity. Premorbid personality may reflect subtle changes in cerebral function, may combine with symptoms and other neurocognitive deficits to influence illness presentation, and/or may be owing to shared genetic architecture.
The objectives of the study were to identify Danish anaesthesiologists' non-technical skills and to customise the Scottish-developed Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills instrument for Danish anaesthesiologists.
Six semi-structured group interviews were conducted with 31 operating room team members: anaes-thesiologists, nurse anaesthetists, surgeons, and scrub nurses. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using directed content analysis. Anaesthesiologists' non-technical skills were identified, coded, and sorted using the original instrument as a basis. The resulting prototype instrument was discussed with anaesthesiologists from 17 centres to ensure face validity.
Interviews lasted 46-67 minutes. Identified examples of anaesthesiologists' good or poor non-technical skills fit the four categories in the original instrument: situation awareness; decision making; team working; and task management. Anaesthesiologists' leadership role in the operating room was emphasised: the original 'Task Management' category was named 'Leadership'. One new element, 'Demonstrating self-awareness' was added under the category 'Situation Awareness'. Compared with the original instrument, half of the behavioural markers were new, which reflected that being aware of and communicating one's own abilities to the team; working systematically; and speaking up to avoid adverse events were important skills.
The Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills instrument was customised to a Danish setting using the identified non-technical skills for anaesthesiologists and the original instrument as basis. The customised instrument comprises four categories and 16 underpinning elements supported by multiple behavioural markers. Identifying non-technical skills through semi-structured group interviews and analysing them using direct content analysis proved a useful method for customising an assessment instrument to another setting.
Tobacco- and alcohol use are associated with psychological problems. Individuals with high dental fear also more often report other psychological problems than do those with lower level of dental fear. We evaluated the association between dental fear and tobacco- and alcohol use while controlling for age, gender, general mood and feelings in social situations.
The data (n?=?8514) were collected from all universities in Finland with an electronic inquiry sent to all first-year university students. Dental fear was measured with the question: "How afraid are you of visiting a dentist?" with reply alternatives "Not at all", "Somewhat" and "Very". Regularity of tobacco use was determined with the question: "Do you smoke or use snuff?", with reply alternatives "Not at all", "Occasionally" and "Daily". The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used for determination of alcohol use; an AUDIT sum score of 8 or more indicated hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol use. The statistical tests used were Chi-square tests and Multiple logistic regression analyses.
When controlled for age, gender, alcohol use, general mood and feelings in social situations, those who used tobacco regularly were more likely to have high dental fear than were those who used tobacco occasionally or not at all. When controlled for age, gender, general mood and feelings in social situations, those with hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol use were more likely to have high dental fear than were those with low-risk of alcohol use, the association between alcohol use and dental fear was not strong. When tobacco use was added into this model, alcohol use was no longer statistically significantly associated with dental fear.
The findings of this study support the suggestion that some people may have common vulnerability factors linked to tobacco use, alcohol use, and dental fear.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the durability of efficacy of the Integrated Care (IC) program in a Swedish context. The IC program is a person-centered flexible assertive community treatment approach delivered through a novel mechanism: a resource group clinical microsystem for each patient.
All patients with schizophrenia in a Gothenburg urban-sector catchment area were randomly assigned to either the IC or the Rational Rehabilitation (RR) programs. Sixty-six patients were interviewed and assessed by independent interviewers before treatment, after treatment (24 months), and at follow-up (five years). Analysis was by intention to treat.
At the five-year follow-up, significant improvements were noted in social functioning and consumer satisfaction in the IC group (N=35) compared with the RR group (N=31). No patients were lost to services in either program.
The major finding was the durability of efficacy of the IC program.
Identifying patients at risk of poor outcome at an early stage of illness can aid in treatment planning. This study sought to create a best-fit statistical model of known baseline and early-course risk factors to predict time in psychosis during a ten-year follow-up period after a first psychotic episode.
Between 1997 and 2000, 301 patients with DSM-IV nonorganic, nonaffective first-episode psychosis were recruited consecutively from catchment area-based sectors in Norway and Denmark. Specialized mental health personnel evaluated patients at baseline, three months, and one, two, five, and ten years (N=186 at ten years). Time in psychosis was defined as time with scores =4 on any of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale items P1, P3, P5, P6, and G9. Evaluations were retrospective, based on clinical interviews and all available clinical information. During the first two years, patients were also evaluated by their clinicians at least biweekly. Baseline and early-course predictors of long-term course were identified with linear mixed-model analyses.
Four variables provided significant, additive predictions of longer time in psychosis during the ten-year follow-up: deterioration in premorbid social functioning, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) of =26 weeks, core schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and no remission within three months.
First-episode psychosis patients should be followed carefully after the start of treatment. If symptoms do not remit within three months with adequate treatment, there is a considerable risk of a poor long-term outcome, particularly for patients with a deterioration in premorbid social functioning, a DUP of at least half a year, and a diagnosis within the core schizophrenia spectrum.
Based on evidence linking creativity and bipolar disorder, a model has been proposed whereby factors influencing liability to bipolar disorder confer certain traits with positive effects on reproductive fitness. The authors tested this model by examining key traits known to be associated with evolutionary fitness, namely, temperament and neurocognition, in individuals carrying liability for bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia probands and their co-twins were included as psychiatric controls.
