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Academic stream and tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use among Ontario high school students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature223837
Source
Int J Addict. 1992 May;27(5):561-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1992
Author
K R Allison
Author Affiliation
North York Community Health Promotion Research Unit, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Int J Addict. 1992 May;27(5):561-70
Date
May-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adolescent
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Attitude to Health
Canada - epidemiology
Competency-Based Education
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Environment
Female
Humans
Male
Marijuana Smoking - epidemiology
Probability
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Social Conditions
Students
Abstract
This paper examines the relationship between academic stream and cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use among 2,543 high school students as part of the Ontario Student Drug Survey (1987). Students in basic and general academic streams were found to have significantly higher levels of cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use compared to advanced level students. The effects of academic stream remain significant (except for alcohol use) when gender, grade average, drug education lessons, and pressure to use these substances are included in multiple regression analysis. The findings indicate that the process of academic streaming needs to be further examined as a possible precipitating factor in drug use.
PubMed ID
1601538 View in PubMed
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[Active and passive smoking among personnel at the Bispebjerg Hospital 1992-1999]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67455
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2000 Oct 16;162(42):5623-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-16-2000
Author
A D Olsen
A M Fugleholm
S. Rasmussen
V. Backer
S J Jørgensen
H. Tønnesen
L. Iversen
Author Affiliation
H:S Bispebjerg Hospital, lungemedicinsk enhed.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2000 Oct 16;162(42):5623-7
Date
Oct-16-2000
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude to Health
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
English Abstract
Female
Humans
Male
Personnel, Hospital - psychology
Questionnaires
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Socioeconomic Factors
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to describe changes in smoking behaviour and exposure to passive smoking among hospital employees at a large Danish University Hospital (Bispebjerg Hospital) from 1992 until 1999 as part of a program toward a smoke-free hospital. The study was based upon three cross-sectional self-administered questionnaires surveys carried out among all employees at the hospital--approximately 4000 persons--in October 1992, April 1997 and April 1999, participation rates being 84, 80 and 76 percent. During the seven year period the smoking rate has decreased from 46% to 32% among male and 40% to 33% among female employees. A decrease in smoking rate was found among all subgroups of employees. Among male employees the rate of heavy smokers has decreased from 25 to 16%, among female employees this decrease is lacking, the rate of heavy smokers being 15% during the whole period. The numbers of employees exposed to passive smoking all day or most of the day has changed from 39% to 25% from 1992 until 1999. Among the smokers 30%--8% of all employees--responded that they would not be able to manage without smoking tobacco during working hours. This answer is most commonly found among heavy smokers, smokers with short or no education and smokers who smoke at any time of day. It is concluded that even though there has been a reduction in the smoking rate, the exposure to passive smoking among employees at the hospital still is unacceptably high. Based upon these results it has been decided that Bispebjerg Hospital is smoke-free for all employees from the 1st of January 2000. There is a need for initiatives for the smokers, who can't manage work without smoking.
PubMed ID
11059300 View in PubMed
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Adolescent mental health predicts quitting smoking in adulthood: a longitudinal analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86985
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2008 Feb;18(1):66-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Hemmingsson Tomas
Kriebel David
Tynelius Per
Rasmussen Finn
Lundberg Ingvar
Author Affiliation
Division of Occupational Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. tomas.hemmingsson@ki.se
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2008 Feb;18(1):66-70
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Mental health
Middle Aged
Military Personnel
Prevalence
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Smoking Cessation - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported an association between cigarette smoking and psychiatric illness. A common finding is that the prevalence of psychiatric illness among former smokers is much lower than among current smokers and is often similar to that among never-smokers. There are two alternative causal explanations for this association: either improved mental well-being results from smoking cessation; or those with poorer mental well-being are less successful at smoking cessation. The objective was to analyse a unique longitudinal data set to shed light on the direction of causality and to distinguish between these alternative explanations. METHODS: Information on smoking status and indicators of poor mental well-being from childhood and adolescence was collected at age 18 in 1969 from 49 321 men at compulsory conscription for military service. Follow-up data on smoking status were collected among a random subset (n = 694) who participated in one or more annual national Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions in 1981-2001. RESULTS: Approximately half of the smokers at age 18 in 1969 had quit by the time they were resurveyed (1981-2002). Those who had not quit and who reported smoking more than 10 cigarettes/day at age 18 (called persistent heavy smokers), were more likely to have had childhood and adolescent indicators of poor mental health measured at age 18 in 1969 than non-smokers or quitters. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that men who would subsequently be successful at smoking cessation reported better mental health and a lower prevalence of childhood mental health indicators at age 18 than persistent heavy smokers.
