Research on shame about in-group moral failure has yielded paradoxical results. In some studies, shame predicts self-defensive motivations to withdraw. In other studies, shame predicts pro-social motivations, such as restitution. We think that this paradox can be explained by disentangling the numerous appraisals and feelings subsumed under the label "shame." In 2 studies, we asked community samples of Norwegians about their in-group's discrimination against the Tater minority. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the measures of the appraisals and feelings used in Study 1 (N = 206) and Study 2 (N = 173). In both studies, an appraisal of the in-group as suffering a moral defect best predicted felt shame, whereas an appraisal of concern for condemnation of the in-group best predicted felt rejection. In both studies, felt rejection best predicted self-defensive motivation, whereas felt shame best predicted pro-social motivation. Implications for conceptualizing and studying shame are discussed.
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to examine the emotional process of stroke recovery, personally experienced by stroke survivors. Nine stroke survivors living in Atlantic Canada participated in this study. Data collection came from formal unstructured interviews and one group interview. The central problem experienced by these stroke survivors was being less than 100%. The basic social process used to address this problem was becoming normal, which is composed of three stages: recognizing stroke will not go away, choosing to work on recovery, and working on being normal. Each stage has several phases. Being less than 100% is the emotional result of being unable to do certain things that serve to form individuals' identities. A critical finding was that physical and emotional recovery is inseparable, and recovery is directed towards regaining the ability to perform these certain things. Becoming normal was influenced both positively and negatively by the following conditions: personal strengths and attributes, past history, family support, professional support, faith and comparing self to peers. The results of this study have implications for nursing practice, nursing education and nursing research. It adds to nursing knowledge by illuminating the close relationship between physical and emotional recovery, the duration of the stroke recovery process, and the necessity for survivors to make a deliberate choice to recover.
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of peer groups and sex in adolescents' task values and physical activity. The participants were 330 Finnish Grade 6 students (173 girls, 157 boys), who responded to questionnaires that assessed physical education task values during the spring semester (Time 1). Students' physical activity was assessed one year later (Time 2). The results indicated that adolescent peer groups were moderately homogeneous in terms of task values toward physical education and physical activity. Girls' peer groups were more homogeneous than those of boys in regards to utility and attainment values. Furthermore, the results for both girls and boys showed that particularly intrinsic task value typical for the peer group predicted group members' physical activity. The findings highlight the important role of peer group membership as a determinant of future physical activity.
There is theoretical and empirical support for co-offending being important not only for understanding current offending but also subsequent offending. The fundamental question is--why? In this article, an aggregate analysis is performed that begins to answer this question. Disaggregating solo- and co-offending by single year of age (12-29 years) and crime type in a largely metropolitan data set from British Columbia, Canada, 2002 to 2006, it is shown that the distribution of co-offences is significantly more varied than the distribution of solo offences. This more varied distribution of co-offences favors property crimes during youth but fades as offenders age.
Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this field study (N = 282) investigates the impact of two focal personality traits, extraversion and conscientiousness, on employees' attitudes and intentions to actively participate in their local union. Consistent with the TPB, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and attitudes toward participation each explained unique variance in union participation intentions. Furthermore, results revealed that extraversion was positively related, and conscientiousness was negatively related to participation intentions, with attitudes toward participation mediating these effects. A significant interaction between extraversion and conscientiousness was also observed, such that introverted workers higher in conscientiousness were less inclined to express positive attitudes toward union participation. Overall, these results provide support for the utility of the TPB in predicting union participation intentions and highlight the vital role that personality traits may play in determining union participation attitudes and intentions.
An emic approach was used to test the structural validity and applicability of Holland's (1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) model in Iceland. Archival data from the development of the Icelandic Interest Inventory (Einarsdóttir & Rounds, 2007) were used in the present investigation. The data included an indigenous pool of occupations and work-task items representing Iceland's world of work that had been administered to a sample of 597 upper secondary school students. Multidimensional scaling analysis and property vector fitting using Prediger's (1981) work-task dimensions were applied to the item responses to test if the RIASEC model could be identified. The results indicated that a 4-dimensional solution better explains the interest space in Iceland than Holland's 2-dimensional RIASEC representation. The work-task dimension of People-Things and the Sex-Type and Prestige dimensions were located in the 1st and 2nd dimensions of the multidimensional scaling solution, but Data-Ideas, a dimension critical to the RIASEC model, was not. The 3rd and 4th dimensions did not correspond to any dimensions previously detected in structural studies in the United States and seem to be related to specific ecological, cultural, and political forces in Iceland. These results demonstrate the importance of selecting representative indigenous occupations and work tasks when evaluating the RIASEC model. The present study is an example of the next step in a comprehensive cross-cultural research program on vocational interests, an emic investigation.
Most peer group self-identification research has been conducted in the United States. This article examined the generalizability of self-identified group name research among teens in Ufa, a city in the Russian Federation. A cross-sectional, anonymous collection of data on group self-identification, drug use, addiction concern, sensation seeking, and self-rated school performance was collected from 365 10th grade youth in Ufa and 965 10th grade youth in the United States. The results supported the existence of peer group self-identification by youth in both countries and, in general, replicated the findings that youth who self-identify as a High Risk Youth, are relatively likely to use drugs, show greater concern about becoming an addict, report a greater sensation seeking preference, higher levels of depression, and poorer school performance. Implications of these results are discussed.
Nordic disability theater is a relatively new and interesting field of disability research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the field of disability theater in a Nordic context. The article is based on a comparative analysis from 3 research projects conducted in Sweden and Norway. The projects used qualitative methods and were analyzed from different theoretical perspectives. Interviews were conducted at 4 different disability theaters involving actors with hearing impairments, intellectual disabilities, physical disabilities, and mental disabilities. The aim of this article is to illustrate how the organizational settings reflect different goals and aims at the political and artistic levels. The authors will also address the relationship between the theaters and the public opinion and media. Finally, they will illustrate in what way organization, recognition, and public approval play an important role for the actors' identity formation and sense of belonging.
To describe the lived experience of childbirth with women giving birth in Finland.
Twenty Finnish women who had recently given birth were interviewed within 2 weeks following childbirth, sharing their perceptions of meaning of their childbirth experiences. Culturally appropriate strategies for qualitative data collection were employed. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured.
The richness and diversity of the childbirth experience emerged from the data. One theme identified was a sense of awe at the creation of a new life within the context of birth as a bittersweet paradox. A strong sense of maternal confidence or self-efficacy was identified, which influenced the women's perception of and management of childbirth pain. Feelings of self-actualization were articulated as Finnish women successfully negotiated a challenging life event.
Perinatal nurses should increase their sensitivity to the socio-cultural context of giving birth by acknowledging women's experiences as legitimate sources of knowledge.
Young and older homosexual men in four countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, and Australia) were compared on a number of psychological, social, and psychometric indices to determine what differences existed between them, and the effect of culture on any such differences. Data show that there are greater differences between younger and older homosexual men as the culture appears more antihomosexual, and that younger homosexual men are less likely to accept their sexual orientation and more likely to accept myths surrounding homosexuality. Younger homosexual men were also more likely to have had gonorrhea (regardless of their number of sexual partners), to prefer receptive anal intercourse, and to have contacted partners by cruising. These data confirm that mental health consequences of antihomosexual environments are most negative where homosexuality is most severely stigmatized.