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A 28 year follow up of mortality among women who smoked during pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature23125
Source
BMJ. 1995 Aug 19;311(7003):477-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-19-1995
Author
P. Rantakallio
E. Läärä
M. Koiranen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Science and General Practice, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
BMJ. 1995 Aug 19;311(7003):477-80
Date
Aug-19-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cause of Death
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Maternal Age
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - mortality
Prevalence
Prognosis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Smoking - mortality
Abstract
OBJECTIVE--To investigate long term mortality among women who smoked during pregnancy and those who stopped smoking. DESIGN--A follow up of a geographically defined cohort from 1966 through to 1993. SUBJECTS--11,994 women in northern Finland expected to deliver in 1966, comprising 96% of all women giving birth in the area during that year. Smoking habits were recorded during pregnancy but not later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality by cause (571 deaths). RESULTS--The mortality ratio adjusted for age, place of residence, years of education and marital status was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 2.8) for the women who smoked during pregnancy and 1.6 (1.1 to 2.2) for those who stopped smoking before the second month of pregnancy, both compared with non-smokers. Among the smokers the relative mortality was higher for typical diseases related to tobacco intake, such as respiratory and oesophageal cancer and diseases of the cardiovascular and digestive organs and also for accidents and suicides. CONCLUSION--The risk of premature death seems to be higher in women who smoke during pregnancy than in other women who smoke. This may be explained either by the low proportion of those who stop later and the high proportion of heavy smokers or by other characteristics of these subjects that increase the risk.
PubMed ID
7647642 View in PubMed
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The 1891-1920 birth cohort of Quebec chrysotile miners and millers: mortality 1976-88.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219707
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1993 Dec;50(12):1073-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1993
Author
J C McDonald
F D Liddell
A. Dufresne
A D McDonald
Author Affiliation
School of Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1993 Dec;50(12):1073-81
Date
Dec-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Asbestos, Serpentine
Asbestosis - mortality
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Male
Mesothelioma - mortality
Middle Aged
Mining
Occupational Exposure
Quebec - epidemiology
Smoking - mortality
Time Factors
Abstract
A cohort of some 11,000 men born 1891-1920 and employed for at least one month in the chrysotile mines and mills of Quebec, was established in 1966 and has been followed ever since. Of the 5351 men surviving into 1976, only 16 could not be traced; 2508 were still alive in 1989, and 2827 had died; by the end of 1992 a further 698 were known to have died, giving an overall mortality of almost 80%. This paper presents the results of analysis of mortality for the period 1976 to 1988 inclusive, obtained by the subject-years method, with Quebec mortality for reference. In many respects the standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) 20 years or more after first employment were similar to those for the period 1951-75--namely, all causes 1.07 (1951-75, 1.09); heart disease 1.02 (1.04); cerebrovascular disease 1.06 (1.07); external causes 1.17 (1.17). The SMR for lung cancer, however, rose from 1.25 to 1.39 and deaths from mesothelioma increased from eight (10 before review) to 25; deaths from respiratory tuberculosis fell from 57 to five. Among men whose exposure by age 55 was at least 300 million particles per cubic foot x years (mpcf.y), the SMR (all causes) was elevated in the two main mining regions, Asbestos and Thetford Mines, and for the small factory in Asbestos; so were the SMRs for lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and respiratory disease other than pneumoconiosis. Except for lung cancer, however, there was little convincing evidence of gradients over four classes of exposure, divided at 30, 100, and 300 mpcf.y. Over seven narrower categories of exposure up to 300 mpcf.y the SMR for lung cancer fluctuated around 1.27 with no indication of trend, but increased steeply above that level. Mortality form pneumoconiosis was strongly related to exposure, and the trend for mesothelioma was not dissimilar. Mortality generally was related systematically to cigarette smoking habit, recorded in life from 99% of survivors into 1976; smokers of 20 or more cigarettes a day had the highest SMRs not only for lung cancer but also for all causes, cancer of the stomach, pancreas, and larynx, and ischaemic heart disease. For lung cancer SMRs increased fivefold with smoking, but the increase with dust exposure was comparatively slight for non-smokers, lower again for ex-smokers, and negligible for smokers of at least 20 cigarettes a day; thus the asbestos-smoking interaction was less than multiplicative. Of the 33 deaths from mesothelioma in the cohort to date, 28 were in miners and millers and five were in employees of a small asbestos products factory where commercial amphiboles had also been used. Preliminary analysis also suggest that the risk of mesothelioma was higher in the mines and mills at Thetford Mines than in those at Asbestos. More detailed studies of these differences and of exposure-response relations for lung cancer are under way.