Twin pairs discordant for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and control pairs were identified through the Swedish Twin Registry. The authors administered a neuropsychological test battery and temperament questionnaires to samples of bipolar probands, bipolar co-twins, schizophrenia probands, schizophrenia co-twins, and controls. Multivariate mixed-model analyses of variance were conducted to compare groups on temperament and neurocognitive scores.
Bipolar co-twins showed elevated scores on a "positivity" temperament scale compared with controls and bipolar probands, while bipolar probands scored higher on a "negativity" scale compared with their co-twins and controls, who did not differ. Additionally, bipolar co-twins showed superior performance compared with controls on tests of verbal learning and fluency, while bipolar probands showed performance decrements across all neurocognitive domains. In contrast, schizophrenia co-twins showed attenuated impairments in positivity and overall neurocognitive functioning relative to their ill proband counterparts.
These findings suggest that supra-normal levels of sociability and verbal functioning may be associated with liability for bipolar disorder. These effects were specific to liability for bipolar disorder and did not apply to schizophrenia. Such benefits may provide a partial explanation for the persistence of bipolar illness in the population.
Comment In: Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Nov 1;171(11):1145-725756628
Not all people with severe mental illness who attend Individual Placement and Support (IPS) gain and keep their jobs or work full time. Research has indicated a relationship between social disabilities and work performance in this group, and that support provided is often directed towards the social work environment. However, relationships between social skills performed in an authentic work setting and vocational outcomes have not been explored.
To explore relationships between social communication and interaction skills and vocational outcomes among IPS service users in a Swedish context.
Twenty-nine participants were appraised with the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills (ACIS-S) instrument, and their vocational data were registered. Correlations were estimated using Spearman's rho test with Bonferroni corrections at item level.
Better communication and interaction skills were significantly correlated with increased working hours (rs?=?0.64) and higher income (rs?=?0.45). Increased working hours were related to assuming postures, asking questions, sharing information, and sustaining conversation in an appropriate manner.
The results indicate that occupational therapists need to focus on social skills and accommodation of the social work environment in order to promote sustainable working careers among people with severe mental illness.
Five years of specialised early intervention versus two years of specialised early intervention followed by three years of standard treatment for patients with a first episode psychosis: randomised, superiority, parallel group trial in Denmark (OPUS II).
To compare the effects of five years of specialised early intervention (SEI) treatment for first episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder with the standard two years of SEI plus three years of treatment as usual.
Randomised, superiority, parallel group trial with blinded outcome assessment. Randomisation was centralised and computerised with concealed randomisation sequence carried out at an external site.
Participants were recruited from six OPUS teams in Denmark between 2009 and 2012. OPUS teams provide SEI treatment to all patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in Denmark.
400 participants (51% women) with a mean age of 25.6 (standard deviation 4.3) were randomised to five years of SEI (experimental intervention; n=197) or to two years of SEI plus three years of treatment as usual (control; n=203).
OPUS treatment consists of three core elements-modified assertive community treatment, family involvement, and social skill training-with a patient-case manager ratio of no more than 12:1. For participants randomised to five years of OPUS treatment, the treatment was largely unchanged. Participants randomised to the control group were mostly referred to community health centres after two years of SEI treatment.
Follow-up assessments were conducted five years after start of OPUS treatment. Primary outcome was negative symptoms measured on the scale for assessment of negative symptoms (avolition-apathy, anhedonia, alogia, and affective blunting). Secondary outcomes were remission of both negative and psychotic symptoms, psychotic symptoms, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, compliance with medical treatment, adherence with treatment, client satisfaction, days in hospital care, and labour market affiliation.
Levels of negative symptoms did not differ between the intervention group and control group (1.72 v 1.81 points; estimated mean difference -0.10 (95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.13), P=0.39). Participants receiving five years of OPUS treatment were more likely to remain in contact with specialised mental health services (90.4% v 55.6%, P
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Cites: J Nerv Ment Dis. 2015 May;203(5):310-825919380
Based on limitations in previous research evidence, we concluded that more research is needed for deeper understanding of how social-emotional and behavioral (SEB) outcomes among infant-toddler-aged children in the general population are associated with early motor development. In this study, we investigated associations between early competencies and problems, as measured by the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA), and the timing of achievement of the main gross and fine motor milestones usually attained during the first year of life in a general population context. The study sample consisted of 515 infants (mean age 12.9 [SD 0.9] months) and their parents (514 mothers, 434 fathers), who were recruited in child health centers in Northern Finland. The infants were divided into two groups, based on their BITSEA screen status, and motor milestone achievement ages were compared across BITSEA screen status No Concern and Of-Concern infants. An Of-Concern screen status on the maternal and paternal Competence scale and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) item cluster was associated with later infant achievement ages for gross motor milestones. By contrast, infants who were screened to be in the Of-Concern range on the maternal Problem scale achieved gross motor milestones earlier than infants with the corresponding No Concern screen status. No significant associations were found between the paternal Problem scale screen status and infant motor development. In further analyses, the strongest associations were found between an Of-Concern screen status on the paternal Competence scale and ASD item cluster and infant motor development. The findings indicate that the inclusion of infant motor developmental information may assist early identification and the clinical interpretation of parental reports of early SEB problems. Clinical implications of the current findings are discussed in the paper.