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43 records – page 1 of 5.

[APPROACHES TO URBAN AREA RANKING ACCORDINGLY TO THE LEVEL OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268677
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Sep-Oct;94(5):56-61
Publication Type
Article
Author
N V Stepanova
E R Valeeva
S F Fomina
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Sep-Oct;94(5):56-61
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Snow - chemistry
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Tatarstan
Urban Population
Urbanization
Abstract
Urban area ranking was performed according to the level of the heavy metal pollution based on the data of the snow and soil chemical characteristics. With reference to cumulative rates of the snow cover and soil pollution by heavy metals in the territory of the city of Kazan there were selected four areas: I--Derbyshki; II--Teplocontrol; III--Gorki; IV--Kirovsky district. The pollution level of snow cover in the territory of the city was determined by pollution level indices calculated with the application of Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of chemical substances in ambient waters for household and recreational and service facilities use. The assessment of the pollution level in soils in the city showed the total territory of Kazan to be mildly polluted by manganese, concerning other heavy metals the categories of the soil pollution vary on areas. Results of hair biological monitoring in children are an informative auxiliary tool for the evaluation of the present ecological situation concerning heavy metals in certain territories of the city.
PubMed ID
26625618 View in PubMed
Less detail

Atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls to seasonal surface snow at four glacier sites on Svalbard, 2013-2014.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308001
Source
Chemosphere. 2020 Mar; 243:125324
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2020
Author
Mark H Hermanson
Elisabeth Isaksson
Dmitry Divine
Camilla Teixeira
Derek C G Muir
Author Affiliation
Hermanson & Associates LLC, 2000 W 53rd St., Minneapolis, MN, 55419, USA. Electronic address: markhermanson@me.com.
Source
Chemosphere. 2020 Mar; 243:125324
Date
Mar-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - chemistry
Arctic Regions
Environmental monitoring
Europe
Ice Cover
Incineration
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Russia
Seasons
Snow - chemistry
Svalbard
Abstract
During spring 2014 we collected annual surface snow from four glacial sites on Svalbard, an archipelago in the European Arctic. The sampling sites are 230?km apart from west to east, but are at varying elevations, affecting local atmospheric contaminant inputs. Samples were analyzed for 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. The western sites, Holtedahlfonna and Kongsvegen, had the highest ?PCB flux (26.7?pg?cm-2 yr-1 at Kongsvegen) while the lowest was at Lomonosovfonna, in central Svalbard (14.4?pg?cm-2 yr-1). The greatest difference between sites was the trichlorobiphenyl homologue which was nearly four times greater at Kongsvegen than the eastern site at Austfonna. The most concentrated congeners at each site were PCB-52, 70 + 74, 95, 101, 110 comprising 32-39% of ?PCB, similar to Clophen 40 which is comprised 27% of these congeners. Similar variance of these congeners in samples and Clophen 40 was verified by principal components analysis. Air mass back trajectories from likely source areas for all sites were similar, indicating no difference in frequency or distribution of PCB from long-distances, suggesting local PCB sources contributing to Kongsvegen. We found 2,3-DiCB (PCB-5) and 3,3'-DiCB (PCB-11) at all sites; neither was found in western commercial PCB mixtures. PCB-5 may be from the Russian PCB product "Trichlorobiphenyl" or is residue from production of pigment violet 23. PCB-11 may come from waste incineration in northern Europe containing various pigments. These results, in comparison to earlier data from Lomonosovfonna, suggest that PCB inputs are variable and are not declining over time.