Notes
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1980 Feb;37(1):11-247370189
Cites: Br J Cancer. 1982 Jan;45(1):124-357059455
Cites: Biometrics. 1983 Mar;39(1):173-846871346
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1987 Jun;44(6):396-4013606968
Cites: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1979;330:91-116294225
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1992 Aug;49(8):566-751325180
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1971 Jun;22(6):677-865574010
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1972 Mar;24(3):189-975059627
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1991 Aug;48(8):543-71878311
PubMed ID
8280638 View in PubMed
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Association between respiratory symptom score and 30-year cause-specific mortality and lung cancer incidence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99093
Source
Clin Respir J. 2008 Oct;2 Suppl 1:53-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2008
Author
A. Frostad
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical and Registry-based Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway. anne.frostad@online.no
Source
Clin Respir J. 2008 Oct;2 Suppl 1:53-8
Date
Oct-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Myocardial Ischemia - mortality
Norway - epidemiology
Pneumonia - mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - mortality
Questionnaires
Smoking - mortality
Stroke - mortality
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory symptoms are among the main reasons why patients make contact with healthcare professionals and they are associated with several diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between respiratory symptoms reported at one time and 30 years cause-specific mortality and incidence of lung cancer in an urban Norwegian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 19 998 men and women, aged 15-70 years, were in 1972 selected from the general population of Oslo. They received a postal respiratory questionnaire (response rate 89%). All were followed for 30 years for end-point mortality and for lung cancer. The association between respiratory symptoms, given as a symptom load, and end point of interest were investigated separately for men and women by multivariable analyses, with adjustment for age, occupational exposure to air pollution and smoking habits. RESULTS: A total of 6710 individuals died during follow-up. Obstructive lung diseases (OLDs) and pneumonia accounted for 250 and 293 of the total deaths, respectively. Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) accounted for 1572; stroke accounted for 653 of all deaths. Lung cancer developed in 352 persons during follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratio for mortality from OLD and pneumonia, IHD and stroke increased in a dose-response manner with symptom score, more strongly for OLD and IHD than for pneumonia and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory symptoms were positively associated with mortality from OLD, pneumonia, IHD and stroke, and incidence of lung cancer. This association was significant for mortality from OLD and IHD.
PubMed ID
20298350 View in PubMed
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Associations of fitness and fatness with mortality in Russian and American men in the lipids research clinics study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178415
Source
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Nov;28(11):1463-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2004
Author
J. Stevens
K R Evenson
O. Thomas
J. Cai
R. Thomas
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. june_Stevens@unc.edu
Source
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Nov;28(11):1463-70
Date
Nov-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cardiovascular Diseases - complications - mortality
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Humans
Lipids - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - complications - mortality - physiopathology
Physical Fitness
Proportional Hazards Models
Russia - epidemiology
Smoking - mortality
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
To examine the relative size of the effects of fitness and fatness on mortality in Russian men, and to make comparison to US men.
Prospective closed cohort.
1359 Russian men and 1716 US men aged 40-59 y at baseline (1972-1977) who were enrolled in the Lipids Research Clinics Study.
