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A 10 year asthma programme in Finland: major change for the better.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168103
Source
Thorax. 2006 Aug;61(8):663-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2006
Author
T. Haahtela
L E Tuomisto
A. Pietinalho
T. Klaukka
M. Erhola
M. Kaila
M M Nieminen
E. Kontula
L A Laitinen
Author Affiliation
Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P O Box 160, FIN-00029 HUS, Finland. tari.haahtela@hus.fi
Source
Thorax. 2006 Aug;61(8):663-70
Date
Aug-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-Asthmatic Agents - therapeutic use
Asthma - economics - epidemiology - therapy
Child
Communication
Cost of Illness
Disabled Persons
Emergency Treatment - statistics & numerical data
Finland - epidemiology
Health Promotion - economics - organization & administration - trends
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Insurance, Disability - economics
Interprofessional Relations
National Health Programs - economics - trends
Pharmaceutical Services - standards
Primary Health Care
Program Evaluation
Smoking - epidemiology
Abstract
A National Asthma Programme was undertaken in Finland from 1994 to 2004 to improve asthma care and prevent an increase in costs. The main goal was to lessen the burden of asthma to individuals and society.
The action programme focused on implementation of new knowledge, especially for primary care. The main premise underpinning the campaign was that asthma is an inflammatory disease and requires anti-inflammatory treatment from the outset. The key for implementation was an effective network of asthma-responsible professionals and development of a post hoc evaluation strategy. In 1997 Finnish pharmacies were included in the Pharmacy Programme and in 2002 a Childhood Asthma mini-Programme was launched.
The incidence of asthma is still increasing, but the burden of asthma has decreased considerably. The number of hospital days has fallen by 54% from 110 000 in 1993 to 51 000 in 2003, 69% in relation to the number of asthmatics (n = 135 363 and 207 757, respectively), with the trend still downwards. In 1993, 7212 patients of working age (9% of 80 133 asthmatics) received a disability pension from the Social Insurance Institution compared with 1741 in 2003 (1.5% of 116 067 asthmatics). The absolute decrease was 76%, and 83% in relation to the number of asthmatics. The increase in the cost of asthma (compensation for disability, drugs, hospital care, and outpatient doctor visits) ended: in 1993 the costs were 218 million euro which had fallen to 213.5 million euro in 2003. Costs per patient per year have decreased 36% (from 1611 euro to 1031 euro).
It is possible to reduce the morbidity of asthma and its impact on individuals as well as on society. Improvements would have taken place without the programme, but not of this magnitude.
Notes
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PubMed ID
16877690 View in PubMed
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A 10-year prospective study of tobacco smoking and periodontal health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67464
Source
J Periodontol. 2000 Aug;71(8):1338-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2000
Author
J. Bergström
S. Eliasson
J. Dock
Author Affiliation
Department of Periodontology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
J Periodontol. 2000 Aug;71(8):1338-47
Date
Aug-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alveolar Bone Loss - epidemiology
Analysis of Variance
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Dental Plaque Index
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Gingival Hemorrhage - epidemiology
Humans
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Music
Observer Variation
Oral Hygiene
Periodontal Diseases - epidemiology
Periodontal Pocket - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Smoking - epidemiology
Smoking Cessation - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: To date only a few studies have evaluated the long-term influence of smoking and smoking cessation on periodontal health. The present study, therefore, was undertaken with the aim to prospectively investigate the influence of smoking exposure over time on the periodontal health condition in a targeted population before and after a follow-up interval of 10 years. METHODS: The primary study base consisted of a population of occupational musicians that was investigated the first time in 1982 and scheduled for reinvestigation in 1992 and 2002. The 1992 investigation included 101 individuals from the baseline study constituting a prospective cohort including 16 smokers, who had continued to smoke throughout the entire length of the 10-year period; 28 former smokers who had ceased smoking an average of approximately 9 years before the commencement of the baseline study; 40 non-smokers, who denied ever having smoked tobacco; and 17 individuals whose smoking pattern changed or for whom incomplete data were available. The clinical and radiographic variables used for the assessment of the periodontal health condition of the individual were frequency of periodontally diseased sites (probing depth > or =4 mm), gingival bleeding (%), and periodontal bone height (%). The oral hygiene standard was evaluated by means of a standard plaque index. RESULTS: The changes over the 10 years with respect to frequency of diseased sites indicated an increased frequency in continuous smokers versus decreased frequencies in former smokers and non-smokers. Controlling for age and frequency of diseased sites at baseline, the 10-year change was significantly associated with smoking (P
PubMed ID
10972650 View in PubMed
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12-month follow-up of an exploratory 'brief intervention' for high-frequency cannabis users among Canadian university students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124885
Source
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2012;7:15
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Benedikt Fischer
Wayne Jones
Paul Shuper
Jürgen Rehm
Author Affiliation
Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addictions, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 2400, 515 West Hastings St,, Vancouver, BC, V6B 5K3, Canada. bfischer@sfu.ca
Source
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2012;7:15
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Male
Marijuana Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control
Ontario - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Questionnaires
Risk Reduction Behavior
Young Adult
Abstract
One in three young people use cannabis in Canada. Cannabis use can be associated with a variety of health problems which occur primarily among intensive/frequent users. Availability and effectiveness of conventional treatment for cannabis use is limited. While Brief Interventions (BIs) have been shown to result in short-term reductions of cannabis use risks or problems, few studies have assessed their longer-term effects. The present study examined 12-month follow-up outcomes for BIs in a cohort of young Canadian high-frequency cannabis users where select short-term effects (3 months) had previously been assessed and demonstrated.
