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Attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation. A model for understanding reactions to medical procedures after death.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature73193
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1994 Apr;38(8):1141-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1994
Author
M. Sanner
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Medicine, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1994 Apr;38(8):1141-52
Date
Apr-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Altruism
Anxiety - psychology
Attitude to Death
Defense Mechanisms
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Logic
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Psychological
Motivation
Negativism
Organ Transplantation - psychology
Philosophy
Religion and Medicine
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sampling Studies
Social Alienation
Sweden
Tissue Donors - psychology
Tissue and Organ Procurement
Trust
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to reach a deeper understanding of factors influencing the attitudes toward organ donation and other procedures with the dead body. From a survey of 400 inhabitants of Uppsala, a city in the middle of Sweden, concerning attitudes toward transplantation issues, 38 individuals with different attitudes toward donation of their own organs were selected for follow-up interviews. From the interviews, more than 600 statements concerning motives and reactions to medical procedures with the dead body were listed. These statements were summarized in 20 motive categories, in which 17 the nature of the motives were negative to organ donation and three promoting such a procedure. The categories were then analyzed and interpreted within a frame of reference of psychodynamic defense theory. In several cases it was possible to relate them to common death anxiety defenses. Six different motive complexes were extracted. These are called (1) illusion of lingering life; (2) protection of the value of the individual; (3) distrust, anxiety and alienation; (4) respecting the limits set by Nature or God; (5) altruism; and (6) rationality. Individuals not willing to donate their own organs were judged as either (a) reacting out of strenthened death anxiety defenses, or (b) as having a special outlook on life, where the idea of what is 'natural' was emphasized. The adverse reactions of the positive attitude group were seen as initial reactions perceived as derivations of common death anxiety defenses and weakened when confronted with altruistic and fact-stressing arguments. In the 'undecided group' of 14 persons, 11 arrived at a definite opinion. Seven decided for organ donation when their mistaken beliefs were corrected or when they took time to work through their initial uneasiness, while 4 persons actually were clearly negative. Three still remained uncertain. The stability of these attitudes seems to be high, often being experienced as a part of one's philosophy of life.
PubMed ID
8042059 View in PubMed
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Boys' behavioral inhibition and the risk of later delinquency.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207621
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997 Sep;54(9):809-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1997
Author
M. Kerr
R E Tremblay
L. Pagani
F. Vitaro
Author Affiliation
Research Unit on Children's Psycho-Social Maladjustment, University of Montreal, Quebec.
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997 Sep;54(9):809-16
Date
Sep-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aggression - psychology
Anomie
Anxiety - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Child Behavior
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology
Humans
Inhibition (Psychology)
Juvenile Delinquency - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Male
Maternal Age
Paternal Age
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Shyness
Social Alienation - psychology
Abstract
In some studies, shyness and anxiety have protected at-risk boys from developing delinquency. In others, shyness and withdrawal have increased risk. We argue that this is because behavioral inhibition, which is the protective factor, has been confounded with social withdrawal and other constructs. Our study addresses 3 major questions: (1) is behavioral inhibition, as distinguished from social withdrawal, a protective factor in the development of delinquency; (2) does the protective effect depend on whether disruptiveness is also present; and (3) does inhibition increase the risk of later depressive symptoms even if it protects against delinquency?
The subjects were boys from low socioeconomic status areas of Montreal, Quebec. Age 10- to 12-year predictors were peer-rated inhibition, withdrawal, and disruptiveness; age 13- to 15-year outcomes were self-rated depressive symptoms and delinquency. Eight age 10- to 12-year behavioral profiles were compared with 4 age 13- to 15-year outcome profiles.
Inhibition seemed to protect disruptive and nondisruptive boys against delinquency. Disruptive boys who were noninhibited were more likely than chance to become delinquent; disruptive boys who were inhibited were not. Inhibition did not increase the risk for depression among disruptive boys. Among nondisruptive boys, only nondisruptive-inhibited boys were significantly less likely than chance to become delinquent. However, withdrawal was not protective. Disruptive-withdrawn boys were at the greatest risk for delinquency or delinquency with depressive symptoms.
