AIM: Alcohol use and intoxication are highly prevalent among adolescents and may be an important element of the socialization process in the teenage years. Significant short- and long-term health consequences seem evident. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and several aspects of psychological health and social integration in adolescents. METHODS: The study is based on data from a 1997 cross-sectional survey of 828 Norwegian tertiary school students in Forde (91% of all students). Three hundred and eighty (46%) were female. The majority of students were aged 20 or younger, with 64% aged 15-17. Four groups were defined according to frequency of alcohol intoxication. Emotional health and social integration in the four groups are reported as means and the differences from the reference groups (with 95% confidence limits) were estimated. Control of confounding and interaction was performed. RESULTS: The study reveals that alcohol intoxication is an established element of mid-teenage behaviour for both sexes. It was found that depressive complaints and psychosomatic problems increased with increasing frequency of intoxication. Alcohol use is not only associated with improving friendship quantity but also with an improved quality of friendships. Heavy consumers report greater problems with relations with school and with their parents, especially in early adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Though adolescents with moderate and heavy alcohol consumption are more sociable with friends, abstainers and light drinkers appear emotionally healthier. They succeed to a greater extent in a wide variety of social arenas, particularly in comparison with heavy consumers.
Alternative health care practices are a way in which cancer patients can be in control of their illness situation. This assumption is investigated through control theory. While the sociocultural schemas of North American patients endorse control of illness, the stress of the cancer experience dismisses the advantage of control behaviours. Analysis also suggests that patients find ways to escape from the freedom of being in control of their health situation. This post-analysis of a recent study uncovers major ambiguities concerning the control behaviours of cancer patients.
Compliance-enhancing organizations such as the military and police are characterized by guiding and controlling employees, and they increasingly tend to control and restrict employees' behavior when exposed to external uncertainty. Restrictions on employees' behavior are intended to increase efficiency, safety, and combat readiness through reducing misunderstandings and conflicts. However, many writers have argued that the most natural reaction to external unpredictability and uncertainty is internal flexibility and utilizing the entire range of employees' qualifications. The question raised in this study is whether restrictions imply that employees feel they are subject to incompatible work conditions and are deprived of resources and opportunities to execute their everyday responsibilities and thereby experience role conflict. Hierarchical regression analyses performed on data from 71 police and 71 army officers showed that rules and routines that were perceived as restrictive or coercive better explained role conflict among employees than either leadership loyalty, commitment, and rules or routines that were perceived as enabling.
What do we know about the prevalence and the specific features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among subjects in forensic psychiatry and special youth centres? A clinical case series consisting of 42 subjects with ASD, recruited from three well-characterized populations in forensic psychiatry and special youth care, was used to determine: 1) the prevalence of ASD in these institutions (at least 13%), 2) the distribution of diagnostic criteria in this special population (mostly social interaction and communication problems, few or atypical flexibility problems), 3) the degree of comorbidity (the rule rather than the exception), 4) neuropsychological test profiles (lowered IQ with uneven profiles), 5) types of crimes and offences (very heterogeneous, often stress-related with dissociated features), 6) mental health care needs (high), and 7) special clinical features (especially expressions of flexibility deficits in non-classical areas and proneness to dissociation). This descriptive study indicates that ASD is a clinically relevant problem among forensic populations that has to be considered in diagnostics, assessments of needs and treatment planning.
This study examined the utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) along with additional constructs in predicting exercise, and explored the motivational antecedents of exercise intentions. Participants included 162 Canadian University College students (61% females). Measures of TPB, autonomous and controlling intention, perceived autonomy support and core autonomous intention were completed during phase 1 of data collection. Two and three weeks later behaviour was assessed. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that: (a) attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted TPB intention and core autonomous intention; (b) subjective norm predicted controlling intention; and (c) perceived autonomy support predicted autonomous and core autonomous intention. TPB intention significantly predicted behaviour. TPB is a fairly useful model for predicting behaviour and important information can be gained when other measures of intention are explored.
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that children with high levels of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms often have a wide variety of associated behaviour problems. However, relatively little is known regarding to what extent these associated behaviour problems are present to the same degree in younger as well as older children and in girls as well as in boys. METHODS: This study used parent ratings to examine effects of age and gender on behaviour problems, social competence, negative impact on everyday life, and family burden among pre-school and school-aged children high in ADHD symptoms (n=60) and comparison children (n=499). RESULTS: With regard to age, the pre-school children did not differ from the school-aged children on any of the different types of problem behaviour or with regard to social competence. The interactions between age and group were not significant. The behaviour problems of older children did, however, have more negative impact on the child's daily life and induced higher levels of family burden compared with problems of younger children, especially among children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. Boys were more severely affected than girls with regard to ADHD symptom severity, most associated problem behaviours, as well as negative impact and family burden. Significant interactions of ADHD symptoms and gender were also found, which indicated that gender differences were primarily found among children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Children with high levels of ADHD symptoms have many associated behaviour problems, even in pre-school years, and boys with high levels of ADHD symptoms are more severely affected compared with girls.
We investigated the influence of neighborhood and metropolitan area characteristics on body mass index (BMI) in urban Canada in 2001.
We conducted a multilevel analysis with data collected from a cross-sectional survey of men and women nested in neighborhoods and metropolitan areas in urban Canada during 2001.
After we controlled for individual sociodemographic characteristics and behaviors, the average BMIs of residents of neighborhoods in which a large proportion of individuals had less than a high school education were higher than those BMIs of residents in neighborhoods with small proportions of such individuals (P
To create a mass media campaign that endeavours to a) denormalize tobacco use among youth aged 12-18, b) empower youth to stay tobacco product free, and c) increase awareness of the dangers of tobacco use, while using positive messaging.
Target age group was youth between the ages of 12 and 18 years.
The mass media campaign was developed, implemented, and evaluated within the city of Calgary.
The mass media campaign consisted of posters for schools and other venues frequented by youth (e.g., community centres, libraries, fitness centres, restaurants, movie theatres), posters for transit (e.g., bus shelters, LRT shelters, back of bus) print advertisements, television/radio public service announcements, an interactive community website for youth, a media launch event, promotional items, and organizational efforts to cross-promote the campaign. The creative concept was based on intercept interviews, focus group testing, and other research conducted by the campaign's creative team and youth volunteers in order to identify the key elements of this campaign.
A total of 149 students completed both a baseline and follow-up survey to evaluate the marketing activities of the campaign. A total of 27 youth participated in prototype testing to compare this positive-messaging campaign with negative-toned tobacco reduction campaigns. Six stakeholders/partners participated in stakeholder interviews to assess their thoughts and learnings regarding the campaign process.
The evaluation respondents viewed the campaign positively and showed strong recall of the messaging.