This paper examines the relationship between academic stream and cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use among 2,543 high school students as part of the Ontario Student Drug Survey (1987). Students in basic and general academic streams were found to have significantly higher levels of cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use compared to advanced level students. The effects of academic stream remain significant (except for alcohol use) when gender, grade average, drug education lessons, and pressure to use these substances are included in multiple regression analysis. The findings indicate that the process of academic streaming needs to be further examined as a possible precipitating factor in drug use.
The purpose of this study was to describe changes in smoking behaviour and exposure to passive smoking among hospital employees at a large Danish University Hospital (Bispebjerg Hospital) from 1992 until 1999 as part of a program toward a smoke-free hospital. The study was based upon three cross-sectional self-administered questionnaires surveys carried out among all employees at the hospital--approximately 4000 persons--in October 1992, April 1997 and April 1999, participation rates being 84, 80 and 76 percent. During the seven year period the smoking rate has decreased from 46% to 32% among male and 40% to 33% among female employees. A decrease in smoking rate was found among all subgroups of employees. Among male employees the rate of heavy smokers has decreased from 25 to 16%, among female employees this decrease is lacking, the rate of heavy smokers being 15% during the whole period. The numbers of employees exposed to passive smoking all day or most of the day has changed from 39% to 25% from 1992 until 1999. Among the smokers 30%--8% of all employees--responded that they would not be able to manage without smoking tobacco during working hours. This answer is most commonly found among heavy smokers, smokers with short or no education and smokers who smoke at any time of day. It is concluded that even though there has been a reduction in the smoking rate, the exposure to passive smoking among employees at the hospital still is unacceptably high. Based upon these results it has been decided that Bispebjerg Hospital is smoke-free for all employees from the 1st of January 2000. There is a need for initiatives for the smokers, who can't manage work without smoking.
OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported an association between cigarette smoking and psychiatric illness. A common finding is that the prevalence of psychiatric illness among former smokers is much lower than among current smokers and is often similar to that among never-smokers. There are two alternative causal explanations for this association: either improved mental well-being results from smoking cessation; or those with poorer mental well-being are less successful at smoking cessation. The objective was to analyse a unique longitudinal data set to shed light on the direction of causality and to distinguish between these alternative explanations. METHODS: Information on smoking status and indicators of poor mental well-being from childhood and adolescence was collected at age 18 in 1969 from 49 321 men at compulsory conscription for military service. Follow-up data on smoking status were collected among a random subset (n = 694) who participated in one or more annual national Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions in 1981-2001. RESULTS: Approximately half of the smokers at age 18 in 1969 had quit by the time they were resurveyed (1981-2002). Those who had not quit and who reported smoking more than 10 cigarettes/day at age 18 (called persistent heavy smokers), were more likely to have had childhood and adolescent indicators of poor mental health measured at age 18 in 1969 than non-smokers or quitters. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that men who would subsequently be successful at smoking cessation reported better mental health and a lower prevalence of childhood mental health indicators at age 18 than persistent heavy smokers.
Fifty-two extremely premature born and 54 full-term controls were assessed regarding behavioral outcomes, risk-taking and self-perceived quality of life. Behavioral outcomes were assessed with the Achenbach Youth Self Report; risk-taking was estimated regarding alcohol and nicotine use; self-perceived quality of life and future expectations were rated; and attention and hyperactivity problems were surveyed retrospectively with the Wender Utah Rating Scale. The prematurely born reported fewer problems than full-term born on the externalizing scale (delinquent behavior and aggressive behaviour); and they reported less alcohol consumption. No difference was observed between the two groups concerning nicotine use, views about quality of life and expectations for the future or in the retrospective assessment of attention and hyper-activity problems. Conclusively, the prematurely born adolescents described a quality of life and future expectations comparable to full-term born controls. They also reported fewer behavioral problems and less risk-taking behavior.
To examine differences in tobacco use and dependence between adolescents who are and are not marijuana users.
Cross-sectional analysis of existing survey data.
Data were obtained from 7440 adolescents who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II (BCYSOSH-II), a school based survey conducted in 2004.
Responses to demographic, current smoking, alcohol use, self-defined tobacco and marijuana use status questions, perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco, modified-Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (M-FTQ), and the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale (DTDS) were obtained.
Marijuana users were 5.9 times more likely to be current tobacco smokers and reported higher levels of perceived addiction to tobacco as compared with marijuana non-users. After controlling for demographics, life-time tobacco use, and alcohol use, marijuana use was associated with the nicotine dependent and sensory dimensions of tobacco dependence.
Adolescents who concurrently use tobacco and marijuana may be more tobacco dependent than are marijuana non-users. Concurrent use of marijuana may be a factor associated with tobacco dependence among a sub-group of concomitant drug-using adolescents.
Substance use is among the key public health threats that find its genesis during adolescence. Timing of puberty has been lately researched as a potential predictor of subsequent substance abuse. The present study, therefore, aims to assess the effect of age at menarche on current practices of smoking, alcohol drinking and drug use among 14-15 year old Canadian girls.
