The purpose of the study was to describe the sense of coherence (SOC) of three groups of Finnish polytechnic students (n=287) at the beginning of their studies and to follow it during a period of 3 year amongst the health care students (n=63) of this group. The associations between SOC and smoking, drinking and physical exercise were also studied. The data were collected with a questionnaire which included Antonovsky's (Adv. Nurs. Sci. 1(1983)37) SOC scale. Data analysis was with SPSS statistical software. The students showed a strong sense of coherence at the beginning of their studies. Physical activity was related to the strength of SOC, but no association was found with smoking and drinking. Health care students showed a stronger SOC at the beginning of their studies than the two other groups. During the follow-up focused on the health care students, SOC weakened in 6%, remained unchanged in 65% and strengthened in 32% of the participants. Smoking, drinking and physical exercise showed no association with these changes. Future research should be focused on identifying factors that are related to SOC during education.
This study aims to: (i) explore the relations between smoking initiation and different profiles of academic achievement trajectories in early to mid-adolescence; and (ii) to investigate whether background characteristics (gender, ethnicity, grade repetition, parental education) and proximal processes (parental practices, extra-curricular involvement) predicted class membership and smoking initiation.
Four-year longitudinal cohort study (7th-10th grade).
Adolescents completed the questionnaires during school hours.
At total of 741 adolescents with no history of smoking in grade 7 participating in the Montreal Adolescent Depression Development Project.
Self-report questionnaires were used to assess predictors and previous smoking in year 1, and smoking initiation by the end of the study. Grade point average (GPA) was obtained twice yearly from school records.
Three academic achievement trajectories were identified and found to differ significantly in rates of smoking initiation: persistently high achievers (7.1% smoking), average achievers (15.1% smokers) and unstable low achievers (49.1% smoking). Further, results showed that general parenting practices and parental education indirectly reduced the likelihood of smoking by reducing the risk of membership in classes with lower GPA.
Adolescents who do well in school are less likely to smoke and it may be cost-effective for smoking prevention to focus on the few (12%) easy to identify unstable low achievers who form 35% of smoking onsets. In addition, as parental support and democratic control reduced the likelihood of poor academic performance, promoting essential generic parenting skills from a young age may also prevent future onsets of smoking in adolescence.
This study explores how antisocial behavior among adolescents at age 14 is related longitudinally to their daily smoking, heavy alcohol use, and illicit drug use (hashish and amphetamines) at age 17. The sample of 9th graders (n = 1293) attending compulsory schools in Reykjavik, Iceland participated in the study and in the follow-up 3 years later. The focus is on a subgroup of 17-year-old adolescents who had not experimented with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, or illicit drug use at age 14. Even after eliminating from the study those who had experimented with smoking at age 14 and those whose peers smoked, the adolescents who showed more signs of antisocial behavior at age 14 were more likely to smoke daily at age 17. Similar findings were revealed for illicit drug use at age 17. Further, with regard to alcohol use, adolescents who had not experimented with alcohol but showed indications of antisocial behavior at age 14 were more likely to drink heavily at each episode at age 17 if their parents drank.
Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use.
AIMS: It is generally accepted, but not yet documented that the risk of future alcoholism increases with the amount of alcohol consumed. The objective of this study was to investigate this association using the Copenhagen City Heart Study. METHODS: Quantity and frequency of alcohol intake was measured in 19 698 men and women randomly drawn from the Copenhagen Population Register in 1976-78. The study population was linked to three different registers in order to detect alcoholism, and average follow-up time was 25 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for all putative confounders, the risk of alcoholism for women increased significantly at 1-7 drinks per week with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 3.53) compared to never/almost never drinking; the HR for drinking monthly was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.85). The risk for men did not increase significantly before 22-41 drinks per week (HR = 3.81, 95 % CI: 2.18, 6.68) or if they had a daily alcohol intake (HR = 3.55, 95 % CI: 2.11, 5.99). Smoking was independently associated with the risk of alcoholism for both men and women. CONCLUSION: The risk of developing alcoholism increased significantly by very low intakes of alcohol in women, while the risk is only increased significantly in men consuming more than 21 drinks per week.
As part of an ongoing ethnographic study, we examined the photographs and narratives that new fathers produced to ascertain how they created social, psychological, and relational space for continued smoking. A four-part process for analyzing the photographs consisting of preview, review, cross-photo comparison, and theorizing revealed how visual data analyses can be used to develop insights into men's health behaviors and beliefs. There is ongoing epistemological debate and methodological uncertainty about how photographic data should be treated in health sciences research. By conducting formal layered analyses, researchers can expand and extend both what is said about, and interpreted through, photographs.
To address observations that the smoking identities of youth are valid descriptors of their smoking behaviour, we examined the relationships between self-reported smoking identities, perceived levels of addiction, and established taxonomies of smoking behaviour of youth.
Cross-sectional data were collected on demographics, perceived extent of addiction to tobacco, smoking history, and self-reported smoking identity from questionnaires administered to 8225 students in British Columbia, Canada. A total of 7246 participants were categorised according to four smoking taxonomies established in the literature. Differences in perceived physical and mental addiction between smoking identity groups were calculated. The strength of the associations between the taxonomies of smoking and the smoking identity groups was also assessed.
There were significant differences in perceived levels of physical (Kruskal-Wallis chi(2) = 3985.02, p