Associations between the sense of humor and survival in relation to specific diseases has so far never been studied.
We conducted a 15-year follow-up study of 53,556 participants in the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway. Cognitive, social, and affective components of the sense of humor were obtained, and associations with all-cause mortality, mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), infections, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs).
After multivariate adjustments, high scores on the cognitive component of the sense of humor were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33-0.81), but not in men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.59-1.32). Mortality due to CVD was significantly lower in women with high scores on the cognitive component (HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.15-0.47), and so was mortality due to infections both in men (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.09-0.74) and women (HR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.04-0.76). The social and affective components of the sense of humor were not associated with mortality. In the total population, the positive association between the cognitive component of sense of humor and survival was present until the age of 85 years.
The cognitive component of the sense of humor is positively associated with survival from mortality related to CVD and infections in women and with infection-related mortality in men. The findings indicate that sense of humor is a health-protecting cognitive coping resource.
Performance on measures of implicit social cognition has been shown to vary as a function of the momentary accessibility of relevant information. The present research investigated the mechanisms underlying accessibility effects of self-generated information on implicit measures. Results from 3 experiments demonstrate that measures based on response compatibility processes (e.g., Implicit Association Test, affective priming with an evaluative decision task) are influenced by subjective feelings pertaining to the ease of retrieving relevant information from memory, whereas measures based on stimulus compatibility processes (e.g., semantic priming with a lexical-decision task) are influenced by direct knowledge activation in associative memory. These results indicate that the mediating mechanisms underlying context effects on implicit measures can differ as a function of the task even when these tasks show similar effects on a superficial level. Implications for research on implicit social cognition and the ease-of-retrieval effect are discussed.
This study aimed to (1) explore whether quality of life (QOL) is more associated with satisfaction with social participation (SP) than with level of accomplishment in SP and (2) examine respective correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP.
A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 155 older adults (mean age=73.7; 60% women) having various levels of activity limitations. Accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP (dependent variables) were estimated with the social roles items of the assessment of life habits. Potential correlates were human functioning components.
Correlations between QOL and accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP did not differ (P=0.71). However, best correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP were different. Higher accomplishment level of SP was best explained by younger age, activity level perceived as stable, no recent stressing event, better well-being, higher activity level, and fewer obstacles in "Physical environment and accessibility" (R2=0.79). Greater satisfaction with SP was best explained by activity level perceived as stable, better self-perceived health, better well-being, higher activity level, and more facilitators in "Social support and attitudes" (R2=0.51).
With some exceptions, these best correlates may be positively modified and thus warrant special attention in rehabilitation interventions.
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Despite the negative physical and mental health outcomes of sexual assault, a minority of sexually assaulted women seek immediate post-assault medical and legal services. This study identified the number and types of acute forensic medical procedures used by women presenting at a hospital-based urgent care centre between 1997 and 2001 within 72 hours following a reported sexual assault. The study also examined assault and non-assault factors associated with the use of procedures. It was hypothesized that assault characteristics resembling the stereotype of rape would be associated with the use of more procedures. The multiple regression indicated that injury severity, coercion severity, homelessness, and delay in presentation were significantly associated with the number of procedures received. Findings provide partial support for the hypothesis that post-assault procedures would be associated with the stereotype of rape, and highlight homeless women as a group particularly at risk for not receiving adequate medical treatment following a sexual assault.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to extend our understanding of how adolescents view nicotine addiction. This secondary analysis included 80 open-ended interviews with adolescents with a variety of smoking histories. The transcribed interviews were systematically analyzed to identify salient explanations of nicotine addiction. These explanations presuppose causal pathways of nicotine exposure leading to addiction and include repeated use, the brain and body "getting used to" nicotine, personal weakness, and family influences. A further explanation is that some youths pretend to be addicted to project a "cool" image. These explanations illustrate that some youths see themselves as passive players in the formation of nicotine addiction. The findings can be used in the development of programs to raise youth awareness about nicotine addiction.
In a longitudinal study of 1230 people aged 13-18 years from the Greater Oslo Area, the past-year prevalence of anxiolytic or hypnotic use was 10%, which is higher than previously reported. The majority gave therapeutic reasons as a motive for using these drugs. However, most of the use was unprescribed. The parents, and especially the mother, were the most important suppliers. A minority gave intoxication as a motive for using these drugs. In this group, the suppliers were mainly peers and the illegal market. Neither the unprescribed nor the prescribed therapeutic use show any association with use of drugs such as alcohol and cannabis. There is, however, a strong association between the unprescribed use of benzodiazepines by young people and by their parents. This suggests a pattern of learning and role modelling, which must be regarded as problematic for public health policy. Those who use the drugs to become intoxicated have particularly poor mental health, and they use many other drugs as well. This group probably runs a special risk of developing more serious drug abuse.
The main aim of this study was to describe adolescents' perceptions and experiences of bullying: their thoughts about why children and adolescents are bullied, their ideas about why some bully others, and what they believe is important in order to stop bullying. The adolescents were asked about experiences throughout their school years. The study group was comprised of 119 high school students, with a mean age of 17.1 (SD = 1.2). Of the adolescents who reported, 39% indicated that they had been bullied at some time during their school years and 28% said that they had bullied others; 13% reported being both victims and bullies. The ages during which most students had been bullied at school were between 7 and 9 years. Bullies reported that most of the bullying took place when they were 10 to 12 years old. The most common reason as to why individuals are bullied was that they have a different appearance. The participants believe that those who bully suffer from low self-esteem. The most common response to the question "What do you think makes bullying stop?" was that the bully matures. The next most frequent response was that the victim stood up for himself/herself. Those who were not involved in bullying during their school years had a much stronger belief that victims can stand up for themselves than did the victims themselves.
Historically, traditional people have often been likened to animals and children. A study employing implicit social cognition methods examined whether these associations endure in a more subtle, implicit form. Consistent with colonial era portrayals of indigenous and other traditional people as 'primitives' or 'savages', participants continued to associate them with animal- and child-related stimuli more readily than people from modern, industrialized societies. In addition, traditional people were ascribed fewer uniquely human attributes than their modern counterparts. These findings, replicated with verbal and pictorial representations of the traditional/modern distinction, were independent of any positive or negative evaluation of traditional people. They imply that colonial 'images of savages' persist in contemporary western society as a cultural residue.
In recent years, the notion of individual responsibility for one's health has been introduced into Swedish medico-political debate. Formerly expressed as a recommendation, it has now taken on the form of expectations. In a Swedish context, this shift from collective to individual responsibility is novel because it implies a break with well-established welfare state practice of comprehensive care for their citizens. Using a systems-theoretical approach, we interpret this shift of expectations as a political solution to the problem of legitimate allocation of scarce resources. A more inclusive medical conception of illness has facilitated the introduction of many new diagnoses that, in turn, have lead to a strong increase in claims for medical treatment and for compensation. This semantic change in medicine aggravates the budgetary situation of the welfare state. The political solution lies in a reorientation of the expectations the medical system can have on citizens as well as a shift of the expectations regarding the rights and obligations citizens can have on the medical system. Individuals are increasingly expected to live healthy lifestyles and to avoid hazardous habits. If they do not live up to these expectations, they have to face low prioritisation or denial of treatment.
A reproduction of a work of art by the Swedish artist Lena Cronquist was introduced into clinical practice in student nurse education. Student nurses (n = 366) in a first semester course served as the study population, and the study was undertaken at two university colleges of health sciences in Sweden. The students studied the painting from the point of view of a situation that depicted an elderly woman in a sickbed. The study findings implied a valuable learning situation in which the students perceived aging in a sensitive and nuanced manner.