The aims were to assess the impact of a total smoking ban on the level of airborne contaminants and the urinary cotinine levels in the employees in bars and restaurants. In a follow up design, 13 bars and restaurants were visited before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Ninety-three employees in the establishments were initially included into the study. The arithmetic mean concentration of nicotine and total dust declined from 28.3 microg m(-3) (range, 0.4-88.0) and 262 microg m(-3) (range, 52-662), respectively, to 0.6 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-3.7) and 77 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-261) after the smoking ban. The Pearson correlation coefficient between airborne nicotine and total dust was 0.86 (p
Random-digit dialing surveys were conducted before (n = 1543) and 8 to 9 months after (n = 1430) implementation of the city of Toronto workplace smoking bylaw. Compared with workers in the rest of metropolitan Toronto and persons not working outside the home, city workers evidenced more positive changes in regard to knowledge of the bylaw, its requirements, and enforcement provisions. City workers reported more changes in workplace restrictions and satisfaction with such restrictions. Patterns of smoking at work changed.
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To assist in planning anti-smoking advertising that targets youth. Using five US state campaigns, one US research study, and a Canadian initiative as exemplars, an attempt is made to explain why certain advertising campaigns have been more cost effective than others in terms of reducing adolescent smoking prevalence. Several factors which prior research and theory suggest may be important to cost effectiveness are examined. Specifically, three variables pertaining to the advertising message (content, consistency, and clarity) and two variables related to the advertising execution or style (age of spokesperson and depiction of smoking behaviour) are studied.
A case study approach has been combined with supplemental data collection and analysis. To assess campaign effects, published articles and surveys of adolescent smoking prevalence in campaign versus control (non-campaign) locations were utilised. Adolescent subjects provided supplemental data on the advertising message variables. Trained adults content analysed each advertisement to assess the executional variables.
A total of 1128 seventh grade (age 12-13 years) and 10th grade (age 15-16 years) students participated in the supplemental data collection effort.
An anti-smoking advertising campaign initiated by Vermont researchers was found to be the most cost effective in that it significantly reduced adolescent smoking prevalence at a low per capita cost. Next in order of cost effectiveness were California, Massachusetts, and Florida because behavioural outcomes were inconsistent across time and/or grades. California was ranked higher than the other two because it spent less per capita. Minnesota and Canada were ineffective at reducing adolescent smoking prevalence, and no comparison outcome data were available for Arizona. Four factors were found to be associated with increased cost effectiveness: (1) a greater use of message content that prior research suggests is efficacious with youth; (2) a more concentrated use of a single efficacious message; (3) an avoidance of unclear messages; and (4) an increased use of youthful spokespeople that adolescents could more readily identify with. No indication was found that depictions of smoking undermined campaign effectiveness by inadvertently implying that smoking was prevalent.
The highly cost effective Vermont campaign can be used as a model for future efforts. It is estimated that 79% of the Vermont advertisements conveyed efficacious messages, 58% concentrated on a single efficacious message, 70% showed youthful spokespeople, and only 4% contained unclear messages. The results suggest that, in the less effective campaigns, as few as 25% of the advertisements contained messages that prior research indicates should be efficacious with youth, as few as 10% of the advertisements focused on one efficacious message, and up to 32% of the advertisements lacked clearcut messages.
In the past few years, comprehensive smoke-free laws that prohibit smoking in all workplaces have been introduced in many jurisdictions in the US, Canada, and Europe. In this paper, we review published studies to ascertain if there is any evidence of health benefits resulting from the implementation of these laws.
All papers relating to smoke-free legislation published in or after 2004 were considered for inclusion in this review. We used Pubmed, Google scholar, and Web of Science as the main search tools. The primary focus of the paper is on health outcomes, and thus many papers that only report exposure data are not included.
