To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting.
A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls). The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden.
Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1) "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2) "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3) "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting.
Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco.
Cites: Health Place. 2005 Mar;11(1):55-6515550356
Cites: Health Educ Behav. 2004 Dec;31(6):702-1915539543
Prohibition of smoking on flights has received much public attention, and one has the impression that Norway lies ahead of other countries as regards regulation and reduction of smoking. According to a recent international comparison, quite the opposite seems to be the case. Norway has the worst figures compared with other Western countries. A local study conducted over the past ten years shows that attitudes towards smoking have changed dramatically, but there has been no change in the number of daily smokers. We suggest some ways of achieving a more smoke-free environment and reducing passive smoking.
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1990 Aug 10;110(18):2395-82219005
A cross-sectional study of 661 9th grade pupils in Bergen municipality was conducted in November 1992. The pupils completed an anonymous questionnaire on their smoking habits. 25% of the girls and 16% of the boys reported smoking daily. Among the daily smokers, the average daily consumption of cigarettes was seven for both sexes. Most of the experimenting with cigarettes took place from the 6th to the 8th grade. Most youngsters tried their first cigarette when outdoors with friends. 27% of the regular smokers reported smoking at home, and 40% at school. In spite of legislation banning the sale of cigarettes to persons below the age of 16 years, 75% of the smokers bought the tobacco themselves.
Smoking is still a problem, particularly among diploma student nurses. Strategies aimed at prevention and cessation need to be developed with emphasis on the motivation to quit rather than new cessation techniques. School curricula should address not only knowledge, but also attitudes and skills required to assist in the tobacco reduction effort.
One-hundred and eighty-seven general practitioners in western Norway recorded smoking habits among 2379 women, consulting for their first regular medical check-up in pregnancy. Forty-six per cent had been daily smokers the last 3 months before pregnancy. Thirty-nine per cent were still smoking at the time of their first check-up. Sixteen per cent of the daily smokers stopped smoking spontaneously during the first few weeks of pregnancy. Fifty-seven per cent of women younger than 20 and 28% of women 30 years and older, did smoke at the first check-up. Single women smoked more often than women living with a partner (58% versus 38%). Smoking habits were not associated with number of previous pregnancies. At the first check-up, 530 pregnant women, still smoking daily, 18-34 years of age, living with a partner, accepted to participate in a smoking intervention study. They filled in a questionnaire about their smoking habits, the smoking habits of their partners and their attitudes towards smoking cessation. Sixty-five per cent reported a reduction in their use of cigarettes after becoming pregnant. The mean reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked daily was 4.0 (31%). Most of the respondents expressed a strong motivation to quit or reduce their smoking habits during their pregnancy. Seventy-two per cent of the partners were daily smokers. Reduction in the consumption of cigarettes, negative attitudes towards smoking and determination to stop smoking was significantly higher among women who were encouraged by their partners to stop smoking and in those who perceived that their partners were willing to reduce their consumption.
BACKGROUND: Student nurses are an important target group for smoking prevention. This study analyzes (a) the relation between student nurses' smoking behavior and their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward smoking prevention and (b) the effect of targeted health education in improving student nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behavior. METHODS: A controlled trial was performed with school classes as the randomization unit. One hundred fifty-five first-year students from a school in nursing in Copenhagen, Denmark, participated in a baseline study and a follow-up study 7 weeks later. The intervention included eight lectures on the health consequences of smoking. RESULTS: About 40% of student nurses in both the intervention and the control groups were smokers, and this percentage did not change during follow-up. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers had less favorable attitudes and behavior toward smoking prevention. Student nurses' knowledge about the health consequences of smoking improved during the study period in both groups, but the change was larger in the intervention group. This difference was not present in multivariate analyses that controlled for age and smoking status. During follow-up the attitude improved in the intervention classes, while it deteriorated in the controls, revealing a significant difference, which persisted after multivariate adjustment. The amount of education had no effect on student nurse's preventive behavior. CONCLUSION: Targeted health education improves knowledge and attitudes toward smoking prevention in first-year student nurses.
The purpose of this study was to explore school and individual characteristics associated with smoking susceptibility among a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth who were never-smokers.
