Most smokers begin smoking in adolescence. It is less well known how young people quit smoking and the factors that are associated with this process. A 15-year follow-up study on the North Karelia Youth Project has made it possible to assess these factors using a longitudinal study design. The project began in 1978 with students in Grade 7 of junior high school (age 13 years) and concluded in 1980 when the students reached Grade 9 (age 15 years). The follow-up study included four additional surveys. The present analyses are based on the data collected at ages 15, 21 and 28. The original sample comprised 903 students and the response rate of the last survey was 71%. A quarter (26%) of daily smokers and about half (46%) of occasional smokers at age of 15 had quit by the age of 28. The cessation rate was higher among females than males (P = 0.006). The cessation rate was higher among married (P = 0.015), employed (P = 0.01) and white-collar workers (P = 0.006). Cessation was less prevalent among those who had friends (P
Research on the association between income and smoking cessation has examined income as a static phenomenon, either cross-sectionally or as a predictor variable in longitudinal studies. This study recognizes income as a dynamic entity and examines the relationship between a change in income and subsequent smoking behaviour.
Longitudinal data from the National Population Health Survey (1994/5 to 2008/9) were used to examine the impact of (1) change in income and (2) change in poverty status, on the probability of being a former or current smoker among a sample of Canadians identified as having ever smoked. Covariates include socio-demographic characteristics, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and smoking in the home.
Smoking behaviour was not associated with a change in household income but was associated with a change in household income that moved an individual across the poverty threshold. Canadians whose income increased to above the poverty threshold were less likely to continue smoking than someone who remained in poverty (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.62-0.84). Those who remained out of poverty were also less likely to continue smoking than someone who remained in poverty (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.57-0.75). There was no significant difference between those who remained in poverty and those whose income decreased to below the poverty level.
This study strengthens the link between smoking and poverty and supports strategies that address income as a socio-economic determinant of health. Policies that increase household incomes above the poverty line may lead to improvements in smoking cessation rates.
This article provides a brief overview and update of Canadian smoking trends since 1966. It presents the characteristics of daily smokers who have successfully quit as well as those who have tried to quit but continue to smoke daily.
The time series smoking data are from a variety of surveys. The analyses pertaining to individuals who tried to quit smoking and those who successfully quit are based on a Health Canada-sponsored supplement to the 1994/95 National Population Health Survey (NPHS).
In contrast to the overall trend, smoking rates among teens have been rising in the 1990s. Approximately 16% of daily smokers reported that they had recently stopped smoking. The majority of former daily smokers indicated that their main reason for quitting was concern about their future health. The vast majority reported that they had gone cold turkey. About four in ten daily smokers reported that they had tried, unsuccessfully to quit smoking in the 12 months before their NPHS interview.
Maternal smoking is the most prevalent risk factor for low birthweight in Canada. This study compared the prevalence of maternal smoking before and during pregnancy from 1983 to 1992. Population-based surveys of 3,296 women during six months in 1983 and 7,940 women during 12 months in 1992 were conducted in Ottawa-Carleton using a self-administered questionnaire completed in the hospital postpartum period. The proportion of women smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy decreased from 28.5% in 1983 to 18.7% in 1992. This difference was due mainly to a reduction in the proportion of women who smoked before pregnancy (37.4% to 26.4%). Another factor was that more women stopped smoking early in pregnancy (23.9% to 29.2%). Gradients in levels of smoking by age, education, marital status and poverty level still exist; however, this is true for the general population. Programs to decrease smoking in pregnancy should continue to focus on reducing smoking among women in general and among those in the preconception and early stages of pregnancy in particular.
There is a widespread assumption that smoking behaviour is largely established by the age of 18 years. As a result, smoking prevention has focused almost exclusively upon youth. However, recent trends suggest that young adulthood may be an important--and largely overlooked--period in the development of regular smoking behaviour. The current study sought to examine patterns of tobacco use among young adults (aged 18-29 years) and to address the implications for tobacco control policy.
Data are presented from the 2003 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey, a national survey of smoking behaviour (n = 10,559, response rate 89%).
Measures of smoking behaviour, smoking initiation, susceptibility to smoking, and occupational status.
A total of 1.4 million or 28% of young adults in Canada currently smoke, the highest proportion among all age groups. The prevalence of daily smoking rose from 8% among youth to 22% among young adults, and approximately one fifth of smokers tried their first cigarette after the age of 18 years. Smoking behaviour among young adults was also distinct from older smokers: young adults were more likely to be occasional smokers and reported lower daily consumption. Finally, smoking prevalence and cessation rates varied substantially within subgroups of young adults, as characterised by occupational setting.
Dramatic increases in the proportion and intensity of smoking occurs after the age of 18 years. Smoking behaviour among young adults is distinct from both youth and older adults, and warrants immediate attention from the public health community.
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