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"But what is the object of educating these children, if it costs their lives to educate them?": federal Indian education policy in western Canada in the late 1800s.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153386
Source
J Can Stud. 2009;43(3):101-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Richard A Enns
Source
J Can Stud. 2009;43(3):101-23
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Canada - ethnology
Child
Child Behavior - ethnology - physiology - psychology
Child Welfare - economics - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Child, Preschool
Education - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Government Programs - economics - education - history - legislation & jurisprudence
History, 19th Century
Humans
Indians, North American - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Politics
Public Health - economics - education - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Public Policy - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Social Change - history
Social Conditions - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Debates in the Canadian House of Commons in the last two decades of the nineteenth century revealed persistent differences between the Conservatives and the Liberals over federal Indian education policy and the administration of industrial schools. Until their defeat in 1896, the Conservatives supported a denominational industrial school system and a policy of rapid assimilation. The Liberals generally opposed denominational schools and believed the industrial school system was too costly and was not leading to rapid assimilation. After gaining power, the Liberals stopped construction of industrial schools in favour of boarding and day schools, but denominational influence remained strong. The Conservative emphasis on assimilation was replaced by measures that supported reserve-based segregation as earlier hopes for rapid assimilation diminished. Despite policy differences, neither the Conservatives nor the Liberals held Aboriginal cultures in high regard, and debates regarding the means and intent of Indian education played out against well-known, high mortality rates and often abysmal conditions in the schools.
PubMed ID
20715327 View in PubMed
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Cultural dissimilarity and intermarriage. a longitudinal study of immigrants in Sweden, 1990–2005.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129785
Source
Int Migr Rev. 2011;45(2):297-324
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Martin Dribe
Christer Lundh
Author Affiliation
Lund University.
Source
Int Migr Rev. 2011;45(2):297-324
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cultural Diversity
Emigrants and Immigrants - education - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Ethnic Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Marriage - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Social Conditions - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Social Identification
Social Values - ethnology - history
Spouses - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Sweden - ethnology
Abstract
Intermarriage with natives is a key indicator of immigrant integration. This article studies intermarriage for 138 immigrant groups in Sweden, using longitudinal individual level data. It shows great variation in marriage patterns across immigrant populations, ranging from over 70 percent endogamy in some immigrants groups to below 5 percent in other groups. Although part of this variation is explained by human capital and the structure of the marriage market, cultural factors (values, religion, and language) play an important role as well. Immigrants from culturally more dissimilar countries are less likely to intermarry with natives, and instead more prone to endogamy.
PubMed ID
22069769 View in PubMed
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The declining retirement prospects of immigrant men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140128
Source
Can Public Policy. 2010;36(3):287-305
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Derek Hum
Wayne Simpson
Source
Can Public Policy. 2010;36(3):287-305
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - ethnology
Cost-Benefit Analysis - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Emigrants and Immigrants - education - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Emigration and Immigration - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Employment - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Ethnic Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Government Programs - economics - education - history - legislation & jurisprudence
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Income - history
Men - education - psychology
Men's Health - ethnology - history
Retirement - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Social Conditions - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Social Security - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
We compare the retirement prospects of immigrant men with their native-born counterparts. Using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we estimate a significant gap of 43 percent in private pension income and 30 percent in private pension contributions between immigrants and the native born. The gap in public pension incomes is negligible and reduces the overall pension gap, but only partially. Furthermore, the pension income and contribution gap is significantly larger for more recently arrived immigrant cohorts, consistent with evidence of weaker earnings for this group. We provide age profiles of pension income and contributions and discuss problems in interpreting the results without adjusting for age. Controlling for age and earnings differences, immigrants are still about 11 percent less likely to make contributions to a private pension program, but there is no difference in the contribution rates out of earnings of those who contribute. Recently arrived immigrants are significantly less likely to make contributions to a private pension program and appear to be neglecting private pension contribution opportunities more than earlier immigrants and the native born, which may have adverse implications for Canada's public retirement programs.
PubMed ID
20939137 View in PubMed
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Feeding the family during times of stress: experience and determinants of food insecurity in an Inuit community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100389
Source
Geogr J. 2010;:000
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
James D Ford
Maude Beaumier
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Geogr J. 2010;:000
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic regions - ethnology
Climate Change - economics - history
Community Networks - economics - history
Ethnic Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Family Characteristics - ethnology
Family Health - ethnology
Food Supply - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Inuits - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Residence Characteristics
Social Conditions - economics - history - legislation & jurisprudence
Socioeconomic Factors
Starvation - economics - ethnology - history - psychology
Abstract
This paper uses a mixed methods approach to characterise the experience of food insecurity among Inuit community members in Igloolik, Nunavut, and examine the conditions and processes that constrain access, availability, and quality of food. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n= 66) and focus groups (n= 10) with community members, and key informant interviews with local and territorial health professionals and policymakers (n= 19). The study indicates widespread experience of food insecurity. Even individuals and households who were food secure at the time of the research had experienced food insecurity in the recent past, with food insecurity largely transitory in nature. Multiple determinants of food insecurity operating over different spatial-temporal scales are identified, including food affordability and budgeting, food knowledge and preferences, food quality and availability, environmental stress, declining hunting activity, and the cost of harvesting. These determinants are operating in the context of changing livelihoods and climate change, which in many cases are exacerbating food insecurity, although high-order manifestations of food insecurity (that is, starvation) are no longer experienced.
PubMed ID
20860093 View in PubMed
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22 records – page 1 of 3.