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Adherence to pancreatic enzyme supplementation in adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118352
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2012;73(4):196-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Colleen Faulkner
L Janette Taper
Marjorie Scott
Author Affiliation
Department of Applied Human Nutrition, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, NS.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2012;73(4):196-9
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Cystic Fibrosis - diet therapy
Dietary Supplements
Female
Humans
Male
Meals
Nova Scotia
Pancreatin - therapeutic use
Patient compliance
Self Report
Snacks
Abstract
Levels of adherence to pancreatic enzyme supplementation were investigated in Atlantic Canada adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF).
Participants were recruited from CF clinics at the Izaak Walton Killam Health Centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and the Janeway Children's Health & Rehabilitation Centre in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador. Self-report questionnaires were mailed to potential participants (n=51) by clinic staff and completed surveys (n=9) were mailed to the principal investigator.
Nine adolescents (mean age 15.2 ± 1.9 years) participated in the study. The adherence survey indicated that the majority perceived themselves to be adherent to taking enzymes with meals (67%), but only 44% perceived themselves to be adherent to taking enzymes with snacks. Recorded amounts of enzymes, taken over three days, indicated that 67% of participants were actually adherent to taking enzymes with meals and 56% with snacks. Including those who correctly predicted non-adherence, 56% and 44% of participants accurately predicted their adherence to taking enzymes with meals and snacks, respectively.
Adherence rates in the literature vary because of differences in definition and measurement. In the CF population, adherence has been shown to have a positive effect on quality of life. Results for this small group of patients suggest that Atlantic Canada adolescents with CF are able to estimate correctly their adherence to taking pancreatic enzymes, but definite conclusions cannot be made because of the small number of respondents.
PubMed ID
23217448 View in PubMed
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After-school snack intake among Canadian children and adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114423
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Nov-Dec;103(6):e448-52
Publication Type
Article
Author
Jo-Anne Gilbert
Doris Miller
Shannon Olson
Sylvie St-Pierre
Author Affiliation
Office of Nutrition Policy and Promotion, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON. jo-anne.gilbert@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Nov-Dec;103(6):e448-52
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet Surveys
Energy intake
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Male
Meals
Nutritive Value
Snacks - psychology
Time Factors
Abstract
The article describes the after-school (AS) snacking pattern of young Canadians and its relationship with the amount of energy consumed daily and at dinner.
We analyzed cross-sectional dietary data, measured by 24h recall, from 9,131 children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years from the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 2.2 (2004). We evaluated AS snack intake; i.e., foods consumed Monday to Friday between 3:00 and 6:00 pm, excluding lunch and dinner. We also assessed the consumption frequency of AS snack items, the energy provided by AS snacks and total daily energy intake (TDEI) by age group and sex.
Approximately 63% of respondents consumed AS snacks. AS snacks provided on average 1212[95%CI,1157-1268] kJ (290[95%CI,276-303] kcal), representing 13[95%CI,12-13]% of TDEI. Youth who consumed AS snacks contributing 1-418 kJ (1-99 kcal) reported lower TDEI than those who consumed no snack. Among AS snack consumers, TDEI was higher in groups consuming the highest amount of energy from AS snacks. Fruits were among the most frequently consumed food categories. However, the largest energy contributors were mostly foods that may be energy-dense and nutrient-poor, such as cookies, sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets.
Considering that the majority of children and adolescents consumed AS snacks, that these snacks provided about 13% of their TDEI, and that the majority of the most frequently consumed snacks were generally energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, the AS time period presents an opportunity to promote healthy eating in order to improve diet quality and potentially influence TDEI among Canadian children and adolescents.