The analysis of the study was based on all female respondents aged 14 to 15 years during Cycle 4 (2000/2001) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children & Youth (NLSCY). The main independent variable was age at menarche assessed as the month and year of the occurrence of the first menstrual cycle. The dependent variables were current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking in the past 12 months and drug use in the past 12 months. Three logistic regression models were performed to investigate the association between age at menarche and each of the substance use outcomes, adjusting for possible confounders. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design.
The total weighted sample included in the analysis represented 295,042 Canadian girls. The prevalence of current smokers, heavy drinkers (drunk in the past 12 months) and drug users in the past 12 months was approximately 22%, 38% and 26%, respectively. After adjusting of all potential confounders, no association was found between age at menarche and any of the substance use outcomes. School performance and relationship with the father, however, stood out as the main variables to be associated with smoking, heavy drinking and drug use.
Qualitative studies understanding the social and psychological changes experienced by early maturing Canadian adolescents are warranted to identify other correlates or pathways to substance use in this higher risk population.
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The effect of an early age of smoking initiation on cigarette consumption and on the probability of quitting is analyzed for people aged 21 to 39.
The data are from Statistics Canada's 1994/95 National Population Health Survey. The findings in this article are based on 3,449 randomly selected respondents aged 21 to 39 who were or had ever been daily smokers.
Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between age of smoking initiation and heavy cigarette consumption (more than 20 a day). Survival analysis techniques were used to study the relationship between age of smoking initiation and smoking cessation for men and women. Cox proportional hazard models were used to control for potential confounding factors such as education, household income, depression, chronic stress, self-esteem, and amount smoked.
Among 21- to 39-year-olds, smoking initiation during early adolescence was associated with greater daily cigarette consumption and a lower cumulative probability of quitting.
The primary aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate associations between chronic non-cancer pain with or without opioid treatment and the alcohol and smoking behavior. The secondary aims were to investigate self-reported quality of life, sleeping problems, oral health and the use of different health care providers. The Danish health survey of 2005 was based on a region-stratified random sample of 10.916 individuals. Data were collected via personal interviews and self-administrated questionnaires. Respondents suffering from chronic pain were identified through the question 'Do you have chronic/long-lasting pain lasting 6 months or more?' The question concerning alcohol intake assessed the frequency of alcohol intake and binge drinking. Smoking behavior assessed the daily number of cigarettes. Individuals reporting chronic pain were stratified into two groups (opioid users and non-opioid users). In all, 7275 individuals completed a personal interview and 5552 individuals completed and returned the self-administrated questionnaire. Responders with a self-reported earlier or present cancer diagnosis were excluded from the study. Hence, the final study population consisted of 5292 individuals. We found, that individuals suffering from chronic pain were less likely to drink alcohol. In opioid users alcohol consumption was further reduced. Cigarette smoking was significantly increased in individuals suffering from chronic pain and in opioid users smoking was further increased. Poor oral health, quality of life and sleep were markedly associated with chronic pain and opioid use. The use of opioids was associated with significantly more contacts to healthcare care providers.
AIM: This study examined the earliest stages in drug involvement, in terms of the relationship between alcohol and tobacco use, among adolescents from six European countries (Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom). International, gender and age differences were studied. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A large international sample of European adolescents (n = 10170, mean age = 13.3 years) was followed longitudinally. Data were gathered in the autumn terms of 1998 and 1999 by means of self-administered questionnaires. MEASURES: Adolescents' self-reports on smoking and alcohol behaviour were used. Both behaviours were classified into two categories, that of adolescents who had never used the substance and that of those who had used the substance at least once in their lives. Logistic regression was used to determine which substance was the best predictor of the subsequent use of the other substance. FINDINGS: Alcohol use and tobacco use were found to be associated with each other reciprocally. Results revealed that in Europe as a whole, tobacco use predicted subsequent alcohol use better than the converse. However, for Dutch girls, alcohol use predicted subsequent smoking behaviour better than the converse. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the development of alcohol and tobacco use patterns are closely related, but the order of progression is not universal and may reflect cultural factors.
A disparity in smoking behavior exists between the general and minority populations residing in Taiwan's mountainous areas. This study analyzed individual and environmental factors associated with children's smoking behavior in these areas of Taiwan.
In this school-based study, data on smoking behavior and related factors for mountain-dwelling students were obtained from the 2008 and 2009 Control of School-aged Children Smoking Study surveys. A representative sample (N = 1239) from 26 primary schools was included. The association among 3 groups (never-, former-, and current-smokers) and the potential variables were simultaneously examined using unordered polytomous logistic regression analysis.
Between 13% and 34% of ever-smokers reported that their first smoking experience was in third grade. More than 70% were found to have bought cigarettes and 87% reported that the tobacco retailers had sold them cigarettes. The significant factors for current-smokers were predisposing factors, ie, attitude toward smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21); reinforcing factors, ie, family smoked in front of me (AOR = 2.44), friends smoked in front of me (AOR = 16.24), and school staff smoked in front of me (AOR = 2.98); and enabling factors, ie, cigarette availability and accessibility (AOR = 2.16 and 2.42, respectively). A student's perceived punishment for smoking at school had a positive significant effect on the risk of being former-smokers (AOR = 1.57).
The findings provide a basis for school and community to design and implement effective anti-smoking programs for remote mountain-based students to further reduce youth smoking.