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[Alternative treatment for young drug abusers: National Center for Prevention--a presentation].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature254704
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1973 Apr 30;93(12):829-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-30-1973

"A magnet for curious adolescents": the perceived dangers of an open drug scene.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93377
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2008 Dec;19(6):459-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Sandberg Sveinung
Pedersen Willy
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, University of Bergen, Rosenbergsgaten 39, 5015 Bergen, Norway. sveinung.sandberg@sos.uib.no
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2008 Dec;19(6):459-66
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Behavior, Addictive
Drug and Narcotic Control
Government Regulation
Health Policy
Humans
Norway
Public Health
Public Opinion
Questionnaires
Social Distance
Substance-Related Disorders - prevention & control - psychology
Abstract
During the summer of 2004 the police closed Plata, an open drug scene in the midst of Oslo. The most important argument for the closure was that the drug scene made it easier for curious, city-dwelling adolescents to start using drugs. This research sought to assess this assumption. Ethnographic research methods including twenty 2-hr field observations and qualitative semi-structures interviews were employed. Interviews were conducted with 30 adolescents in the centre of Oslo, as well as with 10 former drug users, three police officers and three field workers. We were also given access to police statistics and authorised to do our own analysis of the material. The most important result was that adolescents seemed rather to avoid than to be attracted to this open drug scene in Oslo. Based on the presentation of qualitative data we suggest that this was due to the social definition of the drug scene. Because they experienced a great social distance between themselves and the regulars at the open drug scene, adolescents seemed to avoid Plata. Moreover, the scene was symbolically associated with heroin and injection as the route of administration, which had low prestige among the adolescents. Despite these findings, adolescents' recruitment to drug use was the key issue in the political debate following the closure. We point to the shared rhetorical interest among important institutional actors in framing the issue in this way. The argument was also embedded in widely shared public representations of adolescents and drug users as passive and irrational.
PubMed ID
18378132 View in PubMed
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Awareness of demands and unfairness and the importance of connectedness and security: Teenage girls' lived experiences of their everyday lives.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271519
Source
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2015;10:27653
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Eva-Lena Einberg
Evy Lidell
Eva K Clausson
Source
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2015;10:27653
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living - psychology
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Female
Friends - psychology
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Parent-Child Relations
Rural Population
Schools
Self Concept
Social Distance
Sweden
Urban Population
Abstract
In recent years, a number of studies have demonstrated that stress and mental health problems have increased among adolescents and especially among girls, although little is still known concerning what girls experience in their everyday lives. The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of teenage girls' everyday lives, as experienced by the girls themselves. A phenomenological approach of reflective lifeworld research was used, and the findings are based on eight qualitative interviews with girls aged 13-16 years. The essence of teenage girls' everyday lives as experienced by the girls themselves can be described as consciousness regarding demands and unfairness and regarding the importance of connectedness and security. The girls are aware of the demands of appearance and success, and they are conscious of the gender differences in school and in the media that affect them. The girls are also conscious about the meaning of connectedness with friends and family, as well as the importance of the security of their confidence in friends and feeling safe where they stay. If teenage girls feel connected and secure, protective factors in the form of manageability and meaningfulness can act as a counterweight to the demands and unfairness of everyday life. For professionals who work with teenage girls, the results from this study can be important in their work to support these girls.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26084273 View in PubMed
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Being a bridge: Swedish antenatal care midwives' encounters with Somali-born women and questions of violence; a qualitative study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267056
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015;15:1
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Ulrika Byrskog
Pia Olsson
Birgitta Essén
Marie-Klingberg Allvin
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015;15:1
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communication Barriers
Culturally Competent Care - methods
Female
Humans
Midwifery - methods
Nurse's Role
Nurse-Patient Relations
Pregnancy
Pregnant Women - ethnology - psychology
Prenatal Care - methods
Qualitative Research
Refugees - psychology
Social Distance
Social Support
Somalia - ethnology
Sweden
Trust
Violence - psychology
Abstract
Violence against women is associated with serious health problems, including adverse maternal and child health. Antenatal care (ANC) midwives are increasingly expected to implement the routine of identifying exposure to violence. An increase of Somali born refugee women in Sweden, their reported adverse childbearing health and possible links to violence pose a challenge to the Swedish maternity health care system. Thus, the aim was to explore ways ANC midwives in Sweden work with Somali born women and the questions of exposure to violence.
Qualitative individual interviews with 17 midwives working with Somali-born women in nine ANC clinics in Sweden were analyzed using thematic analysis.
The midwives strived to focus on the individual woman beyond ethnicity and cultural differences. In relation to the Somali born women, they navigated between different definitions of violence, ways of handling adversities in life and social contexts, guided by experience based knowledge and collegial support. Seldom was ongoing violence encountered. The Somali-born women's' strengths and contentment were highlighted, however, language skills were considered central for a Somali-born woman's access to rights and support in the Swedish society. Shared language, trustful relationships, patience, and networking were important aspects in the work with violence among Somali-born women.