PubMed ID
23618026 View in PubMed
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An after-school snack of raisins lowers cumulative food intake in young children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112735
Source
J Food Sci. 2013 Jun;78 Suppl 1:A5-A10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
Barkha P Patel
Nick Bellissimo
Bohdan Luhovyy
Lorianne J Bennett
Evelyn Hurton
James E Painter
G Harvey Anderson
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Food Sci. 2013 Jun;78 Suppl 1:A5-A10
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Appetite Depressants - administration & dosage
Appetite Regulation
Child
Child Behavior
Energy intake
Female
Food, Preserved
Fruit
Functional Food
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Nova Scotia
Questionnaires
Satiety Response
Snacks
Vitis
Abstract
Snacks are an important part of children's dietary intake, but the role of dried fruit on energy intake in children is unknown. Therefore, the effect of ad libitum consumption of an after-school snack of raisins, grapes, potato chips, and chocolate chip cookies on appetite and energy intake in twenty-six 8- to 11-y-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children was examined. On 4 separate weekdays, 1 wk apart, children (11 M, 15 F) were given a standardized breakfast, morning snack (apple), and a standardized lunch. After school, children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum snacks and were instructed to eat until "comfortably full." Appetite was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 min after snack consumption. Children consumed the least calories from raisins and grapes and the most from cookies (P
PubMed ID
23789934 View in PubMed
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Assessing the impact of pilot school snack programs on milk and alternatives intake in 2 remote First Nation communities in northern Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117132
Source
J Sch Health. 2013 Feb;83(2):69-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Michelle Gates
Rhona M Hanning
Allison Gates
Daniel D McCarthy
Leonard J S Tsuji
Author Affiliation
University of Waterloo, School of Public Health and Health Systems, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. m2gates@uwaterloo.ca
Source
J Sch Health. 2013 Feb;83(2):69-76
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Animals
Body mass index
Canada
Child
Eating
Female
Food Services - organization & administration
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Milk
Nutrition Assessment
Ontario
Pilot Projects
Program Development
Program Evaluation
Rural Population
Saskatchewan
School Health Services - organization & administration
Snacks
Time Factors
Vulnerable Populations - ethnology
Abstract
Canadian Aboriginal youth have poorer diet quality and higher rates of overweight and obesity than the general population. This research aimed to assess the impact of simple food provision programs on the intakes of milk and alternatives among youth in Kashechewan and Attawapiskat First Nations (FNs), Ontario, Canada.
A pilot school snack program was initiated in Kashechewan in May 2009 including coordinator training and grant writing support. A supplementary milk and alternatives program was initiated in Attawapiskat in February 2010. Changes in dietary intake were assessed using Web-based 24-hour dietary recalls in grade 6 to 8 students, pre- and 1-week post-program, with a 1-year follow-up in Kashechewan. Student impressions were collected after 1 week using open-ended questions in the Web survey. Teacher and administrator impressions were collected via focus groups after 1 year in Kashechewan.
After 1 week, calcium intake increased in Kashechewan (805.9 ± 552.0 to 1027.6 ± 603.7 mg, p = .044); however, improvements were not sustained at 1 year; milk and alternatives (1.7 ± 1.7 servings to 2.1 ± 1.4 servings, p = .034) and vitamin D (2.5 ± 2.6 to 3.5 ± 3.4 µg, p = .022) intakes increased in Attawapiskat. Impressions of the programs were positive, though limited resources, staff, facilities, and funding were barriers to sustaining the consistent snack provision of the 1-week pilot phase.
These illustrations show the potential of snack programs to address the low intakes of milk and alternatives among youth in remote FNs. Community-level constraints must be addressed for sustained program benefits.
PubMed ID
23331265 View in PubMed
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Association between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269469
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 2014 Nov;72(8):1039-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Agneta Hasselkvist
Anders Johansson
Ann-Katrin Johansson
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 2014 Nov;72(8):1039-46
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Body mass index
Carbonated Beverages
Computers
DMF Index
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Life Style
Male
Meals
Oral Health
Oral Hygiene
Periodontal Index
Sex Factors
Snacks
Sports
Sweden
Television
Tooth Erosion - classification
Toothbrushing
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim was to investigate the relationship between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents.
A clinical dental examination and a questionnaire concerning lifestyle factors, including drinking habits, oral hygiene, dietary consumption, physical activity and screen-viewing habits were completed. Three hundred and ninety-two individuals completed the study (13-14 years, n = 195; 18-19 years, n = 197). The material was divided into high and low carbonated soft drink consumption groups, corresponding to approximately the highest and the lowest one-third of subjects in each age group. Differences between the groups were tested by the Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression.
Intake of certain dietary items, tooth brushing, sports activities, meal patterns, screen-viewing behaviors, BMI and parents born outside Sweden differed significantly between high and low consumers in one or both of the two age groups. Dental erosion (both age groups) and DMFT/DMFS (18-19 years group) were significantly higher in the high consumption groups. Logistic regression showed predictive variables for high consumption of carbonated soft drinks to be mainly gender (male), unhealthy dietary habits, lesser physical activity, higher BMI and longer time spent in front of TV/computer.
High soft drink consumption was related to poorer oral health and an unhealthier lifestyle.
PubMed ID
25183250 View in PubMed
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Association between the seven-repeat allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) and spontaneous food intake in pre-school children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106526
Source
Appetite. 2014 Feb;73:15-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
André Krumel Portella
James L Kennedy
Hélène Gaudreau
Caroline Davis
Meir Steiner
Claudio N Soares
Stephen G Matthews
Marla B Sokolowski
Laurette Dubé
Eric B Loucks
Jill Hamilton
Michael J Meaney
Robert D Levitan
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, McGill University, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Canada; Departamento de Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Ramiro Barcelos, 2350 Largo Eduardo Zaccaro Faraco, 90035-903 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address: 00032386@ufrgs.br.