PubMed ID
31765903 View in PubMed
Less detail

Atmospheric pollution for trace elements in the remote high-altitude atmosphere in central Asia as recorded in snow from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) of the Himalayas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92660
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2008 Oct 1;404(1):171-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2008
Author
Lee Khanghyun
Hur Soon Do
Hou Shugui
Hong Sungmin
Qin Xiang
Ren Jiawen
Liu Yapping
Rosman Kevin J R
Barbante Carlo
Boutron Claude F
Author Affiliation
Korea Polar Research Institute, Songdo Techno Park, 7-50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840, Republic of Korea.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2008 Oct 1;404(1):171-81
Date
Oct-1-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Movements
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - analysis
Asia, Central
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Snow - chemistry
Trace Elements - analysis
Abstract
A series of 42 snow samples covering over a one-year period from the fall of 2004 to the summer of 2005 were collected from a 2.1-m snow pit at a high-altitude site on the northeastern slope of Mt. Everest. These samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Cd, Sb, Pb, and Bi in order to characterize the relative contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources to the fallout of these elements in central Himalayas. Our data were also considered in the context of monsoon versus non-monsoon seasons. The mean concentrations of the majority of the elements were determined to be at the pg g(-1) level with a strong variation in concentration with snow depth. While the mean concentrations of most of the elements were significantly higher during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season, considerable variability in the trace element inputs to the snow was observed during both periods. Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Bi displayed high crustal enrichment factors (EFc) in most samples, while Cr, Ni, Rb, and Pb show high EFc values in some of the samples. Our data indicate that anthropogenic inputs are potentially important for these elements in the remote high-altitude atmosphere in the central Himalayas. The relationship between the EFc of each element and the Al concentration indicates that a dominant input of anthropogenic trace elements occurs during both the monsoon and non-monsoon seasons, when crustal contribution is relatively minor. Finally, a comparison of the trace element fallout fluxes calculated in our samples with those recently obtained at Mont Blanc, Greenland, and Antarctica provides direct evidence for a geographical gradient of the atmospheric pollution with trace elements on a global scale.
PubMed ID
18676004 View in PubMed
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Benzotriazole Enrichment in Snowmelt Discharge Emanating from Engineered Snow Storage Facilities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275155
Source
Water Environ Res. 2016 Jun;88(6):510-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2016
Author
Josh K Alvey
Birgit Hagedorn
Aaron Dotson
Source
Water Environ Res. 2016 Jun;88(6):510-20
Date
Jun-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Environmental monitoring
Freezing
Seasons
Snow - chemistry
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Triazoles - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Snowpacks in urban environments can retain a high load of anthropogenic contaminants that, upon melting, can deliver concentrated contaminant pulses into the aquatic environment. In climates with an extended period of snowfall accumulation, such as in Anchorage, Alaska, contaminant amplification within meltwater may affect aquatic ecosystem health. A spatiotemporal study of benzotriazoles on snow, meltwater and soils was performed in association with three urban snow disposal facilities. Benzotriazole elution from engineered snow disposal sites behaved similarly to inorganic salt and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during the initial melt period, with maximum concentrations between 2.23-7.39 µg/L; similar enrichment was observed in creeks. Assays of disposal site soils revealed the presence of tolytriazole. Furthermore, using fluorescence spectroscopy and PARAFAC analysis, a modeled component representative of benzotriazoles was identified, a possible indicator of anthropogenic input rather than a unique indicator for benzotriazole compounds.
PubMed ID
27225781 View in PubMed
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[Characteristics of chemical pollution of snow cover in Aktobe areas].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143398
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Mar-Apr;(2):17-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
A Zh Iskakov
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Mar-Apr;(2):17-8
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Illness - epidemiology - etiology
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Epidemiological Monitoring
Humans
Retrospective Studies
Russia - epidemiology
Snow - chemistry
Abstract
The paper gives data on the nature of snow cover pollution in the urbanized areas in relation to the remoteness from the basic sources of ambient air pollution. The total snow content of carcinogens has been estimated.