Focus on the individual woman and skills in inter-cultural communication increases possibilities of overcoming social distances. This enhances midwives' ability to identify Somali born woman's resources and needs regarding violence disclosure and support. Although routine use of professional interpretation is implemented, it might not fully provide nuances and social safety needed for violence disclosure. Thus, patience and trusting relationships are fundamental in work with violence among Somali born women. In collaboration with social networks and other health care and social work professions, the midwife can be a bridge and contribute to increased awareness of rights and support for Somali-born women in a new society.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25591791 View in PubMed
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"But there's a million jokes about everybody . . .": prevalence of, and reasons for, directing negative behaviors toward gay men on a Canadian university campus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146221
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2010 Nov;25(11):2094-112
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Lisa M Jewell
Melanie A Morrison
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. lisa.jewell@usask.ca
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2010 Nov;25(11):2094-112
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Female
Homosexuality, Male - psychology
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Motivation
Prejudice
Prevalence
Social Distance
Students - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Universities
Young Adult
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and types of negative behaviors directed toward gay men on university campuses and to understand heterosexual men's and women's motivations for engaging in antigay discrimination. Using a mixed methods approach, results from a quantitative survey (N = 286) indicated that students primarily engaged in covert antigay behaviors, such as telling antigay jokes and spreading gossip about gay men. Follow-up qualitative interviews with 8 highly homonegative individuals (4 men, 4 women) were then conducted to better understand their self-perceived motivations for perpetrating antigay discrimination. Results indicated that antigay behaviors were conducted to reinforce traditional male gender roles, alleviate feelings of discomfort, and convey heterosexual identity. Participants also expressed concern about being perceived as prejudiced and were motivated to control their prejudicial reactions to some degree. Implications regarding the contemporary nature of antigay violence on university campuses are discussed.
PubMed ID
20056816 View in PubMed
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Closeness and distance: a way of handling difficult situations in daily care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79069
Source
J Clin Nurs. 2007 Feb;16(2):244-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Blomberg Karin
Sahlberg-Blom Eva
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden. karin.blomberg@hi.oru.se
Source
J Clin Nurs. 2007 Feb;16(2):244-54
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Attitude of Health Personnel
Burnout, Professional - prevention & control - psychology
Choice Behavior
Day Care
Female
Focus Groups
Health services needs and demand
Home Care Services
Humans
Models, Psychological
Neoplasms - nursing - psychology
Nurse's Role - psychology
Nurse-Patient Relations
Nursing Methodology Research
Nursing Staff - psychology
Palliative Care
Qualitative Research
Questionnaires
Self Care - methods - psychology
Self Concept
Social Distance
Sweden
Thinking
Touch
Abstract
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe how care team members caring for patients with advanced cancer describe how they handle difficult situations in daily care. In this paper 'difficult situations' refers to those situations team members themselves describe as difficult. BACKGROUND: Serious illness and impending death involve great changes in a person's life. The care of patients with advanced cancer is complex and many different factors influence each care situation. This places demands on the way care team members handle problems and difficulties in daily care. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study. METHODS: The study is based on 16 focus group discussions with care team members who were caring for patients with advanced cancer at three different care units in two Swedish cities. The focus group discussions included 77 participants. The procedure for data analysis was inspired by the phenomenological method. FINDINGS: The results show that care team members handled difficult situations by balancing between being close and distancing themselves. In most situations their choice of strategy seemed spontaneous rather than being a conscious decision, although it was sometimes described as a more conscious approach. Variations of closeness and distance that were identified were Identity, Meaning, Limit-setting and touching, Prioritization, the Team and the Organization. These could also be seen as tools that could facilitate or impede the use of closeness and distance. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that care team members have a need to reflect over daily care and to become aware of what governs different care actions. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: If the experienced difficult situation is not handled in a way that is beneficial to the care team member, patient and relatives, it is assumed that this can result in stress, burnout and, above all, non-optimal care.
PubMed ID
17239059 View in PubMed
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Coping strategies of parents facing child diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192309
Source
J Pediatr Nurs. 2001 Dec;16(6):418-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2001
Author
R. Azar
C R Solomon
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada. rima.azar@umontreal.ca
Source
J Pediatr Nurs. 2001 Dec;16(6):418-28
Date
Dec-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Attitude to Health
Avoidance Learning
Child
Child Welfare
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - prevention & control - psychology
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Internal-External Control
Male
Nursing Methodology Research
Parents - education - psychology
Problem Solving
Quebec
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Sex Factors
Social Distance
Social Support
Abstract
This study identified differences in strategies used by mothers and fathers (N = 60) in coping with their child's insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ) was administered during a home interview. Results showed that both parents used planful problem solving, exercised positive reappraisal, and sought social support frequently, with mothers using more planful problem-solving strategies than fathers. Within the family, analyses showed that fathers were more likely to use distancing, independent of the child's sex, whereas mothers were more likely to frequently use all the coping strategies when the child was a girl. The implications of the results for nursing are discussed.