Inhibition and social withdrawal, although behaviorally similar, present different risks for later outcomes and, therefore, should be differentiated conceptually and empirically.
Notes
Comment In: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997 Sep;54(9):785-99294368
PubMed ID
9294371 View in PubMed
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Causes, diagnosis and risks of obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219637
Source
Pharmacoeconomics. 1994;5(Suppl 1):8-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
L. Lissner
Author Affiliation
Departments of Medicine and Primary Health Care, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
Source
Pharmacoeconomics. 1994;5(Suppl 1):8-17
Date
1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Dietary Fats
Energy Metabolism
Humans
Life Style
Obesity - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Quality of Life
Risk factors
Social Alienation
Sweden
United States
Abstract
This paper reviews definitions of obesity and evidence concerning risk factors for becoming obese. Modifiable aetiological factors, including diet and physical activity, are described, and possible interactions with genetic predisposition are addressed. The impact of obesity on health and quality of life is then considered. Although epidemiological studies have not observed linear associations between increasing weight-for-height and decreasing longevity, there is a consensus that excess mortality occurs at extremely high body mass index values. Compromised quality of life is also observed at this end of the obesity distribution, and is manifested as decreased psychological well-being, less social integration, and stigmatisation.
PubMed ID
10147244 View in PubMed
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Characterization of household food insecurity in Qu├ębec: food and feelings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191728
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2002 Jan;54(1):119-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2002
Author
Anne-Marie Hamelin
Micheline Beaudry
Jean-Pierre Habicht
Author Affiliation
Psychosocial Research Division, Douglas Hospital Research Centre, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. anne.marie.hamelin@videotron.ca
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2002 Jan;54(1):119-32
Date
Jan-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anxiety - etiology
Diet
Family Characteristics
Family Health
Feeding Behavior
Female
Food Supply - economics
Humans
Hunger
Internal-External Control
Interviews as Topic
Male
Nutritional Status
Poverty - psychology
Quebec
Social Alienation
Urban Population
Abstract
This study was undertaken to understand food insecurity from the perspective of households who experienced it. The results of group interviews and personal interviews with 98 low-income households from urban and rural areas in and around Québec City, Canada, elicited the meaning of "enough food" for the households and the range of manifestations of food insecurity. Two classes of manifestations characterized the experience of food insecurity: (1) its core characteristics: a lack of food encompassing the shortage of food, the unsuitability of both food and diet and a preoccupation with continuity in access to enough food; and a lack of control of households over their food situation; and (2) a related set of potential reactions: socio-familial perturbations, hunger and physical impairment, and psychological suffering. The results substantiate the existence of food insecurity among Québecers and confirm that the nature of this experience is consistent with many of the core components identified in upstate New York. This study underlines the monotony of the diet, describes the feeling of alienation, differentiates between a lack of food and the reactions that it engenders, and emphasizes the dynamic nature of the experience.
PubMed ID
11820676 View in PubMed
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Close relatives and outsiders: village people in the city of Yakutsk, Siberia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165870
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2007;44(1):51-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Tatiana Argounova-Low
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2007;44(1):51-61
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropology - education - history
Community Networks - history
Demography - history
History, 20th Century
Humans
Intergenerational Relations - ethnology
Population Dynamics - history
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Rural Population - history
Siberia - ethnology
Social Alienation - psychology
Social Behavior - history
Abstract
The paper presents a snapshot of the city-village connections in the city of Yakutsk and an anthropological account of the dynamics of the relationship between the city and villages around it. Demographic changes that started in the 1980s, prompted by a decline in agriculture, initiated an exodus of the rural population from the countryside into the city of Yakutsk. This paper explores the migration dynamics of the rural population to the city. Two conflicting aspects of the relationship between the city and village are the focus of this paper: treating village people as close kin and as outsiders. I examine the image of ulusnik [a villager] and consider rationales behind the stigma attached to it and a social role of the Other which is imposed on the people from the countryside.
