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[A government survey and program of the medical society: tobacco policy in the 1990's]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67907
Source
Lakartidningen. 1990 Sep 26;87(39):3041-2, 3047-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-26-1990

An examination of the relationship between municipal smoke-free bylaw strength and the odds of being a former smoker.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176394
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 Jan-Feb;96(1):42-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sarah M Viehbeck
Paul W McDonald
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1. smviehbe@ahsmail.uwaterloo.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 Jan-Feb;96(1):42-4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Constitution and Bylaws
Cross-Sectional Studies
Humans
Logistic Models
Ontario - epidemiology
Public Policy
Smoking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Smoking Cessation - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between municipal no-smoking bylaw strength and the odds of being a former smoker.
Data from Statistics Canada's Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 1.1, 2001) and a validated bylaw scoring scheme (2001) were linked and analyzed to determine whether the odds of being a former smoker were related to the strength of no-smoking bylaws in municipalities that had been matched for potentially confounding factors. The sample consisted of ever smokers (current and former smokers) from Ontario municipalities that did not have a no-smoking bylaw, or had a fully implemented no-smoking bylaw before September 2000. Data were analyzed using a Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test and a logistic regression.
The results from the Mantel-Haenszel (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80-1.12) and logistic regression analyses (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.82-1.11) did not find support for the hypothesis that living in a municipality with a strong no-smoking bylaw would increase the odds of being a former smoker.
Findings were inconsistent with previous studies that have found no-smoking restrictions in homes, workplaces and public places increase the odds that smokers attempt and succeed in quitting smoking. However, results from this study must be interpreted with caution because of the cross-sectional design and limited control of potentially important covariates.
PubMed ID
15682693 View in PubMed
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Association between tobacco vendor non-compliance with youth access and point of sale restrictions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146713
Source
Tob Control. 2010 Apr;19(2):171
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010

Canadian campus smoking policies: investigating the gap between intent and outcome from a student perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137167
Source
J Am Coll Health. 2011;59(4):260-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Lynne Baillie
Doris Callaghan
Michelle L Smith
Author Affiliation
Department of Prevention, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada. lbaillie@bccancer.bc.ca
Source
J Am Coll Health. 2011;59(4):260-5
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
British Columbia - epidemiology
Female
Focus Groups
Health Behavior
Health education
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Male
Organizational Policy
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Perception
Risk assessment
Risk-Taking
Smoking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Smoking Cessation - legislation & jurisprudence - methods - psychology
Students - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Tape Recording
Universities - legislation & jurisprudence
Young Adult
Abstract
Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective.
The authors conducted 8 focus groups at 4 selected Canadian undergraduate campuses to investigate student perceptions and behaviors resulting from campus smoking policies.
Results indicated that student smoking behaviors are minimally impacted by campus smoking policies due to seriously compromised implementation and enforcement.
These findings imply that the presence of campus smoking policies and claims of "smoke-free" campuses should not be misinterpreted as achievement and without renewed focus and adequate tobacco control infrastructure, it will remain possible for young adults to initiate and maintain tobacco smoking on campus.
PubMed ID
21308585 View in PubMed
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Cannabis use in Canada: the need for a 'public health' approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147893
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Mar-Apr;100(2):101-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
Benedikt Fischer
Jürgen Rehm
Wayne Hall
Author Affiliation
Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addictions (CARMHA), Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC, Canada. bfischer@sfu.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Mar-Apr;100(2):101-3
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Health education
Health Policy
Humans
Marijuana Smoking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Public Health
Public Health Practice
Public Policy
Street Drugs - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in Canada, used by 1 in 7 adults and 1 in 4 students. Other forms of drug use (e.g., alcohol or injection drug use) are increasingly approached within a public health policy framework that focuses on reducing harms rather than use per se. Cannabis, by contrast, remains formally controlled by a criminal justice approach that focuses on enforcing abstinence. Its use is associated with a variety of possible acute or chronic health problems that include cognitive and respiratory impairment, psychotic episodes, dependence and injury risk. The incidence of these outcomes, however, is predicted by early onset and a high frequency and length of use that only apply to a minority of users. In a public health framework, cannabis use - especially in young populations - should be systematically monitored and high-risk patterns of use screened for in appropriate settings, e.g., schools and GP offices. Evidence-based primary and secondary prevention, treatment and enforcement need to be targeted at these high-risk patterns of use. Given the large cannabis user population, especially among young people, and the failure of the criminalization approach to discourage use, a public health framework for cannabis use is urgently needed in Canada.
