The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between municipal no-smoking bylaw strength and the odds of being a former smoker.
Data from Statistics Canada's Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 1.1, 2001) and a validated bylaw scoring scheme (2001) were linked and analyzed to determine whether the odds of being a former smoker were related to the strength of no-smoking bylaws in municipalities that had been matched for potentially confounding factors. The sample consisted of ever smokers (current and former smokers) from Ontario municipalities that did not have a no-smoking bylaw, or had a fully implemented no-smoking bylaw before September 2000. Data were analyzed using a Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test and a logistic regression.
The results from the Mantel-Haenszel (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80-1.12) and logistic regression analyses (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.82-1.11) did not find support for the hypothesis that living in a municipality with a strong no-smoking bylaw would increase the odds of being a former smoker.
Findings were inconsistent with previous studies that have found no-smoking restrictions in homes, workplaces and public places increase the odds that smokers attempt and succeed in quitting smoking. However, results from this study must be interpreted with caution because of the cross-sectional design and limited control of potentially important covariates.
Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective.
The authors conducted 8 focus groups at 4 selected Canadian undergraduate campuses to investigate student perceptions and behaviors resulting from campus smoking policies.
Results indicated that student smoking behaviors are minimally impacted by campus smoking policies due to seriously compromised implementation and enforcement.
These findings imply that the presence of campus smoking policies and claims of "smoke-free" campuses should not be misinterpreted as achievement and without renewed focus and adequate tobacco control infrastructure, it will remain possible for young adults to initiate and maintain tobacco smoking on campus.
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in Canada, used by 1 in 7 adults and 1 in 4 students. Other forms of drug use (e.g., alcohol or injection drug use) are increasingly approached within a public health policy framework that focuses on reducing harms rather than use per se. Cannabis, by contrast, remains formally controlled by a criminal justice approach that focuses on enforcing abstinence. Its use is associated with a variety of possible acute or chronic health problems that include cognitive and respiratory impairment, psychotic episodes, dependence and injury risk. The incidence of these outcomes, however, is predicted by early onset and a high frequency and length of use that only apply to a minority of users. In a public health framework, cannabis use - especially in young populations - should be systematically monitored and high-risk patterns of use screened for in appropriate settings, e.g., schools and GP offices. Evidence-based primary and secondary prevention, treatment and enforcement need to be targeted at these high-risk patterns of use. Given the large cannabis user population, especially among young people, and the failure of the criminalization approach to discourage use, a public health framework for cannabis use is urgently needed in Canada.
This article reports on the findings of a pre-test/post-test evaluation of the Compliance for Kids program carried out in three different communities. It demonstrates that it is indeed possible for a locally directed program to influence community standards of behaviour. It also suggests that in larger areas, such programs might better be implemented at the neighbourhood than at the city-wide level; and that merchants are influenced more by threat of enforcement than knowledge of laws. Such findings reinforce the need both for continued community programming and comprehensive legislation and enforcement.
Norway and Finland were among the first countries to adopt a total ban on tobacco sales promotion. Such legislation came into force in Norway and Finland in 1975 and 1978 respectively. These two countries are sometimes referred to as illustrations that such legislation has been successfully used as a means to reduce tobacco consumption. Tobacco industry spokesmen seem to interpret available evidence in the opposite way and maintain that the prohibition has not contributed to reducing the use of tobacco. Among the publications referred to and misused by tobacco industry spokesmen are publications from the authors of the present report. The effects of a ban on advertising can only be properly examined after describing a reasonable conceptual model. Such a model has to take into account (i) other social and cultural predictors of smoking, (ii) tobacco sales promotion in the contexts of all other mass communication, (iii) control measures other than a ban, and (iv) the degree of success in implementing the ban on advertising. Like any other kind of mass communication tobacco advertising influences the individual in a rather complex way. Behaviour change may be regarded as the outcome of an interpersonal and intrapersonal process. Social science research on tobacco advertising and the effects of banning such advertising has a short history, most studies having been carried out in the late 1980s. After examining available evidence related to the effects of tobacco advertising on the smoking habits of adolescents we conclude as follows: the few scientifically valid reports available today give both theoretical and empirical evidence for a causal relationship. Tobacco sales promotion seems both to promote and to reinforce smoking among young people. The dynamic tobacco market represented by children and adolescents is probably the main target of tobacco sales promotion. In Finland, there have been few studies explicitly addressing the causal links between tobacco sales promotion and the smoking habits of adolescents. In Norway, no such studies have been carried out. If we examine the changes in the use of tobacco over time, the data available do not lend support to the conclusions drawn by the tobacco industry spokesmen. In Norway the prevalence of daily smokers was higher in 1975, when the ban on tobacco advertising came into force than either before or after. The strongest decrease in the prevalence of daily smokers took place during the first five-year period after the ban was introduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Few studies in Europe have investigated home smoking bans and their association with child smoking.