N=134 frequent cannabis users were recruited from among university students in Toronto, randomized to either an oral or a written cannabis BI, or corresponding health controls, and assessed in-person at baseline, 3-months, and 12-months. N=72 (54%) of the original sample were retained for follow-up analyses at 12-months where reductions in 'deep inhalation/breathholding' (Q=13.1; p
Notes
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Cites: Subst Use Misuse. 2000 Feb;35(3):421-3210714454
Cites: Subst Abus. 2007;28(3):7-3018077300
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Cites: J Subst Abuse Treat. 2008 Jun;34(4):407-1417869051
Cites: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Jan 1;99(1-3):280-9518929451
Cites: Int Rev Psychiatry. 2009 Apr;21(2):96-10319367503
Cites: Int J Drug Policy. 2009 Nov;20(6):458-6619362460
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2009 Mar-Apr;100(2):101-319839283
Cites: Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2010 Jun;19(2):110-2420506447
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2011 Sep-Oct;102(5):324-722032094
PubMed ID
22538183 View in PubMed
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A 12 year prospective study of circulatory disease among Danish shift workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82071
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2006 Jul;63(7):451-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2006
Author
Tüchsen F.
Hannerz H.
Burr H.
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Occupational Health, Copenhagen, Denmark. ft@ami.dk
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2006 Jul;63(7):451-5
Date
Jul-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Smoking - epidemiology
Work Schedule Tolerance - physiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the risk of heart disease after shift work reached different estimates and review authors disagree about the validity of some of the studies. A cross sectional study showed that shift workers had a higher prevalence of nearly every unfavourable work environment factor investigated. Conflicts at work and low decision latitude were more frequent among shift workers, and all-day walking or standing work and part-time jobs were more often found among female shift workers. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of circulatory disease in a prospective follow up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Danes, considering known or suspected confounding factors. METHODS: A cohort of 5517 people who were gainfully employed in 1990 were followed up for all hospital treatments due to circulatory diseases (390-458, ICD-8; I00-I99, ICD-10) from 1991 to 2002 inclusive. A log linear Poisson regression model was applied to control confounding factors and calculate the relative risk for 927 men and women working nights, evenings, or other non-day shifts compared to 4579 day workers. RESULTS: Non-day workers compared to day workers had a relative risk (RR) for all circulatory diseases of 1.31 (95% CI 1.06-1.63). Without control for BMI and smoking, the RR estimate was 1.33 (95% CI 1.07-1.65). For a subgroup of workers with at least three years' seniority, the RR was 1.40 (95% CI 1.09-1.81). The population based aetiological fraction of shift work was estimated to 5%. CONCLUSION: This study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that shift work carries an excess risk of circulatory diseases.