PubMed ID
19839283 View in PubMed
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Compliance for Kids: a community-based tobacco prevention project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218757
Source
Can J Public Health. 1994 Mar-Apr;85(2):82-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
T J Abernathy
Source
Can J Public Health. 1994 Mar-Apr;85(2):82-4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Health Services - organization & administration
Alberta - epidemiology
Commerce
Consumer Participation
Health Education - organization & administration
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Patient compliance
Plants, Toxic
Program Evaluation
Smoking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Tobacco
Abstract
This article reports on the findings of a pre-test/post-test evaluation of the Compliance for Kids program carried out in three different communities. It demonstrates that it is indeed possible for a locally directed program to influence community standards of behaviour. It also suggests that in larger areas, such programs might better be implemented at the neighbourhood than at the city-wide level; and that merchants are influenced more by threat of enforcement than knowledge of laws. Such findings reinforce the need both for continued community programming and comprehensive legislation and enforcement.
PubMed ID
8012922 View in PubMed
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The effects of tobacco sales promotion on initiation of smoking--experiences from Finland and Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36476
Source
Scand J Soc Med Suppl. 1993;49:5-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
M K Rimpelä
L E Aarø
A H Rimpelä
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Turku.
Source
Scand J Soc Med Suppl. 1993;49:5-23
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Advertising
Finland - epidemiology
Health education
Humans
Industry
Norway - epidemiology
Plants, Toxic
Public Policy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smoking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Tobacco
Abstract
Norway and Finland were among the first countries to adopt a total ban on tobacco sales promotion. Such legislation came into force in Norway and Finland in 1975 and 1978 respectively. These two countries are sometimes referred to as illustrations that such legislation has been successfully used as a means to reduce tobacco consumption. Tobacco industry spokesmen seem to interpret available evidence in the opposite way and maintain that the prohibition has not contributed to reducing the use of tobacco. Among the publications referred to and misused by tobacco industry spokesmen are publications from the authors of the present report. The effects of a ban on advertising can only be properly examined after describing a reasonable conceptual model. Such a model has to take into account (i) other social and cultural predictors of smoking, (ii) tobacco sales promotion in the contexts of all other mass communication, (iii) control measures other than a ban, and (iv) the degree of success in implementing the ban on advertising. Like any other kind of mass communication tobacco advertising influences the individual in a rather complex way. Behaviour change may be regarded as the outcome of an interpersonal and intrapersonal process. Social science research on tobacco advertising and the effects of banning such advertising has a short history, most studies having been carried out in the late 1980s. After examining available evidence related to the effects of tobacco advertising on the smoking habits of adolescents we conclude as follows: the few scientifically valid reports available today give both theoretical and empirical evidence for a causal relationship. Tobacco sales promotion seems both to promote and to reinforce smoking among young people. The dynamic tobacco market represented by children and adolescents is probably the main target of tobacco sales promotion. In Finland, there have been few studies explicitly addressing the causal links between tobacco sales promotion and the smoking habits of adolescents. In Norway, no such studies have been carried out. If we examine the changes in the use of tobacco over time, the data available do not lend support to the conclusions drawn by the tobacco industry spokesmen. In Norway the prevalence of daily smokers was higher in 1975, when the ban on tobacco advertising came into force than either before or after. The strongest decrease in the prevalence of daily smokers took place during the first five-year period after the ban was introduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Notes
Comment In: Scand J Soc Med. 1994 Sep;22(3):235-67846484
PubMed ID
8266025 View in PubMed
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Home smoking bans in Finland and the association with child smoking.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160931
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2008 Jun;18(3):306-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Susanna U Rainio
Arja H Rimpelä
Author Affiliation
Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Finland. susanna.rainio@uta.fi
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2008 Jun;18(3):306-11
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Child
Child Behavior
Educational Status
Family Characteristics
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Male
Parents
Residence Characteristics
Smoking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - prevention & control
Abstract
Few studies in Europe have investigated home smoking bans and their association with child smoking.
A nationwide survey of 12 to 18-year olds in 2005 (n = 6503, response rate 66%) was used to study home smoking bans in Finland. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to study association of home smoking bans and child smoking.
