The paper highlights the milestones in the development of the UN idea of the Society for All Ages, originally announced as a motto of the International Year of Old Persons and later accepted as a central concept of the Madrid International Plan of Action on Aging (MIPA). In accord with MIPA building of the Society for All Ages will be a major issue in policies and programmes on aging in the XXI century. According to the UN experts opinion demographic tendencies may produce considerable impact on economy, social sphere and safety of Russia. The issues of aging are far from being completely and rapidly included into national development strategies on priority basis.
The excess rate of migration to urban centers is a problem affecting over 50 developing countries and 18 developed ones (68% of the world's population). Policies that rely on compulsion or disincentives have mostly failed because they do not deal with the cause of the problem. This paper proposes a strategy of increasing or decreasing the rate of housing construction in different urban areas as a means of stimulating or reducing migration to those areas; in most developing areas priority is given to residential construction in already congested metropolitan areas. 5 assumptions are the basis for this approach: 1) migrants tend to gravitate to the most powerful growth poles; 2) residential construction is a leading sector of regional and urban economies; 3) the encouragement of construction activity will make itself felt indirectly via its effect on construction-related employment; 4) rates of residential construction may be manipulated through government policy affecting the cost of materials, availability of loans, level of unionization, and price of housing; and 5) residential construction is amenable to quick policy action. The central idea of the strategy is that an increase in residential construction will exercise a pull on migrants, increasing job opportunities, raising incomes, lowering housing costs, and improving the chances of home ownership. This idea has been verified by various projects in Hong Kong, Ghana, Venezuela, Brazil, Bahrain, Mexico, Colombia, Poland, USSR, and the UK. In Bahrain low-income housing programs have been used to relocate Bahraini nationals in new outlying suburbs and to promote population growth in rural villages. In Mexico self-help and low-income housing programs have helped to redirect migrants headed for small towns toward smaller communities. There is also evidence to show that building construction has the potential to expand and contribute to economic growth. Some problems of implementation might be finding an adequate economic base, the need to place new communities close to primate cities, the use of large portions of the national budget, and profit-maximizing plans have been detrimental to the speed and development of construction migration. Some benefits for smaller urban areas of construction migrants in developing countries are: 1) emphasis on the development of a labor-intensive industry, 2) little training of workers as needed, 3) it can provide the housing required by industries planning to move to smaller areas, 4) this housing will be cheaper, and 5) incentives will exist to save and invest in the smaller areas.
For the low-income elderly residents of America's single room occupancy (SRO) hotels, poor health, social isolation, and powerlessness often are intimately connected. This article presents a case study of an attempt to address these interrelated problems by fostering social support and social action organizing among elderly residents of San Francisco's Tenderloin hotels. Following a brief look at the parameters of the problem, an overview of the Tenderloin Senior Outreach Project (TSOP) is presented. The Project's theoretical base is described, followed by a brief account of TSOPs genesis and growth from an informal University-sponsored project to a privately incorporated community-based organization. Examples of individual and community empowerment through TSOP are presented, as is a look at some of the dilemmas and compromises that are encountered as a community group trades its grassroots status for a more formal and bureaucratized structure. Problems in the areas of indigenous leadership development and community versus funding agency agendas are examined, as is the utility of combining social action and social planning approaches to community organizing. Finally, the potentials and limitations of Freire's "education for critical consciousness" as an organizing tool in this environmental context are discussed, with implications drawn for other projects attempting to build self-reliance and community cohesion among inner-city populations.
This study examines the role of older people in Swedish society by exploring the prevalence of their informal caregiving and volunteering and by analyzing the profiles of these contributors of unpaid work. Data were collected by means of telephone interviews in a Swedish representative survey conducted in 2005. Our analysis reveals three distinct profiles of people involved in unpaid activities. One of these consists of those involved both in informal help giving and volunteering, a group that has been labeled "super helpers" or "doers" in earlier research. It is important for social policy planners to recognize these groups of older people and better understand the dynamics of their unpaid work in order to ascertain whether they might need support as providers and to enhance their well-being. There does not seem to be any simple contradiction between the parallel existence of a universal welfare model of the Swedish kind and an extensive civil society in which older people play important roles as active citizens.
Traffic safety is a contested public issue and highly negotiated practice that requires sociological analysis and systematic public policy attention. In our case study, we examine elementary school traffic safety programs in Vancouver, British Columbia. We illustrate how such programs assume a politics of responsibility that largely targets children and parents for traffic safekeeping within an institutional environment that gives programs only sporadic support and funding to manage traffic risks. While this context of school traffic safety programs helps to maintain an "illusion of safety," it does not challenge the current auto-dominant mobility structure and its inherent problems.
Two problems are noted in the process of measuring material inequality and linking it to health across cultural boundaries. First, comparative measurements may be used as the basis for policy making, which ends up disciplining cultural minorities. In this way, policies intended to relieve disparities can actually have the effect of extending the power of the dominant group to define appropriate cultural understanding of the world for the minority group. Second, comparative measurements may inaccurately inform theories of how inequality works to influence health and well-being. To the extent that culture mediates the relationship between inequality and outcomes of interest to researchers, those ignoring cultural differences will fail to adequately assess the impact and significance of material inequality. In this paper we discuss and illustrate these problems with reference to the study and measurement of overcrowding and its effects on health and well-being for Inuit communities in Nunavut, Canada.
In 1986 Denmark had a population of 5.11 million and an annual growth rate of 0.07%. Education attendance was 100%, and the literacy rate was 99%. The infant mortality rate stood at 7.7/100, and life expectancy averaged 71.5 years for men and 77.5 years for women. Of the work force of 2.5 million, 7% were engaged in agriculture and fisheries, 46% worked in industry and commerce, 13% were in the services sector, and 31% were employed by the government. Denmark's gross domestic product (GDP) was US $57.9 billion in 1985, with an annual growth rate of 3.8% and a per capita income of $11,312. Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, and political life is orderly and democratic. The largest political party, the Social Democratic Party, is closely identified with the labor movement and has held power either alone or in coalition for most of the postwar period. In recent decades, the Danish economy has been characterized by industrial expansion and diversification, as well as continued dependence on foreign trade. Today, almost 60% of total merchandise exports stem from manufactured products and the agricultural share has dropped to 30%. Beginning in the 1960s, the public sector took on an increasing number of new employees. The number of persons employed in local and central government services, especially health and social sectors, increased from 368,000 in 1967 to 678,000 in 1977. .