Fitness was assessed using a treadmill test and fatness was assessed as body mass index (BMI) calculated from measured height and weight. Hazard ratios were calculated using proportional hazard models that included covariates for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake and dietary keys score. All-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality were assessed through 1995.
In Russian men, fitness was associated with all-cause and CVD mortality, but fatness was not. For mortality from all causes, compared to the fit-not fat, the adjusted hazard ratios were 0.87 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.37) among the fit-fat, 1.86 (95% CI: 1.31, 2.62) among the unfit-not fat and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.68) among the unfit-fat. Among US men, the same hazard ratios were 1.40 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.83), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.77) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.24, 2.06), respectively. There were no statistically significant interactions between fitness and fatness in either group of men for all-cause or CVD mortality.
The effects of fitness on mortality may be more robust across populations than are the effects of fatness.
PubMed ID
15365584 View in PubMed
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BMI and mortality: results from a national longitudinal study of Canadian adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150161
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Jan;18(1):214-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Heather M Orpana
Jean-Marie Berthelot
Mark S Kaplan
David H Feeny
Bentson McFarland
Nancy A Ross
Author Affiliation
Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. horpana@uottawa.ca
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Jan;18(1):214-8
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - mortality
Overweight - mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - mortality
Thinness - mortality
Abstract
Although a clear risk of mortality is associated with obesity, the risk of mortality associated with overweight is equivocal. The objective of this study is to estimate the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. A sample of 11,326 respondents aged >or=25 in the 1994/1995 National Population Health Survey (Canada) was studied using Cox proportional hazards models. A significant increased risk of mortality over the 12 years of follow-up was observed for underweight (BMI 35; RR = 1.36, P 0.05). Our results are similar to those from other recent studies, confirming that underweight and obesity class II+ are clear risk factors for mortality, and showing that when compared to the acceptable BMI category, overweight appears to be protective against mortality. Obesity class I was not associated with an increased risk of mortality.
PubMed ID
19543208 View in PubMed
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Breathlessness, phlegm and mortality: 26 years of follow-up in healthy middle-aged Norwegian men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80737
Source
J Intern Med. 2006 Oct;260(4):332-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2006
Author
Stavem K.
Sandvik L.
Erikssen J.
Author Affiliation
Medical Department, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway. knut.stavem@kilnmed.uio.no
Source
J Intern Med. 2006 Oct;260(4):332-42
Date
Oct-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality - physiopathology
Cause of Death
Cough - mortality - physiopathology
Dyspnea - mortality - physiopathology
Exercise - physiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - mortality - physiopathology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Prospective Studies
Respiration Disorders - mortality - physiopathology
Respiratory Function Tests - methods
Risk factors
Smoking - mortality
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: It is well known that pulmonary function is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) death. Less is known about the association between respiratory symptoms and mortality and whether such an association is independent of physical fitness. In this study, we assessed the association of breathlessness and productive cough with CV and all-cause mortality over 26 years. DESIGN: Prospective occupational cohort study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: In 1972-75, 1999 apparently healthy men aged 40-59 years were recruited to the study from five companies in Oslo, Norway. At study entry clinical, physiological and biochemical parameters including respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and an objective assessment of physical fitness were measured in all subjects, of whom 1,623 had acceptable spirometry. The data was analysed using Cox proportional hazards analysis, adjusting for age, lung function, physical fitness, and other possible confounders, with mortality until 2000. RESULTS: After 26 years (range 25-27), 615 men (38%) had died, of whom 308 (50%) from CV deaths. In multivariable proportional hazards models, 'having phlegm winter mornings' [hazard ratio (HR) 1.30, P = 0.01], 'breathlessness when hurrying/walking uphill' (HR 1.43, P = 0.005) and combinations of the two symptoms remained significant predictors of all-cause mortality. None of six respiratory symptoms were significant predictors of CV mortality in multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS: Phlegm, breathlessness and combinations of them were associated with all-cause mortality, even after adjusting for physical fitness, known CV and other risk factors such as smoking, and lung function. The finding of an association also after adjustment for physical fitness is new. In contrast, none of the six respiratory symptoms individually or in combination were associated with CV mortality in multivariable analysis.