A nationwide survey of 12 to 18-year olds in 2005 (n = 6503, response rate 66%) was used to study home smoking bans in Finland. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to study association of home smoking bans and child smoking.
Of the respondents, 58% reported a total ban, 27% a partial ban, 4% reported no ban and 10% chose the option 'I cannot say'. The lack of total ban was strongly associated with living in non-intact families, parents' lower educational level, parental smoking and parents' permissive attitude towards child smoking. Moreover, partial or no ban increased the likelihood of being a daily smoker. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the odds ratios (ORs) for children's daily smoking, adjusted for sociodemographic factors, parental smoking and their permissive attitude, were OR 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-3.6] for partial ban and OR 14.3 (8.6-23.7) for no ban. In families where both parents smoked, the adjusted ORs were correspondingly 1.5 (95% CI 0.7-3.0) and 2.9 (95% CI 1.1-7.8).
Home smoking bans will contribute towards a reduced risk of child smoking even when parents smoke. Tobacco control legislation needs to be enhanced with measures promoting awareness of the benefits achievable through strict home smoking bans. Families characterized by lower socioeconomic status and smoking parents are particular target groups.
To assess the impact of the 1976 Tobacco Control Act (TCA) on smoking initiation across socioeconomic groups.
Nationwide data from independent annual cross-sectional postal surveys in 1978-2002 in Finland. Subjects were 25-64-year-old men and women born 1926-1975 (n=68 071). Socioeconomic status was derived individually from population census data. Logistic regression was applied to assess the impact of the 1976 TCA on the prevalence of ever daily smoking in birth cohorts and socioeconomic groups.
Clear socioeconomic differences in ever daily smoking among men and women were found. In all socioeconomic groups a declining cohort trend was observed among men whereas women showed an increasing trend in early cohorts and a declining one thereafter. A statistically significant decline in the proportion of ever daily smokers compatible with the impact of the TCA was found in all socioeconomic groups except farmers. Among women the decline was roughly similar in each socioeconomic group, while among men it varied and was most pronounced among white collar employees.
The impact of the 1976 TCA was less pronounced among male lower socioeconomic groups. In spite of the even impact of the TCA on female smoking across socioeconomic groups, large socioeconomic disparities remain. Tobacco control policy measures specifically directed at lower socioeconomic groups are needed.
Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The positive impact of a smoking ban on AMI hospitalization rates has been demonstrated both inside and outside Europe. A national smoking ban (SB) was implemented in Denmark on 15 August 2007.
To evaluate the impact of the Danish SB on hospital admissions for AMI.
Poisson regression models were used to analyse changes over time in AMI-admissions in Denmark. We investigated a seven year period: five years before and two years after implementation of the SB. We accounted for the variation in the population size and for seasonal trends. Potential confounders included were: gender, age and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).
A significant reduction in the number of AMI-admissions was found in the last three years of the study period after adjusting for the potential confounders. The significant reductions were found one year before the SB (relative rate (RR)?=?0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.94), one year after the SB (RR?=?0.77, 95% CI 0.71-0.85) and two years after the SB (RR?=?0.77, 95% CI 0.70-0.84).
A significant reduction in the number of AMI-admissions was found already one year before the SB after adjustment for the incidence of T2D. The results differ from most results found in similar studies throughout the world and may be explained by the incremental enactment of SBs in Denmark and the implementation of a nation-wide ban on industrially produced trans-fatty acids in food in 2004.