Of the respondents, 58% reported a total ban, 27% a partial ban, 4% reported no ban and 10% chose the option 'I cannot say'. The lack of total ban was strongly associated with living in non-intact families, parents' lower educational level, parental smoking and parents' permissive attitude towards child smoking. Moreover, partial or no ban increased the likelihood of being a daily smoker. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the odds ratios (ORs) for children's daily smoking, adjusted for sociodemographic factors, parental smoking and their permissive attitude, were OR 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-3.6] for partial ban and OR 14.3 (8.6-23.7) for no ban. In families where both parents smoked, the adjusted ORs were correspondingly 1.5 (95% CI 0.7-3.0) and 2.9 (95% CI 1.1-7.8).
Home smoking bans will contribute towards a reduced risk of child smoking even when parents smoke. Tobacco control legislation needs to be enhanced with measures promoting awareness of the benefits achievable through strict home smoking bans. Families characterized by lower socioeconomic status and smoking parents are particular target groups.
PubMed ID
17925322 View in PubMed
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Impact of the 1976 Tobacco Control Act in Finland on the proportion of ever daily smokers by socioeconomic status.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159653
Source
Prev Med. 2008 Apr;46(4):340-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Satu Helakorpi
Tuija Martelin
Jorma Torppa
Erkki Vartiainen
Antti Uutela
Kristiina Patja
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute (KTL), Mannerheimintie 166, FI-00300 Helsinki, Finland. satu.helakorpi@ktl.fi
Source
Prev Med. 2008 Apr;46(4):340-5
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Censuses
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Program Evaluation
Public Facilities - legislation & jurisprudence
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Social Class
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Abstract
To assess the impact of the 1976 Tobacco Control Act (TCA) on smoking initiation across socioeconomic groups.
Nationwide data from independent annual cross-sectional postal surveys in 1978-2002 in Finland. Subjects were 25-64-year-old men and women born 1926-1975 (n=68 071). Socioeconomic status was derived individually from population census data. Logistic regression was applied to assess the impact of the 1976 TCA on the prevalence of ever daily smoking in birth cohorts and socioeconomic groups.
Clear socioeconomic differences in ever daily smoking among men and women were found. In all socioeconomic groups a declining cohort trend was observed among men whereas women showed an increasing trend in early cohorts and a declining one thereafter. A statistically significant decline in the proportion of ever daily smokers compatible with the impact of the TCA was found in all socioeconomic groups except farmers. Among women the decline was roughly similar in each socioeconomic group, while among men it varied and was most pronounced among white collar employees.
The impact of the 1976 TCA was less pronounced among male lower socioeconomic groups. In spite of the even impact of the TCA on female smoking across socioeconomic groups, large socioeconomic disparities remain. Tobacco control policy measures specifically directed at lower socioeconomic groups are needed.
PubMed ID
18158177 View in PubMed
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The impact of the Danish smoking ban on hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121075
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2014 Jan;21(1):65-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Tabita Maria Christensen
Lisbeth Møller
Torben Jørgensen
Charlotta Pisinger
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2014 Jan;21(1):65-73
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Comorbidity
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Government Regulation
Health Policy
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - prevention & control
Patient Admission
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Smoking Cessation - legislation & jurisprudence
Time Factors
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Abstract
Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The positive impact of a smoking ban on AMI hospitalization rates has been demonstrated both inside and outside Europe. A national smoking ban (SB) was implemented in Denmark on 15 August 2007.
To evaluate the impact of the Danish SB on hospital admissions for AMI.
Poisson regression models were used to analyse changes over time in AMI-admissions in Denmark. We investigated a seven year period: five years before and two years after implementation of the SB. We accounted for the variation in the population size and for seasonal trends. Potential confounders included were: gender, age and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).
A significant reduction in the number of AMI-admissions was found in the last three years of the study period after adjusting for the potential confounders. The significant reductions were found one year before the SB (relative rate (RR)?=?0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.94), one year after the SB (RR?=?0.77, 95% CI 0.71-0.85) and two years after the SB (RR?=?0.77, 95% CI 0.70-0.84).
A significant reduction in the number of AMI-admissions was found already one year before the SB after adjustment for the incidence of T2D. The results differ from most results found in similar studies throughout the world and may be explained by the incremental enactment of SBs in Denmark and the implementation of a nation-wide ban on industrially produced trans-fatty acids in food in 2004.
PubMed ID
22942214 View in PubMed
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28 records – page 1 of 3.