Source
Appetite. 2014 Feb;73:15-22
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alleles
Body mass index
Canada
Child, Preschool
Diet
Eating
Energy Intake - genetics
Female
Food Habits
Food Preferences
Genotype
Humans
Hyperphagia - genetics
Male
Obesity - genetics
Receptors, Dopamine D4 - genetics
Sex Factors
Snacks
Abstract
Studies in adults show associations between the hypofunctional seven-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), increased eating behaviour and/or obesity, particularly in females. We examined whether 7R is associated with total caloric intake and/or food choices in pre-schoolers.
150 four-year-old children taking part in a birth cohort study in Canada were administered a snack test meal in a laboratory setting. Mothers also filled out a food frequency questionnaire to address childrens' habitual food consumption. Total caloric and individual macronutrient intakes during the snack meal and specific types of foods as reported in the food diaries were compared across 7R allele carriers vs. non-carriers, using current BMI as a co-variate.
We found significant sex by genotype interactions for fat and protein intake during the snack test. Post hoc testing revealed that in girls, but not boys, 7R carriers ate more fat and protein than did non-carriers. Based on the food diaries, across both sexes, 7R carriers consumed more portions of ice cream and less vegetables, eggs, nuts and whole bread, suggesting a less healthy pattern of habitual food consumption.
The 7R allele of DRD4 influences macronutrient intakes and specific food choices as early as four years of age. The specific pattern of results further suggests that prior associations between the 7R allele and adult overeating/obesity may originate in food choices observable in the preschool years. Longitudinal follow-up of these children will help establish the relevance of these findings for obesity risk and prevention.
PubMed ID
24153108 View in PubMed
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Association of smoking and snuffing with dental caries occurrence in a young male population in Finland: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269471
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 2014 Nov;72(8):1017-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Tarja Tanner
Antti Kämppi
Jari Päkkilä
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Pertti Patinen
Leo Tjäderhane
Vuokko Anttonen
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 2014 Nov;72(8):1017-24
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dental Caries - epidemiology
Dental Restoration, Permanent - statistics & numerical data
Energy Drinks - statistics & numerical data
Finland - epidemiology
Food Habits
Health Behavior
Health Services Needs and Demand - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Oral Health
Prevalence
Smoking - epidemiology
Snacks
Tobacco Use - epidemiology
Toothbrushing - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking and snuffing habits in association with dental caries occurrence in a male cohort born in the early 1990s in Finland. The impact of health behaviours and factors related to the place of residence were included in analyses.
Oral health of 8537 conscripts was screened in a cross-sectional study. In the same occasion they also answered a questionnaire covering their smoking and snuffing habits and other background factors. The residence-related factors were obtained from the Defence Forces' database. Cross-tabulation together with chi-squared test and generalized linear mixed models were used for analyses.
Almost forty per cent (39.4%) of the men reported smoking daily and 9.0% reported daily snuffing. Restorative treatment need of those who reported frequent smoking was more than 2-fold (mean DT = 2.22) compared to the non-smokers (mean DT = 1.07). Smoking was statistically significantly associated with other harmful health behaviours. The snuffers reported more snacking than the non-smokers, but were most frequent brushers. The result from the statistical modelling showed that smoking, low tooth brushing frequency, eating sweets and consuming energy drinks frequently were significantly associated with restorative treatment need.
In this cross-sectional study, association between smoking and dental caries was distinct. The high rate of restorative treatment need among smokers may be explained by their poor health behaviours. Dietary habits of the snuffers seem harmful too, but are compensated by good tooth brushing frequency.
PubMed ID
25141188 View in PubMed
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Associations between schools' guidelines and pupils' smoking and sweet consumption.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261055
Source
Community Dent Health. 2014 Dec;31(4):234-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
R. Kankaanpää
M. Tolvanen
J. Anttila
S. Lahti
Source
Community Dent Health. 2014 Dec;31(4):234-9
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Attitude to Health
Candy
Carbonated Beverages
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dietary Sucrose - administration & dosage
Finland
Food Dispensers, Automatic
Food Habits
Food Services
Guidelines as Topic
Health Behavior
Humans
Oral Health
Organizational Policy
Schools - organization & administration
Smoking - prevention & control
Snacks
Students
Tobacco, Smokeless
Abstract
The aims were to find out if schools' sweet-selling was associated with pupils' sweet consumption, and whether the school's guideline about leaving the school area was associated with pupils' tobacco and sweet consumption.