PubMed ID
21847840 View in PubMed
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Community-academic research on hard-to-reach populations: benefits and challenges.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176882
Source
Qual Health Res. 2005 Feb;15(2):263-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Cecilia Benoit
Mikael Jansson
Alison Millar
Rachel Phillips
Author Affiliation
University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
Qual Health Res. 2005 Feb;15(2):263-82
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Behavioral Research - methods
Canada
Communication
Community-Institutional Relations
Cooperative Behavior
Female
Health Services Research
Humans
Interinstitutional Relations
Interviews as Topic
Organizations, Nonprofit - organization & administration
Prostitution - psychology
Qualitative Research
Social Alienation - psychology
Stereotyping
Universities - organization & administration
Vulnerable Populations - psychology
Abstract
In this article, the authors examine some of the benefits and challenges associated with conducting research on hard-to-reach/hidden populations: in this instance, sex workers. The population studied was female and male sex workers working in different sectors of the sex industry in a medium-size Canadian metropolitan area. The authors describe the need for close community-academic cooperation, given the hidden and highly stigmatized nature of the target population that was investigated and the local context in which the research project was embedded. The authors discuss the main benefits and challenges of the research collaboration for the various parties involved, including the community partner organization, indigenous research assistants, and academic research team. They conclude with a discussion of strategies to help overcome the main challenges faced during the research endeavor.
PubMed ID
15611208 View in PubMed
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'Disgust, disgust beyond description'- shame cues to detect shame in disguise, in interviews with women who were sexually abused during childhood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29232
Source
J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2006 Feb;13(1):100-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2006
Author
G B Rahm
B. Renck
K C Ringsberg
Author Affiliation
Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karlstad, Sweden. gullbritt.rahm@kau.se
Source
J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2006 Feb;13(1):100-9
Date
Feb-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Attitude to Health
Child
Child Abuse, Sexual - diagnosis - psychology
Cues
Family - psychology
Female
Humans
Interview, Psychological - methods
Loneliness
Middle Aged
Nursing Assessment - methods
Nursing Methodology Research
Qualitative Research
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Self Concept
Self Disclosure
Semantics
Shame
Social Alienation
Stereotyping
Survivors - psychology
Sweden
Taboo
Women - psychology
Abstract
Shame is a recurrent theme in the context of sexually abused women. Sexual abuse is taboo and shameful, and so is shame. Shame affects the development of a person and relationships, and is mentally painful. It is often covert. One aim of the present study was to explore whether and how women exposed to sexual abuse during childhood verbally express unacknowledged overt and covert shame, when interviewed about their physical and mental health, relations and circumstances relating to the sexual abuse. Another aim was, if shame was present, to describe the quality of the shame expressed by the women. A mainly qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was used. Ten women attending self-help groups for women who were sexually abused during childhood were recruited as informants. The interviews were analysed for verbal expressions of shame by identifying code words and phrases, which were first sorted into six shame indicator groups and then categorized into various aspects of shame. The frequency of the code words and phrases was also counted. The findings clearly reveal that the affect of shame is present and negatively influences the lives of the informants in this study. It was possible to sort the code words and phrases most often mentioned into the indicator groups 'alienated', 'inadequate' and 'hurt', in the order of their frequency. It is obvious that shame affects the lives of this study's informants in negative ways. One important clinical implication for professionals in health care and psychiatric services is to acknowledge both sexual abuse and shame in order to make it possible for patients to work through it and thereby help them psychologically to improve their health.