PubMed ID
20491263 View in PubMed
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A Chinese imprint in insoluble pollutants recently deposited in central Greenland as indicated by lead isotopes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266964
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48(3):1451-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Aloys J-M Bory
Wafa Abouchami
Stephen J G Galer
Anders Svensson
John N Christensen
Pierre E Biscaye
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48(3):1451-7
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerosols
Air Pollutants - analysis
Canada
China
Dust - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Greenland
Humans
Isotopes
Lead - analysis
Particulate Matter - analysis
Seasons
Snow - chemistry
Solubility
Abstract
A unique ~ 10 year record of the lead isotopic composition of airborne insoluble particulate matter deposited in central Greenland was extracted from recent snow layers at NorthGRIP (75.1°N, 042.3°W; elevation 2,959 m), spanning the years 1989-2001. Comparison with lead isotopic signatures of both natural and anthropogenic northern hemisphere (NH) aerosol sources shows that human activities must have accounted for most of the insoluble lead deposited on Greenland during the late 1990 s, exceeding by far the natural contribution from large Asian mineral dust inputs. Lead isotopes imply predominance with time of European/Canadian sources over U.S.-derived lead, with an admixed signature typical of Chinese anthropogenic lead sources. The relative contribution of the latter shows a marked seasonal increase during spring. Our record also suggests that China's weight in the overall supply of insoluble pollutants deposited on Greenland was growing over the past decade of the 20th century.
PubMed ID
24377320 View in PubMed
Less detail

The contribution of mycosporine-like amino acids, chromophoric dissolved organic matter and particles to the UV protection of sea-ice organisms in the Baltic Sea.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269580
Source
Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2015 May;14(5):1025-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
Jonna Piiparinen
Sara Enberg
Janne-Markus Rintala
Ruben Sommaruga
Markus Majaneva
Riitta Autio
Anssi V Vähätalo
Source
Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2015 May;14(5):1025-38
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amino Acids - chemistry - radiation effects
Chlorophyll - chemistry - radiation effects
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Cyclohexanols - chemistry - radiation effects
Cyclohexanones - chemistry - radiation effects
Cyclohexylamines - chemistry - radiation effects
Diatoms - chemistry - radiation effects
Dinoflagellida - chemistry - radiation effects
Finland
Glycine - analogs & derivatives - chemistry - radiation effects
Ice
Oceans and Seas
Photochemical Processes
Snow - chemistry
Spectrum Analysis
Temperature
Ultraviolet Rays
Abstract
The effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in sea-ice communities and on the other UV-absorption properties of sea ice were studied in a three-week long in situ experiment in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea in March 2011. The untreated snow-covered ice and two snow-free ice treatments, one exposed to wavelengths > 400 nm (PAR) and the other to full solar spectrum (PAR + UVR), were analysed for MAAs and absorption coefficients of dissolved (aCDOM) and particulate (ap) fractions, the latter being further divided into non-algal (anap) and algal (aph) components. Our results showed that the diatom and dinoflagellate dominated sea-ice algal community responded to UVR down to 25-30 cm depth by increasing their MAA?:?chlorophyll-a ratio and by extending the composition of MAA pool from shinorine and palythine to porphyra-334 and an unknown compound with absorption peaks at ca. 335 and 360 nm. MAAs were the dominant absorbing components in algae in the top 10 cm of ice, and their contribution to total absorption became even more pronounced under UVR exposure. In addition to MAAs, the high absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and by deposited atmospheric particles provided UV-protection for sea-ice organisms in the exposed ice. Efficient UV-protection will especially be of importance under the predicted future climate conditions with more frequent snow-free conditions.
PubMed ID
25837523 View in PubMed
Less detail

Degradation of deicing chemicals affects the natural redox system in airfield soils.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263498
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014;21(15):9036-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Heidi Lissner
Markus Wehrer
Morten Jartun
Kai Uwe Totsche
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014;21(15):9036-53
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Airports
Environmental monitoring
Groundwater - chemistry
Norway
Organic Chemicals - chemistry
Oxidation-Reduction
Snow - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Soil Pollutants - chemistry
Abstract
During winter operations at airports, large amounts of organic deicing chemicals (DIC) accumulate beside the runways and infiltrate into the soil during spring. To study the transport and degradation of DIC in the unsaturated zone, eight undisturbed soil cores were retrieved at Oslo airport, Norway, and installed as lysimeters at a nearby field site. Before snowmelt in 2010 and 2011, snow amended with a mix of the DICs propylene glycol (PG) and formate as well as bromide as conservative tracer was applied. Water samples were collected and analyzed until summer 2012. Water flow and solute transport varied considerably among the lysimeters but also temporally between 2010 and 2011. High infiltration rates during snowmelt resulted in the discharge of up to 51 and 82% PG in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The discharge of formate remained comparatively low, indicating its favored degradation even at freezing temperatures compared with PG. Manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) were observed in the drainage in autumn owing to the anaerobic degradation of residual PG during summer. Our findings suggest that upper boundary conditions, i.e., snow cover and infiltration rate, and the extent of preferential flowpaths, control water flow and solute transport of bromide and PG during snowmelt. PG may therefore locally reach deeper soil regions where it may pose a risk for groundwater. In the long term, the use of DIC furthermore causes the depletion of potential electron acceptors and the transport of considerable amounts of Fe and Mn. To avoid an overload of the unsaturated zone with DIC and to maintain the natural redox system, the development of suitable remediation techniques is required.