Using data from the 2006-07 Youth Smoking Survey, multi-level logistic regression modeling was used to examine if student-level and school-level characteristics were associated with smoking susceptibility among grade 9 to 12 never-smokers.
In 2006, 88.2% of Canadian youth in grades 9 to 12 were considered never-smokers, of whom 28.2% (n=255,840) were considered to be susceptible to future smoking. Significant between-school random variation in smoking susceptibility was identified, although the school-level smoking rate was not significantly associated with the risk of an individual student being susceptible. At the student level, smoking susceptibility was associated with having a sibling who smokes, having 1 or 2 close friends who smoke, having ever used alcohol or marijuana, being female and being in grade 9. Parental smoking and exposure to smoking in a car or in the home were not significantly associated with smoking susceptibility.
One way to prevent smoking onset among youth is to interfere with the development of susceptibility to smoking in non-smoking youth population. We found that over 1 in 4 Canadian youth who were never-smokers in 2006 were considered susceptible to smoking in the future. Ongoing tobacco control prevention initiatives are crucial for reducing the prevalence of smoking susceptibility among non-smoking Canadian youth.
BACKGROUND: Parents play a vital role as children develop tobacco behaviours. Many parents feel unsure about their possibility to influence their teenager's lifestyle. Knowledge about young people's acceptance for parental intervention could increase parental involvement. The overall objective of this study was to explore adolescents' perceptions and expectations of parental action regarding children's smoking and snus use, and whether they have changed over time. To see if there were differences whether the adolescent was a tobacco user or not the adolescents' tobacco use was followed; and described to put the findings on their perceptions and expectations of parental action in a context. METHODS: The study used a repeated cross-sectional design, reporting Swedish national data from three decades. Data were collected in 1987, 1994 and 2003 by a questionnaire mailed to homes, in total to 13500 persons. The annual samples, which were random and national representative, consisted of 4500 young people aged 13, 15 and 17 yr, 1500 individuals per age group. The sampling and data collection procedures were done the same way during each survey. Chi2- tests were used to evaluate differences in distributions. RESULTS: Adolescents in all age groups became more positive toward parental action over time. In 2003, more then 86% of the adolescents, including both smokers and non-smokers, strongly supported parental action on their children's smoking by trying to persuade them not to smoke (94%), by not smoking themselves (87%) and by not allowing their children to smoke at home (86%). Both non-smokers and smokers supported the idea of parental action in a similar way. Reduced pocket money had a weak support (42%), especially from girls. Eighty-nine percent of the adolescents expected their parents to act against smoking and 85% against snus use.Smoking was stable at 8% in 1987 and 1994 but decreased to 4% in 2003. In 1987 the snus use prevalence was 4% and in 2003 it was 3%. Snus users were mostly boys while few girls had done more than tried snus. More young people in all age groups had never tried smoking compared to the previous studies. In 2003 57% stated that they had never tried smoking. CONCLUSION: Adolescent smoking in Sweden has decreased and the proportion who never tried smoking has increased. The results of this study show that a growing majority of adolescents support strong parental intervention to help them refrain from tobacco, but preferably not in a punitive manner. This finding dismisses the notion that adolescents ignore or even disdain parental practices concerning tobacco. Prevention strategies and interventions addressing adolescent tobacco use that involve parents can be improved by using these findings to encourage parents to intervene against their children's tobacco use.
In an attempt to increase the impact of smoking cessation activities, some recent studies have examined the use of contests and competitions. The study reported here evaluates a year-long multiple-lottery quit-smoking contest at Volvo Flygmotor, the Volvo aircraft engine manufacturing company in Trollhattan, Sweden. Lotteries were held at 1, 6, and 12 months after the contest began. By quitting for at least 1 month, enrollees were eligible to win cash prizes. Maintaining nonsmoking status from a previous lottery automatically qualified enrollees for the next one. Smoking status was established by self-report, expired carbon monoxide, and saliva cotinine. Seventy-three employees, representing approximately 10% of the company's smokers, entered the contest during the initial 2-week enrollment period. Point prevalence 1-month and 6-month cessation rates were 64.4 and 49.3%, respectively. Continuous abstinence 6-month and 1-year rates were 45.2 and 32.8% respectively. Psychological, home, work and smoking history variables generally were not related to cessation or relapse.