PubMed ID
17631488 View in PubMed
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Adolescents born extremely preterm: behavioral outcomes and quality of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138950
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2011 Jun;52(3):251-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Anne-Li Hallin
Karin Stjernqvist
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. anne-li.hallin@psychology.se
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2011 Jun;52(3):251-6
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Aggression - psychology
Alcohol Drinking - psychology
Aspirations (Psychology)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Child Behavior Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight - psychology
Infant, Newborn
Intelligence
Internal-External Control
Juvenile Delinquency - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Quality of Life - psychology
Risk-Taking
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden
Abstract
Fifty-two extremely premature born and 54 full-term controls were assessed regarding behavioral outcomes, risk-taking and self-perceived quality of life. Behavioral outcomes were assessed with the Achenbach Youth Self Report; risk-taking was estimated regarding alcohol and nicotine use; self-perceived quality of life and future expectations were rated; and attention and hyperactivity problems were surveyed retrospectively with the Wender Utah Rating Scale. The prematurely born reported fewer problems than full-term born on the externalizing scale (delinquent behavior and aggressive behaviour); and they reported less alcohol consumption. No difference was observed between the two groups concerning nicotine use, views about quality of life and expectations for the future or in the retrospective assessment of attention and hyper-activity problems. Conclusively, the prematurely born adolescents described a quality of life and future expectations comparable to full-term born controls. They also reported fewer behavioral problems and less risk-taking behavior.
PubMed ID
21121924 View in PubMed
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Adolescents' self-defined tobacco use status, marijuana use, and tobacco dependence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156559
Source
Addict Behav. 2008 Nov;33(11):1491-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Chizimuzo T C Okoli
Chris G Richardson
Pamela A Ratner
Joy L Johnson
Author Affiliation
School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, 302-6190 Agronomy Rd, Vancouver, Canada BC V6T 1Z3.
Source
Addict Behav. 2008 Nov;33(11):1491-9
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Behavior, Addictive
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Marijuana Abuse - epidemiology - psychology
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
School Health Services
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Tobacco Use Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
To examine differences in tobacco use and dependence between adolescents who are and are not marijuana users.
Cross-sectional analysis of existing survey data.
Data were obtained from 7440 adolescents who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II (BCYSOSH-II), a school based survey conducted in 2004.
Responses to demographic, current smoking, alcohol use, self-defined tobacco and marijuana use status questions, perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco, modified-Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (M-FTQ), and the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale (DTDS) were obtained.
Marijuana users were 5.9 times more likely to be current tobacco smokers and reported higher levels of perceived addiction to tobacco as compared with marijuana non-users. After controlling for demographics, life-time tobacco use, and alcohol use, marijuana use was associated with the nicotine dependent and sensory dimensions of tobacco dependence.
Adolescents who concurrently use tobacco and marijuana may be more tobacco dependent than are marijuana non-users. Concurrent use of marijuana may be a factor associated with tobacco dependence among a sub-group of concomitant drug-using adolescents.
PubMed ID
18571870 View in PubMed
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Age at menarche and current substance use among Canadian adolescent girls: results of a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126099
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:195
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Ban Al-Sahab
Chris I Ardern
Mazen J Hamadeh
Hala Tamim
Author Affiliation
Kinesiology & Health Science, York University, Ontario, Canada. bsahab@yorku.ca
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:195
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age of Onset
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Father-Child Relations
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Menarche - physiology - psychology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Sampling Studies
Self Report
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Substance use is among the key public health threats that find its genesis during adolescence. Timing of puberty has been lately researched as a potential predictor of subsequent substance abuse. The present study, therefore, aims to assess the effect of age at menarche on current practices of smoking, alcohol drinking and drug use among 14-15 year old Canadian girls.