PubMed ID
24062062 View in PubMed
Less detail

Deposition history of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Lomonosovfonna Glacier, Svalbard: a 209 congener analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264147
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47(21):12064-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Olga Garmash
Mark H Hermanson
Elisabeth Isaksson
Margit Schwikowski
Dmitry Divine
Camilla Teixeira
Derek C G Muir
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47(21):12064-72
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air
Arctic Regions
Europe
Ice Cover
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Russia
Snow - chemistry
Svalbard
Abstract
A 37 m deep ice core representing 1957-2009 and snow from 2009 to 2010 were collected on the Lomonosovfonna glacier, Svalbard (78.82° N; 17.43° E) and analyzed for 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Congener profiles in all samples showed the prevalence of tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls, dominated in all samples by PCB-44, PCB-52, PCB-70 + PCB-74, PCB-87 + PCB-97, PCB-95, PCB-99, PCB-101, and PCB-110. The ?PCB flux varied over time, but the peak flux, ~19 pg cm(-2) year(-1) from 1957 to 1966, recurred in 1974-1983, 1998-2009, and 2009-2010. The minimum was 5.75 pg cm(-2) year(-1) in 1989-1998, following a 15 year decline. Peak ?PCB fluxes here are lower than measured in the Canadian Arctic. The analysis of all 209 congeners revealed that PCB-11 (3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl) was present in all samples, representing 0.9-4.5% of ?PCB. PCB-11 was not produced in a commercial PCB product, and its source to the Arctic has not been well-characterized; however, our results confirm that the sources to Lomonosovfonna have been active since 1957. The higher fluxes of ?PCB correspond to periods when average 5 day air mass back trajectories have a frequency of 8-10% and reach 60° N or beyond over northern Europe and western Russia or the North Sea into the U.K.
PubMed ID
24073820 View in PubMed
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[Detection of potentially carcinogenic compounds persisting in atmospheric air and having high priority for hygienic regulation].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115863
Source
Gig Sanit. 2012 Nov-Dec;(6):33-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
F I Ingel'
T B Legostaeva
N A Antipanova
E K Krivtsova
N A Iurtseva
Source
Gig Sanit. 2012 Nov-Dec;(6):33-6
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Air Pollutants - analysis - chemistry - classification - toxicity
Animals
Carcinogens - analysis - chemistry - classification - toxicity
Child
Child, Preschool
Cytogenetic Analysis
Drosophila - drug effects - genetics
Female
Genomic Instability - drug effects
Government Regulation
Humans
Hygiene - legislation & jurisprudence
Lymphocytes - drug effects - pathology
Male
Metallurgy
Mutagens - analysis - chemistry - classification - toxicity
Pilot Projects
Russia
Snow - chemistry
Urban Population
Abstract
The algorithm for the choice of potentially carcinogenic compounds (PCS) among emitted into air and results of the study, undertaken for realization of this algorithm are presented. The investigation was carried out in Magnitogorsk - Russian town of black metallurgy - in frames of the other study, aimed to evaluation of the influence of atmospheric pollution on children's health and genomic instability. The 11 PCS for further profound study of biological activity were selected out of more than 300 PCS, persisting in the air. The carcinogenic activity for 6 compounds out of these 11 ones was already have been found out before, that testifies correctness of the created approach and its adequacy for detection PCS in atmospheric air.
PubMed ID
23457990 View in PubMed
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43 records – page 1 of 5.