PubMed ID
11740789 View in PubMed
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Culture and social distance: a case study of methodological cautions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195083
Source
J Soc Psychol. 2001 Feb;141(1):101-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2001
Author
K P Weinfurt
F M Maghaddam
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA. weinfurk@gunet.georgetown.edu
Source
J Soc Psychol. 2001 Feb;141(1):101-10
Date
Feb-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cultural Diversity
Emigration and Immigration
Ethnic Groups - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Personality Assessment
Quebec
Social Distance
Abstract
The authors presented, as a case study of methodological challenges in cross-cultural research, E. S. Bogardus's (1925) Social Distance Scale, which requires respondents to indicate the social distance between themselves and others. The meaningfulness of the scale depends on the assumption that respondents believe that the magnitude of social distance increases as one moves through the social categories of family member, friend, neighbor, coworker, and citizen. The authors tested this assumption for English Canadian, French Canadian, Jewish, Indian, Algerian, and Greek participants, all 1st-generation immigrants in Montreal. The participants rated their willingness to associate with members of each of the other ethnic groups in 5 social categories. The percentage of respondents in each sample whose data conformed to the prediction ranged from 63.7% to 98.0%, with English Canadian, French Canadian, and Jewish respondents providing responses most consistent with the predicted pattern. The Indian and Algerian respondents' data were the least consistent with the predicted pattern, especially when rating members of their own ethnic groups.
PubMed ID
11294145 View in PubMed
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Defend or repair? Explaining responses to in-group moral failure by disentangling feelings of shame, rejection, and inferiority.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126815
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 2012 May;102(5):941-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Nicolay Gausel
Colin Wayne Leach
Vivian L Vignoles
Rupert Brown
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Centre for Emotion Research, Østfold University College, Norway. nicolay.gausel@hiof.no
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 2012 May;102(5):941-60
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Compensation and Redress
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Humans
Likelihood Functions
Male
Middle Aged
Minority Groups
Models, Psychological
Morals
Motivation
Norway
Prejudice
Psychology, Social
Reproducibility of Results
Self Concept
Shame
Social Distance
Social Identification
Abstract
Research on shame about in-group moral failure has yielded paradoxical results. In some studies, shame predicts self-defensive motivations to withdraw. In other studies, shame predicts pro-social motivations, such as restitution. We think that this paradox can be explained by disentangling the numerous appraisals and feelings subsumed under the label "shame." In 2 studies, we asked community samples of Norwegians about their in-group's discrimination against the Tater minority. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the measures of the appraisals and feelings used in Study 1 (N = 206) and Study 2 (N = 173). In both studies, an appraisal of the in-group as suffering a moral defect best predicted felt shame, whereas an appraisal of concern for condemnation of the in-group best predicted felt rejection. In both studies, felt rejection best predicted self-defensive motivation, whereas felt shame best predicted pro-social motivation. Implications for conceptualizing and studying shame are discussed.
PubMed ID
22352324 View in PubMed
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Determinants of Black women's health in rural and remote communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160555
Source
Can J Nurs Res. 2007 Sep;39(3):56-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2007
Author
Josephine Etowa
Juliana Wiens
Wanda Thomas Bernard
Barbara Clow
Author Affiliation
School of Nursing, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Josephine.Etowa@dal.ca
Source
Can J Nurs Res. 2007 Sep;39(3):56-76
Date
Sep-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
African Continental Ancestry Group - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Attitude to Health - ethnology
Female
Focus Groups
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Health services needs and demand
Health Services Research
Health Status Disparities
Healthcare Disparities - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Medically underserved area
Nova Scotia
Nursing Methodology Research
Poverty
Prejudice
Qualitative Research
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics
Rural Health - statistics & numerical data
Social Distance
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
Women - psychology
Women's Health - ethnology
Abstract
The On the Margins project investigated health status, health-care delivery, and use of health services among African-Canadian women residing in rural and remote regions of the province of Nova Scotia. A participatory action research approach provided a framework for the study. Triangulation of data-collection methods--interviews, focus groups, and questionnaires--formed the basis of data generation. A total of 237 in-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted and coded verbatim. Atlas-ti data-management software was used to facilitate coding and analysis. Six themes emerged from the data: Black women's multiple roles, perceptions of health, experiences with the health-care system, factors affecting health, strategies for managing health, and envisioning solutions. The authors focus on 1 of these themes, factors affecting Black women's health, and discuss 3 subthemes: race and racism, poverty and unemployment, and access to health care.
PubMed ID
17970460 View in PubMed
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