The analysis of the study was based on all female respondents aged 14 to 15 years during Cycle 4 (2000/2001) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children & Youth (NLSCY). The main independent variable was age at menarche assessed as the month and year of the occurrence of the first menstrual cycle. The dependent variables were current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking in the past 12 months and drug use in the past 12 months. Three logistic regression models were performed to investigate the association between age at menarche and each of the substance use outcomes, adjusting for possible confounders. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design.
The total weighted sample included in the analysis represented 295,042 Canadian girls. The prevalence of current smokers, heavy drinkers (drunk in the past 12 months) and drug users in the past 12 months was approximately 22%, 38% and 26%, respectively. After adjusting of all potential confounders, no association was found between age at menarche and any of the substance use outcomes. School performance and relationship with the father, however, stood out as the main variables to be associated with smoking, heavy drinking and drug use.
Qualitative studies understanding the social and psychological changes experienced by early maturing Canadian adolescents are warranted to identify other correlates or pathways to substance use in this higher risk population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22424106 View in PubMed
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Age of smoking initiation: implications for quitting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203686
Source
Health Rep. 1998;9(4):39-46(Eng); 39-48(Fre)
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
J. Chen
W J Millar
Author Affiliation
Health Statistics Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa.
Source
Health Rep. 1998;9(4):39-46(Eng); 39-48(Fre)
Date
1998
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Age of Onset
Canada - epidemiology
Depression - epidemiology
Educational Status
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Self Concept
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Smoking Cessation
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Abstract
The effect of an early age of smoking initiation on cigarette consumption and on the probability of quitting is analyzed for people aged 21 to 39.
The data are from Statistics Canada's 1994/95 National Population Health Survey. The findings in this article are based on 3,449 randomly selected respondents aged 21 to 39 who were or had ever been daily smokers.
Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between age of smoking initiation and heavy cigarette consumption (more than 20 a day). Survival analysis techniques were used to study the relationship between age of smoking initiation and smoking cessation for men and women. Cox proportional hazard models were used to control for potential confounding factors such as education, household income, depression, chronic stress, self-esteem, and amount smoked.
Among 21- to 39-year-olds, smoking initiation during early adolescence was associated with greater daily cigarette consumption and a lower cumulative probability of quitting.
PubMed ID
9836879 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and smoking behavior in chronic pain patients: the role of opioids.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92152
Source
Eur J Pain. 2009 Jul;13(6):606-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Ekholm Ola
Grønbaek Morten
Peuckmann Vera
Sjøgren Per
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Eur J Pain. 2009 Jul;13(6):606-12
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Alcoholism - epidemiology - psychology
Analgesics, Opioid - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Chronic Disease
Complementary Therapies
Delivery of Health Care - utilization
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Health status
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Pain - complications - drug therapy
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Sleep Disorders - epidemiology
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Socioeconomic Factors
Tooth
Young Adult
Abstract
The primary aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate associations between chronic non-cancer pain with or without opioid treatment and the alcohol and smoking behavior. The secondary aims were to investigate self-reported quality of life, sleeping problems, oral health and the use of different health care providers. The Danish health survey of 2005 was based on a region-stratified random sample of 10.916 individuals. Data were collected via personal interviews and self-administrated questionnaires. Respondents suffering from chronic pain were identified through the question 'Do you have chronic/long-lasting pain lasting 6 months or more?' The question concerning alcohol intake assessed the frequency of alcohol intake and binge drinking. Smoking behavior assessed the daily number of cigarettes. Individuals reporting chronic pain were stratified into two groups (opioid users and non-opioid users). In all, 7275 individuals completed a personal interview and 5552 individuals completed and returned the self-administrated questionnaire. Responders with a self-reported earlier or present cancer diagnosis were excluded from the study. Hence, the final study population consisted of 5292 individuals. We found, that individuals suffering from chronic pain were less likely to drink alcohol. In opioid users alcohol consumption was further reduced. Cigarette smoking was significantly increased in individuals suffering from chronic pain and in opioid users smoking was further increased. Poor oral health, quality of life and sleep were markedly associated with chronic pain and opioid use. The use of opioids was associated with significantly more contacts to healthcare care providers.