Two independently collected datasets from all Finnish upper secondary schools (N = 988) were linked together. The first dataset on schools' sweet-selling (yes/no) and guideline about leaving school area (yes/no) was collected via school principals in 2007 using an Internet questionnaire with a response rate of 49%, n = 480. The second dataset on pupils' self-reported: weekly school-time (0, never; 1, less than once; 2, 1-2 times; 3, 3-5 times), overall sweet consumption frequencies (1, never; 2, 1-2 times; 3, 3-5 times; 4, 6-7 times) and smoking and snuff-using frequencies (1, never; 2, every now and then; 3 = every day) was collected in 2006-2007 in the School Health Promotion Study from pupils. An average was calculated for the school-level with a response rate 80%, n = 790. The total response rate of the linked final data was 42%, n = 414. Mean values of self-reported sweet and tobacco consumption frequencies between sweet-selling and non-sweet-selling schools and between schools with different guidelines were compared using Mann-Whitney test.
Pupils in sweet-selling schools and in schools without a guideline about leaving the school area, more frequently used sweet products and tobacco products than their peers in other schools.
Schools may need help in building permanent guidelines to stop sweet-selling in school and to prevent leaving the school area to decrease pupils' sweet consumption and smoking.
PubMed ID
25665357 View in PubMed
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Caries and cariogenic factors among children in Thorshöfn, Iceland

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102286
Source
Pages 741-743 in G. Pétursdóttir et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 93. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 20-25, 1993. Arctic Medical Research. 1994;53(Suppl.2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
recalling food eaten the previous day revealed a mean daily frequency of sugar use of 8.7 instances and the average number of between-meal snacks or drinks was 6.2 per day. Despite the relatively low caries prevalence, by standardised definitions 51.4% of children in this study misused sugar. The
  1 document  
Author
Eggertsson, H
Hughes, C
Árnadóttir, I.B
Arnadottir, I.B
Holbrook, W.P
Author Affiliation
University of Iceland
University of Glasgow
Source
Pages 741-743 in G. Pétursdóttir et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 93. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 20-25, 1993. Arctic Medical Research. 1994;53(Suppl.2)
Date
1994
Language
English
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Keywords
Caries
Cariogenic factors
Children
Dental caries
Iceland
Lactobacilli
Prevalence
Snacks
Streptococcus mutans
Sucrose
Sugar
Abstract
Caries prevalence, incidence, sugar consumption, counts of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were investigated in �órshöfn, a fishing community in NE Iceland traditionally believed to have high levels of caries. 115 children were examined (>90% of each age group). At 6 years the mean DMFS score was 6.7 (40% caries-free). DMFS scores at 12 years and 15 years were 4.3 and 6.0 respectively. Fissure-sealed surfaces were a mean of 0.9 at 6 years, 4.5 at 12 years, and 5.0 at 15 years. Mutans streptococci were carried by 69% and lactobacilli by 46%. Sugar consumption determined by a questionnaire recalling food eaten the previous day revealed a mean daily frequency of sugar use of 8.7 instances, and the average number of between-meal snacks or drinks was 6.2 per day. Despite the relatively low caries prevalence, by standardized definitions 51.4% of children in this study misused sugar.
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The contribution of snacks to dietary intake and their association with eating location among Norwegian adults - results from a cross-sectional dietary survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270018
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15:369
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Jannicke B Myhre
Elin B Løken
Margareta Wandel
Lene F Andersen
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15:369
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Diet Surveys
Eating
Energy intake
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Sex Factors
Snacks
Young Adult
Abstract
Snack consumption has been reported to increase over recent decades. Little is known about possible associations between snack composition and snack eating location. In the present study, we aimed to describe the contribution of snacks to dietary intake in Norwegian adults and to investigate whether the composition of snacks differed according to where they were eaten.
Dietary data were collected in 2010 and 2011 using two telephone administered 24 h recalls about four weeks apart. In total, 1787 participants aged 18-70 years completed two recalls. The recorded eating locations were at home, other private household, work/school, restaurant/cafe/fast-food outlet and travel/meeting.
Snacks contributed to 17% and 21% of the energy intake in men and women, respectively. Compared with main meals, snacks had a higher fiber density (g/MJ) and contained a higher percentage of energy from carbohydrates, added sugars and alcohol, while the percentages of energy from fat and protein were lower. The top five energy-contributing food groups from snacks were cakes, fruits, sugar/sweets, bread and alcoholic beverages. Snacks were mostly eaten at home (58% of all snacks) or at work/school (23% of all snacks). Snacks consumed at work/school contained less energy, had a higher percentage of energy from carbohydrates and had lower percentages of energy from added sugars, alcohol and fat than snacks consumed at home. Snacks consumed during visits to private households and at restaurants/cafe/fast-food outlets contained more energy, had a higher percentage of energy from fat and had a lower fiber density than snacks consumed at home.
We conclude that snacks are an important part of the diet and involve the consumption of both favorable and less favorable foods. Snacks eaten at home or at work/school were generally healthier than snacks consumed during visits to other private households or at restaurants/cafe/fast-food outlets. Nutritional educators should recommend healthy snack options and raise awareness of the association between eating location and snack composition.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25888253 View in PubMed
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36 records – page 1 of 4.