PubMed ID
16735480 View in PubMed
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A 15-yr longitudinal study of xerostomia in a Swedish population of 50-yr-old subjects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90130
Source
Eur J Oral Sci. 2009 Feb;117(1):13-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2009
Author
Johansson Ann-Katrin
Johansson Anders
Unell Lennart
Ekbäck Gunnar
Ordell Sven
Carlsson Gunnar E
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Dentistry-Cariology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Ann-Katrin.Johansson@iko.uib.no
Source
Eur J Oral Sci. 2009 Feb;117(1):13-9
Date
Feb-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Circadian Rhythm
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health status
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Statistics, nonparametric
Sweden - epidemiology
Xerostomia - epidemiology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the changes in prevalence of xerostomia in subjects from 50 to 65 yr of age. Questionnaires were sent to all subjects who were born in 1942 and were living in two Swedish counties in 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. The analyses focused on those who answered the questionnaires both in 1992 and in 2007. The response rate was 71.4% (n = 6,346) in 1992 and 73.1% (n = 6,078) in 2007. Of those who answered the questionnaire in 1992, 74.3% (n = 4,714) also responded in 2007. There was an almost linear increase in the prevalence of xerostomia at the four study time-points (i.e. when the subjects were 50, 55, 60, and 65 yr of age). Xerostomia was more prevalent at night than during the day. The pooled prevalence of night-time and daytime xerostomia was 6% at 50 yr of age and 15% at 65 yr of age, and it was higher in women than in men on both occasions. Logistic regression analyses showed that impaired health and smoking were significantly associated with daytime xerostomia but not with night-time xerostomia. Despite the increase in prevalence of xerostomia from 50 to 65 yr of age, there was considerable variation during the observation period. The incidence rate was 13% (507/4,015) and the disappearance rate was 42% (104/250) (dichotomized answers).
PubMed ID
19196313 View in PubMed
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A 24-year follow-up of body mass index and cerebral atrophy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9325
Source
Neurology. 2004 Nov 23;63(10):1876-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-23-2004
Author
D. Gustafson
L. Lissner
C. Bengtsson
C. Björkelund
I. Skoog
Author Affiliation
Department of Family and Community Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA. deb.gustafson@neuro.gu.se
Source
Neurology. 2004 Nov 23;63(10):1876-81
Date
Nov-23-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Atrophy
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Cerebral Cortex - pathology - radiography
Comorbidity
Dementia - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Educational Status
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Surveys
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Humans
Hyperlipidemia - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology - pathology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the longitudinal relationship between body mass index (BMI), a major vascular risk factor, and cerebral atrophy, a marker of neurodegeneration, in a population-based sample of middle-aged women. METHODS: A representative sample of 290 women born in 1908, 1914, 1918, and 1922 was examined in 1968 to 1969, 1974 to 1975, 1980 to 1981, and 1992 to 1993 as part of the Population Study of Women in Göteborg, Sweden. At each examination, women completed a survey on a variety of health and lifestyle factors and underwent anthropometric, clinical, and neuropsychiatric assessments and blood collection. Atrophy of the temporal, frontal, occipital, and parietal lobes was measured on CT in 1992 when participants were age 70 to 84. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between BMI and brain measures. RESULTS: Women with atrophy of the temporal lobe were, on average, 1.1 to 1.5 kg/m2 higher in BMI at all examinations than women without temporal atrophy (p
Notes
Comment In: Neurology. 2005 Jun 14;64(11):1990-1; author reply 1990-115955971
SummaryForPatientsIn: Neurology. 2004 Nov 23;63(10):E19-2015557485
PubMed ID
15557505 View in PubMed
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[28-year follow up of smoking habits of Swedish physicians. Reduced number of smokers but increased number of snuff-users]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67649
Source
Lakartidningen. 1996 Nov 27;93(48):4437-40, 4443-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-27-1996

32P-post-labelling of 7-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)guanine in white blood cells of workers occupationally exposed to epichlorohydrin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67496
Source
Carcinogenesis. 2000 Feb;21(2):275-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2000
Author
K. Plna
S. Osterman-Golkar
E. Nogradi
D. Segerbäck
Author Affiliation
Center for Nutrition and Toxicology, Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institute, Novum, S-141 57 Huddinge and Department of Molecular Genome Research, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. kamila.plna2cnt.ki.se
Source
Carcinogenesis. 2000 Feb;21(2):275-80
Date
Feb-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alkylating Agents - adverse effects - pharmacology
Biological Markers
Chemical Industry
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Chromatography, Ion Exchange
Comparative Study
DNA Adducts - analysis
DNA Damage
Epichlorohydrin - adverse effects - pharmacology
Guanine - analogs & derivatives - blood
Humans
Isotope Labeling
Leukocytes - chemistry - drug effects