PubMed ID
18774317 View in PubMed
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The alcohol-tobacco relationship: a prospective study among adolescents in six European countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9576
Source
Addiction. 2003 Dec;98(12):1755-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2003
Author
J J L Wetzels
S P J Kremers
P D Vitória
H. de Vries
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Source
Addiction. 2003 Dec;98(12):1755-63
Date
Dec-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Odds Ratio
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Self Assessment (Psychology)
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
AIM: This study examined the earliest stages in drug involvement, in terms of the relationship between alcohol and tobacco use, among adolescents from six European countries (Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom). International, gender and age differences were studied. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A large international sample of European adolescents (n = 10170, mean age = 13.3 years) was followed longitudinally. Data were gathered in the autumn terms of 1998 and 1999 by means of self-administered questionnaires. MEASURES: Adolescents' self-reports on smoking and alcohol behaviour were used. Both behaviours were classified into two categories, that of adolescents who had never used the substance and that of those who had used the substance at least once in their lives. Logistic regression was used to determine which substance was the best predictor of the subsequent use of the other substance. FINDINGS: Alcohol use and tobacco use were found to be associated with each other reciprocally. Results revealed that in Europe as a whole, tobacco use predicted subsequent alcohol use better than the converse. However, for Dutch girls, alcohol use predicted subsequent smoking behaviour better than the converse. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the development of alcohol and tobacco use patterns are closely related, but the order of progression is not universal and may reflect cultural factors.
PubMed ID
14651508 View in PubMed
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Analysis of influential factors associated with the smoking behavior of aboriginal schoolchildren in remote Taiwanese mountainous areas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123740
Source
J Sch Health. 2012 Jul;82(7):318-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Hsiao-Ling Huang
Chih-Cheng Hsu
Wu-Der Peng
Yea-Yin Yen
Ted Chen
Chih-Yang Hu
Hon-Yi Shi
Chien-Hung Lee
Fu-Li Chen
Pi-Li Lin
Author Affiliation
Department of Oral Hygiene, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan.
Source
J Sch Health. 2012 Jul;82(7):318-27
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Altitude
Confidence Intervals
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Odds Ratio
Peer Group
Population Groups - statistics & numerical data
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Schools
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Social Environment
Students - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
A disparity in smoking behavior exists between the general and minority populations residing in Taiwan's mountainous areas. This study analyzed individual and environmental factors associated with children's smoking behavior in these areas of Taiwan.
In this school-based study, data on smoking behavior and related factors for mountain-dwelling students were obtained from the 2008 and 2009 Control of School-aged Children Smoking Study surveys. A representative sample (N = 1239) from 26 primary schools was included. The association among 3 groups (never-, former-, and current-smokers) and the potential variables were simultaneously examined using unordered polytomous logistic regression analysis.
Between 13% and 34% of ever-smokers reported that their first smoking experience was in third grade. More than 70% were found to have bought cigarettes and 87% reported that the tobacco retailers had sold them cigarettes. The significant factors for current-smokers were predisposing factors, ie, attitude toward smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21); reinforcing factors, ie, family smoked in front of me (AOR = 2.44), friends smoked in front of me (AOR = 16.24), and school staff smoked in front of me (AOR = 2.98); and enabling factors, ie, cigarette availability and accessibility (AOR = 2.16 and 2.42, respectively). A student's perceived punishment for smoking at school had a positive significant effect on the risk of being former-smokers (AOR = 1.57).
The findings provide a basis for school and community to design and implement effective anti-smoking programs for remote mountain-based students to further reduce youth smoking.
PubMed ID
22671948 View in PubMed
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231 records – page 1 of 24.