The aim of this study was to examine ego identity status among Swedish adolescents using the EOM-EIS-II. Identity status scores and distributions were examined for 222 (108 female, 114 male) Swedish high school students. Identity status differences were found between genders. There was a greater likelihood of female adolescents being categorized as moratoriums than were males, and there was a greater likelihood of males being categorized as diffusions than were females. Statistically significant differences were found between genders on the following subscales: moratorium, foreclosure, and diffusion. No statistically significant differences were found between females and males on the identity achievement subscale. To achieve a preliminary construct validation of the results from the EOM-EIS-II, four of the 222 participants were also assessed using Marcia's identity status interview. A fairly good accordance between the interview assessment of identity status and the EOM-EIS-II assessment were found. Interview results showed differences between the interviewers on each subscale (IA, M, F, and D). The same differences were detected on three of four subscales when assessing these individuals' identity statuses using the EOM-EIS-II.
Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation.
This was a qualitative and empirical study using an interpretive constructivist design. We interviewed 39 Baby Boomers caring for a family member with a semistructured guide that examined respondents' identification with their social generation, their relationship to and values regarding caregiving, and the reality of the caregiving they offered.
In contrast to our perceptions of previous generations, the majority of interviewees refuse to be confined to the sole identity of caregiver, as they work to juggle caregiving, work, family, and social commitments. To succeed in this juggling act, they have high expectations of support from services. Based on this new approach to caregiving, we advance the idea of a "denaturalization" of care, no longer seen as a "natural" destiny or "normal" family responsibility.
The new conception of caregiving as work that can and should be shared with services is in direct opposition to public policy that is based on the assumption of family care as the cornerstone of long-term care. Can the healthcare system adapt to the new expectations of the Baby Boom generation or will these caregivers be forced to take on elements of caregiving they no longer consider legitimate?
This paper draws from a qualitative study of tobacco use by young women in Toronto, Canada. Narrative interviews were used to understand the multiple roles and functions of smoking within the everyday lives of female adolescents. Guided by a Bourdieusian theoretical framework this study employed the core construct of cultural capital in order to position tobacco and other substance use as field-specific capital that young women accumulate while navigating the social worlds of adolescence. Departing from the psychosocial or peer-influence models that inform the majority of tobacco research with young people, this analysis provides a nuanced understanding of how smoking, drinking, using drugs are much more than simple forms of teenage experimentation or rebellion, but can also serve as key resources for defining the self, acquiring status and making social distinctions within adolescent social worlds. In this context it is also argued that initiation into substance use practices is a way that young women demonstrate and develop social and cultural competencies.
The purpose of this study was to examine the career planning of university student athletes and relationships between their career planning and athletic and student role identities. Two retrospective in-depth interviews were held with four male and four female university student athletes. Participants entered university with vague or nonexistent career objectives and invested heavily in their athletic roles. In the latter years of their college career, the participants discarded their sport career ambitions and allowed the student role to become more prominent in their identity hierarchies. The current findings support Brown and Hartley's (1998) suggestion that student athletes may invest in both the athlete and student role identities simultaneously and that investing in the latter may permit the exploration of nonsport career options.
Collective self-esteem (CSE) is an individual's self-evaluation as a member of social groups. It is thought to promote health and well-being in later life by moderating the harmful effects of losing personal control over these experiences. In this study of 144 community-dwelling older adults in Manitoba, Canada, among those with lower health-related perceived control, respondents with higher CSE at baseline developed significantly fewer chronic conditions over the next 6 years. An expected negative relationship between age and activity level, which respondents higher in CSE showed, was not observed among respondents with lower CSE, whose activity level in the sample age range (78-98 years) was already very low. Higher CSE thus appeared to delay the decline of activity and chronic health that would otherwise accompany age and the absence of perceived control.
The cultural narratives of Francophone and Anglophone Quebecers: using a historical perspective to explore the relationships among collective relative deprivation, in-group entitativity, and collective esteem.