Studies using subjective measures of respiratory health based on questionnaire data alone consistently reported that workers experience fewer respiratory and irritant symptoms following the introduction of smoke-free laws. Some studies also found measured improvements in the lung function of workers. However, the most dramatic health outcome associated with smoke-free laws has been the reduction in myocardial infarction in the general population. This outcome has been observed in the US, Canada, and Europe, with studies reporting reductions of between 6 and 40%, post-legislation, the larger reductions being mostly from studies with smaller population groups. The evidence as to whether these smoke-free laws have helped smokers to stop smoking or to reduce tobacco consumption is less clear.
There is now significant body of published literature that demonstrates that smoke-free laws can lead to improvements in the health of both workers who are occupationally exposed and of the general population. There is no longer any reason why non-smokers should be exposed to SHS in any workplace. We recommend that all countries adopt national smoke-free laws that are in line with article 8 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control that sets out recommendations for the development, implementation, and enforcement of national, comprehensive smoke-free laws.
Comment In: Int J Public Health. 2009;54(6):365-619859658
While a substantial body of research has examined the effects of smoking bans on smoking behavior, little is known about the relationship between smoking bans and nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to examine whether home and workplace smoking bans are associated with reduced nicotine dependence among continuing smokers.
We used longitudinal data of 1073 adult daily smokers from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (2004-2010). Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between smoking bans and nicotine dependence.
Smokers living in homes where smoking is restricted were less likely to be nicotine dependent (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.32-0.50) than smokers living in homes with no such smoking restriction. Workplace smoking policies had no significant association with nicotine dependence (complete ban: OR=0.79, 95% CI=0.56-1.11; partial ban: OR=0.82, 95% CI=0.57-1.16). There was some evidence that workplace smoking bans were significantly associated with nicotine dependence when single items of the Fagerstrom test were considered.
This paper demonstrates that the presence of a home smoking ban was associated with lower nicotine dependence among continuing smokers. The relationship of workplace bans with nicotine dependence was less clear and was contingent on the measure of nicotine dependence employed. These findings further confirm the importance of bans on smoking in the home, workplace, and other public places on reducing tobacco-related harms.
Few studies have examined the impact of anti-smoking legislation on respiratory or cardiovascular conditions other than acute myocardial infarction. We studied rates of hospital admission attributable to three cardiovascular conditions (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke) and three respiratory conditions (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia or bronchitis) after the implementation of smoking bans.
We calculated crude rates of admission to hospital in Toronto, Ontario, from January 1996 (three years before the first phase of a smoking ban was implemented) to March 2006 (two years after the last phase was implemented. We used an autoregressive integrated moving-average (ARIMA) model to test for a relation between smoking bans and admission rates. We compared our results with similar data from two Ontario municipalities that did not have smoking bans and with conditions (acute cholecystitis, bowel obstruction and appendicitis) that are not known to be related to second-hand smoke.
Crude rates of admission to hospital because of cardiovascular conditions decreased by 39% (95% CI 38%-40%) and admissions because of respiratory conditions decreased by 33% (95% CI 32%-34%) during the ban period affecting restaurant settings. No consistent reductions in these rates were evident after smoking bans affecting other settings. No significant reductions were observed in control cities or for control conditions.
Our results serve to expand the list of health outcomes that may be ameliorated by smoking bans. Further research is needed to establish the types of settings in which smoking bans are most effective. Our results lend legitimacy to efforts to further reduce public exposure to tobacco smoke.
To describe the changes in nationwide acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence following the implementation of a law banning smoking indoors in restaurants on 1 June 2007.
Retrospective registry study of all hospitalisations for AMI in Finland. All 34,887 hospitalisations for AMI between 1 June 2005 and 31 May 2009 were identified from the Care Register for Health Care (CRHC) and statistics for tobacco consumption were obtained from the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Comorbidities for individual hospitalisations were searched from the CRHC.
The incidence rate of AMI was reduced by 6.3% (95% CI 4.1% to 8.6%; p70 years). The incidence rates declined similarly for men and women.
Banning indoor tobacco smoking in restaurants was associated with a mild additional reduction in AMI incidence on a nationwide level in Finland.
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