PubMed ID
16441400 View in PubMed
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The experience of marginalization in new nursing graduates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176866
Source
Nurs Outlook. 2004 Nov-Dec;52(6):289-96
Publication Type
Article
Author
Judy E Boychuk Duchscher
Leanne S Cowin
Author Affiliation
Nursing Education Program of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. duchscher@siast.sk.ca
Source
Nurs Outlook. 2004 Nov-Dec;52(6):289-96
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Acute Disease - nursing
Attitude of Health Personnel
Burnout, Professional - etiology - prevention & control - psychology
Canada
Forecasting
Humans
Intergenerational Relations
Interprofessional Relations
Models, Nursing
Models, Psychological
Nurse's Role
Nursing Staff - organization & administration - psychology
Organizational Culture
Personnel Turnover - statistics & numerical data - trends
Professional Competence
Self Concept
Social Alienation - psychology
Social Behavior
Social Distance
Social Identification
Social Isolation
Social Values
Socialization
United States
Workplace - organization & administration - psychology
Abstract
This article discusses the conceptual history of marginalization, suggesting its use as a framework within which to understand some of the causal relationships between the high rate of attrition of new nursing graduates from professional nursing and the difficulties incurred during their transition from student to professionally practicing nurse. The application of marginalization in this article focuses on the vulnerability and alienation that these newly graduated nurses experience during their introduction to acute-care practice. The article further suggests that they are both inadequately prepared by their undergraduate education to enter into the full scope of their new role as professional practitioners, and ineffectually orientated to an oppressive workplace culture that they are expected to sustain.
PubMed ID
15614267 View in PubMed
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Family members' involvement in psychiatric care: experiences of the healthcare professionals' approach and feeling of alienation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100550
Source
J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2010 Jun;17(5):422-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
M. Ewertzon
K. Lützén
E. Svensson
B. Andershed
Author Affiliation
School of Health Care and Social Sciences, Högskolan Dalarna, SE-791 88 Falun, Sweden. mew@du.se
Source
J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2010 Jun;17(5):422-32
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Attitude of Health Personnel
Attitude to Health
Cooperative Behavior
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nursing Methodology Research
Power (Psychology)
Professional-Family Relations
Prospective Studies
Psychotic Disorders - psychology - therapy
Qualitative Research
Self-Help Groups
Social Alienation - psychology
Social Isolation - psychology
Statistics, nonparametric
Sweden
Abstract
The involvement of family members in psychiatric care is important for the recovery of persons with psychotic disorders and subsequently reduces the burden on the family. Earlier qualitative studies suggest that the participation of family members can be limited by how they experience the professionals' approach, which suggests a connection to the concept of alienation. Thus, the aim of this study was in a national sample investigate family members' experiences of the psychiatric health care professionals' approach. Data were collected by the Family Involvement and Alienation Questionnaire. The median level and quartiles were used to describe the distributions and data were analysed with non-parametric statistical methods. Seventy family members of persons receiving psychiatric care participated in the study. The results indicate that a majority of the participants respond that they have experiencing a negative approach from the professionals, indicating lack of confirmation and cooperation. The results also indicate that a majority of the participants felt powerlessness and social isolation in the care being provided, indicating feelings of alienation. A significant but weak association was found between the family members' experiences of the professionals' approach and their feelings of alienation.
PubMed ID
20584239 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity: consequences for the household and broader social implications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203007
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Feb;129(2S Suppl):525S-528S
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
A M Hamelin
J P Habicht
M. Beaudry
Author Affiliation
Département des sciences des aliments et de nutrition, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Feb;129(2S Suppl):525S-528S
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Family
Female
Food Services
Food Supply
Health status
Humans
Hunger
Male
Nutritional Status
Poverty
Quebec
Questionnaires
Rural Population
Social Alienation
Social Values
Stress, Psychological
Urban Population
Abstract
A conceptual framework showing the household and social implications of food insecurity was elicited from a qualitative and quantitative study of 98 households from a heterogeneous low income population of Quebec city and rural surroundings; the study was designed to increase understanding of the experience of food insecurity in order to contribute to its prevention. According to the respondents' description, the experience of food insecurity is characterized by two categories of manifestations, i.e., the core characteristics of the phenomenon and a related set of actions and reactions by the household. This second category of manifestations is considered here as a first level of consequences of food insecurity. These consequences at the household level often interact with the larger environment to which the household belongs. On a chronic basis, the resulting interactions have certain implications that are tentatively labeled "social implications" in this paper. Their examination suggests that important aspects of human development depend on food security. It also raises questions concerning the nature of socially acceptable practices of food acquisition and food management, and how such acceptability can be assessed. Guidelines to that effect are proposed. Findings underline the relevance and urgency of working toward the realization of the right to food.
PubMed ID
10064323 View in PubMed
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39 records – page 1 of 4.