Responding to calls to contextualize social psychological variables in history, the present research examines the relationship between collective relative deprivation and collective esteem using a historical perspective. We hypothesized that collective relative deprivation perceived to be experienced during an important low-point in a group's history serves to define the group's current collective identity, which is in turn associated with collective esteem. In Study 1, cultural narrative interviews were conducted with Francophone and Anglophone Quebecers in order to identify key historical chapters for these groups and to examine the extent to which historical low-points were identity-defining features of their narratives. In Study 2, using the information obtained from these narratives, collective relative deprivation was explored across group members' perceived histories and related to current in-group entitativity and collective esteem. The relationship between collective relative deprivation thought to be experienced by one's group during a historical low-point and collective esteem was positive for both Anglophone and Francophone Quebecers and was mediated by in-group entitativity. Collective relative deprivation perceived to be experienced during a historical low-point serves to define one's collective identity, which is in turn associated with greater collective esteem.
Two basic factors influence mutual ratings of social groups: in-group favoritism (related to the evaluative aspects of a rating) and the perception of shared reality (related to the descriptive aspects). In two studies, we examine the usefulness of Peabody's (1968) method of separating evaluative and descriptive aspects of rating in intergroup judgments. In Study 1, Latvian and Russian students made different evaluations of both groups, but the same groups agreed on the descriptive ratings. In Study 2, male and female psychology students rated each other from own, in-group, and out-group perspectives. The participants did not show any in-group favoritism in their own ratings, but they expected their fellow students to be in-group biased. The participants agreed on the descriptive ratings of both groups. The results demonstrate that shared reality influences intergroup ratings, despite differences in evaluations.
In the mid-1990s, medical advances dramatically altered the experience of living with HIV/AIDS. The shifting medical climate spurred new social and financial questions, such as the possibility of returning to work. In this qualitative study, the authors examine how people living with HIV/AIDS perceive, attach meaning to, and approach the experience of returning to work. Findings demonstrate that the participants are influenced by, and wrestle with, both the dominant societal perspective that "people should return to work," and the oppositional perspective that people living with HIV/AIDS "should not return to work." Theoretical understanding of the results is enhanced using the concepts of the "sick role" and the "hierarchy of identities." Findings have conceptual and methodological implications for literature in HIV/AIDS, return to work, and identity.
Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?
Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress.
Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress.
The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models.
Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender, discerning between real and perceived experiences of discrimination and considering potentially moderating factors such as coping strategy and internalization of racial stereotypes are important issues to address in future Canadian racial inequalities research of this kind.
Cites: Arch Intern Med. 2001 May 28;161(10):1341-611371264
With increasingly fewer family physicians in many countries and students less interested in primary care careers, generalists are becoming an endangered species. This situation is a major health care resource management challenge. In a rapidly changing health care environment, family medicine is struggling for a clear identity -- a matter which is crucial to health system restructuring because it affects the roles and functioning of other professions in the system. The objective of our study was to explore representations of roles and responsibilities of family physicians held by future family and specialist physicians and their clinical teachers in four Canadian medical school faculties of medicine, using both focus groups and individual interviews. In addition to family medicine, we targeted residency programs in general psychiatry, radiology and internal medicine -- three areas that interface significantly between primary care and specialized medicine. In each faculty, respondents included the vice-dean of postgraduate studies; the director of each relevant program; educators in the program; residents in each specialty in their last year of training. Findings are centred around three major themes: (1) the definition of family medicine; (2) family medicine as an endangered species, and (3) the generation gap between young family physicians and their educators. The sustained physician-patient relationship is considered a core characteristic of family medicine that is much valued by patients and physicians -- both generalists and specialists -- as something to be preserved in any model of collaboration to be developed. Overall, two divergent directions emerge: preserving all the professions' traditional functions while adapting to changing contexts, or concentrating on areas of expertise and moving towards creating "specialist" general practitioners, in response to a rapidly expanding scope of practice, and to the high value attributed to specialization by society and the professional system.