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure
Occupations
Phosphorus Radioisotopes
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sensitivity and specificity
Smoking - epidemiology
Solvents - adverse effects - pharmacology
Sweden
Abstract
Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is a simple 3-carbon epoxide of industrial importance. It has been shown to be genotoxic in several systems and carcinogenic in experimental animals. The aim of the present investigation was to study DNA adducts of ECH as a biomarker of occupational exposure to this chemical. 7-(3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)guanine (7-CHP-guanine) was analysed in DNA from white blood cells using an anion exchange-based adduct enrichment protocol of the (32)P-post-labelling/HPLC-based assay. Blood samples were collected from seven workers handling ECH (exposed), nine workers not handling ECH but normally present in the premises where this chemical is used (potentially exposed) and 13 office and factory workers from locations in the plant where ECH is not handled (controls). 7-CHP-guanine was detected in five of the seven workers exposed to ECH (1.6-7.1 mol/10(9) mol nucleotides) and in two of the nine workers potentially exposed to ECH (0.8-1.5 mol/10(9) mol nucleotides). This adduct was not detected in any of the 13 controls. The difference in adduct levels between exposed workers and controls was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney test, P
PubMed ID
10657968 View in PubMed
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Absence of bias against smokers in access to coronary revascularization after cardiac catheterization.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176495
Source
Int J Qual Health Care. 2005 Feb;17(1):37-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Jacques Cornuz
Peter D Faris
P Diane Galbraith
Merril L Knudtson
William A Ghali
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Source
Int J Qual Health Care. 2005 Feb;17(1):37-42
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta - epidemiology
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary - utilization
Attitude of Health Personnel
Cardiac Catheterization - utilization
Cohort Studies
Coronary Artery Bypass - utilization
Coronary Disease - diagnosis - therapy
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Revascularization - utilization
Prejudice
Prospective Studies
Smoking - epidemiology
Abstract
Many consider smoking to be a personal choice for which individuals should be held accountable. We assessed whether there is any evidence of bias against smokers in cardiac care decision-making by determining whether smokers were as likely as non-smokers to undergo revascularization procedures after cardiac catheterization.
Prospective cohort study. Subjects and setting. All patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in Alberta, Canada.
Patients were categorized as current smokers, former smokers, or never smokers, and then compared for their risk-adjusted likelihood of undergoing revascularization procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) after cardiac catheterization.
Among 20406 patients undergoing catheterization, 25.4% were current smokers at the time of catheterization, 36.6% were former smokers, and 38.0% had never smoked. When compared with never smokers (reference group), the hazard ratio for undergoing any revascularization procedure after catheterization was 0.98 (95% CI 0.93-1.03) for current smokers and 0.98 (0.94-1.03) for former smokers. The hazard ratio for undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting was 1.09 (1.00-1.19) for current smokers and 1.00 (0.93-1.08) for former smokers. For percutaneous coronary intervention, the hazard ratios were 0.93 (0.87-0.99) for current smokers and 1.00 (0.94-1.06) for former smokers.
Despite potential for discrimination on the basis of smoking status, current and former smokers undergoing cardiac catheterization in Alberta, Canada were as likely to undergo revascularization procedures as catheterization patients who had never smoked.
PubMed ID
15668309 View in PubMed
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Academic stream and tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use among Ontario high school students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature223837
Source
Int J Addict. 1992 May;27(5):561-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1992
Author
K R Allison
Author Affiliation
North York Community Health Promotion Research Unit, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Int J Addict. 1992 May;27(5):561-70
Date
May-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adolescent
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Attitude to Health
Canada - epidemiology
Competency-Based Education
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Environment
Female
Humans
Male
Marijuana Smoking - epidemiology
Probability
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Social Conditions
Students
Abstract
This paper examines the relationship between academic stream and cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use among 2,543 high school students as part of the Ontario Student Drug Survey (1987). Students in basic and general academic streams were found to have significantly higher levels of cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use compared to advanced level students. The effects of academic stream remain significant (except for alcohol use) when gender, grade average, drug education lessons, and pressure to use these substances are included in multiple regression analysis. The findings indicate that the process of academic streaming needs to be further examined as a possible precipitating factor in drug use.
PubMed ID
1601538 View in PubMed
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2213 records – page 1 of 222.