Approximately 1,500 young immigrant women living in Sweden sought help from various public organisations during 2004 due to problems related to Protection of Family Honour (PFH). Often they seek help from school nurses and counsellors. Information on how the school nurses and counsellors manage this complex PFH phenomenon is limited in Sweden. The aim was to generate a theoretical model that illuminates the experiences of school counsellors and school nurses counselling teenage girls, who worry about problems related to protection of family honour. Data were collected through individual interviews of the school welfare staff. The study subjects included welfare staff from six upper-secondary schools consisting of four nurses and six counsellors. Grounded theory methods were used to generate new knowledge as this is a new field of research. The staff's main goal was to provide the best support and help for the teenage girls. In addition, they wanted to be true to their professional ethics and values. However, this was difficult and created professional dilemmas because some teenage girls prevented them from doing what they thought was needed to support the teenage girls and protect them from violence. As a result, staff sometimes felt hampered, unable to help or able to help only in ways hidden from the teenage girls' families.
Research has shown that a hallmark of adolescent development is the growing capacity to interpret human intentionality. In this chapter, the authors examine developmental change in this capacity, which they have termed interpretive thought, in two types of stories, family and autobiographical, told by Canadian youth aged ten to seventeen years. Illustrative examples reveal that youth coordinate an increasing number of psychological components and in so doing, create increasingly abstract and coherent psychological profiles of self and others.
This research involves the examination of drinking motives, alcohol consequences, and ethnic identity in a sample of Native and non-Native college student drinkers in Alaska. Although more Alaska Native students are abstinent from alcohol compared to any other ethnic group, Native students who do drink experience greater alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms. Therefore, we attempted to examine the influence of ethnic identity on alcohol consequences in a diverse sample of Native and non-Native students in Alaska. Findings showed that drinking motives, as measured by the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (social, coping, enhancement, and conformity), significantly predicted alcohol consequences after controlling for frequency of monthly binge drinking. In addition, after controlling for depression, binge drinking, and drinking motives, one aspect of ethnic identity (Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment) was significantly negatively related to alcohol consequences, whereas another aspect of ethnic identity (Ethnic Identity Search) was not. Taken together, these findings suggest that interventions for college student alcohol misuse that target Native students should be culturally grounded and focused on enhancing the Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment to one's ethnic heritage and should address drinking motives, especially drinking to cope, as a way to reduce alcohol related harm.
This paper examines the relevance to delinquency of social capital that is directly embedded in the relationships that teenagers have with peers, parents, and those in positions of authority and those indirect social capital that teenagers may benefit due their parents' relations with their school or friends. The analysis employs data from the Canadian National Survey of Children. The study shows that personality traits are the most important predictors of property offences. Nevertheless, we also show the importance of social relationships embedded directly in individuals themselves and these are more important than those embedded indirectly through their family. Well connected youth with good friends and quality teachers commit significantly less property offences when controlling for personality traits and parents' social capital.
Research on diasporic youth identities in the British and American context has stressed hybridity, heterogeneity and multiplicity. This paper draws upon ethnographic research undertaken with Armenian girls to explore some of the tensions and ambivalences of negotiating diasporic identities in the Russian context. Diasporic identities are constructed through gender, and this paper illustrates how research participants negotiate their identities in relation to both belonging to the Armenian community and wider Russian society. At the same time, this paper examines how research participants draw differently on diasporic identifications in order to overcome tensions and ambivalences in their everyday lives. The paper shows that research participants are not inclined to reject their cultural roots in favor of new hybrid identities, but are able to recognize and appropriate different cultures in their identity negotiations.
The aim of this study with Swedish 18-year-olds (N = 714, 55.2% women) was to investigate identity formation in relation to body-esteem and body ideal internalization. These are all important aspects of adolescents' development, but little is known about how they are related. This study indicates that late adolescents' identity formation, body-esteem, and body ideal internalizations are related. Women's interpersonal identity commitments and explorations were related to more positive thoughts about how others evaluate their appearance. Their interpersonal identity explorations were also related to more internalization of societal body ideals. For men, stronger interpersonal identity commitments were related to more positive own evaluations about their appearance. The results also showed that compared to men, women explored identity issues more, had poorer body-esteem, and had internalized body ideals more.
This article presents and analyzes findings from interviews with women aged 45-65; popular magazines targeting women in this age category, and popular books and blogs on a Swedish age-sensitive concept, tant. The term can be used in many different senses, ranging from polite to derogatory, connoting "aunt," or "granny," but also "little old lady" and "biddy"; the term tantig translating to "frumpish." The article discusses different representations of tant, how she is used as a symbol of invisibility and no longer being seen as a sexual being, but outdated. The concept is used as a warning, indicating an unwanted way to grow old, when addressing middle-aged and older women. As of recently, tant has come to be celebrated by young women, praised for moral courage, for thrift and being represented as free from the male gaze, no longer aiming to please or fretting about appearances. The article sheds light on the different uses of the concept, where who is categorizing whom is of utmost importance. The tant is used as a symbol for doing age either by derogation or by celebration.
The professional identity and experiences of nurses have been focused upon in different studies
This is a longitudinal study whose aim was to understand how nurses experience the meaning of their identity as nurses, when they are students and nurses 2 years after graduation.
Data were collected through interviews once a year during education and two years after graduation, and were analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic method, inspired by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur.
The analyses of the narratives resulted in four perspectives: 'Having the patient in focus', 'Being a team leader', 'Preceptorship' and 'Task orientation'. The nurses did not change perspectives but the perspective showed a transition over time.
The nurses' not changing perspective over time is understood as being a life paradigm, remaining throughout the years.
Analysing individual reactions--omnipotence or helplessness--to the question put forward in this symposium, the author observes that the same reactions are present in the mental health field. Investigation of these reactions shows that they alternate in time and are based on a quest for recognition. This quest follows a pattern: First, a group proclaims new knowledge which is based on a fantasy. Then, when this group obtains recognition with its corresponding power, making the transition from a position of impotence to one of power, the fantasy becomes an illusion of omnipotence which excludes others, triggering the cycle again in the excluded groups. This pattern could explain the evolution of the mental health field over the last four decades. Over the last few years, however, there have been some failures in this process, and the author suggests possible solutions to move beyond the impasse.