PubMed ID
16961670 View in PubMed
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The burden of mortality from smoking: Comparing Sweden with other countries in the European Union

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67246
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19(2):129-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Rodu, B
Cole, P
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007, USA. rodu@uab.edu
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19(2):129-31
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Attitude to Health
Cause of Death
Comparative Study
Cross-Sectional Studies
European Union - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Education - organization & administration
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Sex Distribution
Smoking - mortality - prevention & control
Smoking Cessation
Survival Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
We describe the mortality currently attributable to smoking in the European Union (EU), and the change that would result if all EU countries had the smoking prevalence of Sweden. Almost 500,000 smoking-attributable deaths occur annually among men in the EU; about 200,000 would be avoided at Swedish smoking rates. In contrast, only 1100 deaths would be avoided if EU women smoked at Swedish rates. The low smoking-related mortality among Swedish men probably is due to their use of snus (Swedish smokeless tobacco).
Notes
Comment In: Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19(8):81915469040
PubMed ID
15074568 View in PubMed
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Canada severely limits means for conveying tobacco companies' messages to potential users.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature232184
Source
JAMA. 1988 Nov 4;260(17):2480-1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-4-1988

Cardiovascular mortality in relation to birth weight of children and grandchildren in 500,000 Norwegian families.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257690
Source
Eur Heart J. 2013 Nov;34(44):3427-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Oyvind Naess
Camilla Stoltenberg
Dominic A Hoff
Wenche Nystad
Per Magnus
Aage Tverdal
George Davey Smith
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Eur Heart J. 2013 Nov;34(44):3427-36
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Birth Weight - physiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Child
Fathers - statistics & numerical data
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Maternal Age
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Mothers - statistics & numerical data
Norway - epidemiology
Paternal Age
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - mortality
Smoking - mortality
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been related to low birth weight, suggesting the foetal environment may program future risk. Alternatively, common genetic factors for both low birth weight and CVD could explain such associations. We investigated associations between offspring birth weight and paternal and maternal cardiovascular mortality and offspring birth weight and cardiovascular mortality among all four grandparents, and further assessed the mediating role of maternal smoking during pregnancy.
All births from 1967 to 2008 that could be linked to parents and grandparents comprised the population (n = 1,004,255). The mortality follow-up among parents was from 1970 to 2008 and among grandparents from 1960 to 2008. The association of grandparental mortality with maternal smoking during pregnancy was analysed in a subpopulation of those born after 1997 (n = 345,624). Per quintile higher in birth weight was related to 0.82 (0.75-0.89) hazard ratio from coronary heart disease in mothers and 0.94 (0.92-0.97) in fathers. For stroke, these were 0.85 (0.78-0.92) and 0.94 (0.89-1.00), respectively. In grandparents for cardiovascular causes, the effects were 0.95 (0.93-0.96) (maternal grandmother), 0.97 (0.96-0.98) (maternal grandfather), 0.96 (0.94-0.98) (paternal grandmother), and 0.98 (0.98-1.00) (paternal grandfather). Adjusting for maternal smoking in pregnancy in the subpopulation accounted for much of the effect on grandparental cardiovascular mortality in all categories of birth weight. For grandparental diabetes mortality, U-shaped associations were seen with grandchild birth weight for the maternal grandmother and inverse associations for all other grandparents.
Associations between CVD mortality in all four grandparents and grandchild birth weight exist, and while genetic and environmental factors may contribute to these, it appears that there is an important role for maternal smoking during pregnancy (and associated paternal smoking) in generating these associations. For diabetes, however, it appears that intrauterine environmental influences and genetic factors contribute to the transgenerational associations.
Notes
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 2013 Nov;34(44):3398-923103662
PubMed ID
22977224 View in PubMed
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123 records – page 1 of 13.