The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the 2005 British Columbia Ministry of Health Smoking Cessation Mass Media Campaign on short-term smoking behavior.
National cross-sectional data are used with a quasi-experimental approach to test the impact of the campaign.
Findings indicate that prevalence and average number of cigarettes smoked per day deviated upward from trend for the rest of Canada (P = .08; P = .01) but not for British Columbia. They also indicate that British Columbia smokers in lower risk groups reduced their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend (-2.23; P = .10), whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did not, and that British Columbia smokers in high-risk groups did not increase their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend, whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did (2.97; P = .01).
The overall poorer performance of high-risk groups is attributed to high exposure to cigarette smoking, which reduces a smoker's chances of successful cessation. In particular, high-risk groups are by definition more likely to be exposed to smoking by peers, but are also less likely to work in workplaces with smoking bans, which are shown to have a substantial impact on prevalence. Results suggest that for mass media campaigns to be more effective with high-risk groups, they need to be combined with other incentives, and that more prolonged interventions should be considered.
To investigate whether smoking by general practitioners (GPs) and gender influence smoking cessation advice.
A self-administered questionnaire, originally developed by the WHO and modified according to the Finnish health care system was sent by mail to physicians who were members of the Finnish Medical Association (FMA). Participants were restricted to those who were living in Finland and were younger than 65 years. Numbers of participants was 3,057 and the response rate 69%.
Smoking male GPs gave less smoking cessation advice only to patients with a stomach ulcer or patients using oral contraceptive pills compared with their non-smoking colleagues. Male GPs gave less smoking cessation advice to pregnant patients or patients using contraceptive pills than female GPs. Female smoking GPs less likely advised patients who were pregnant or who were using oral contraceptive pills to stop smoking than non-smoking female GPs (p
Control of cardiovascular risk factor is important in secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) but it is unknown whether treatment targets are achieved in young patients. We aimed to examine the prevalence and control of risk factors in this subset of patients.
We performed a cross-sectional, single-center study on patients with documented CAD before age 40. All patients treated between 2002 and 2014 were invited to participate at least 6 months after the last coronary intervention. We included 143 patients and recorded the family history of cardiovascular disease, physical activity level, smoking status, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, metabolic status, and current medical therapy. Risk factor control and treatment targets were evaluated according to the shared guidelines from the European Society of Cardiology.
The most common insufficiently controlled risk factors were overweight (113 [79.0%]), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol above target (77 [57.9%]), low physical activity level (78 [54.6%]), hypertriglyceridemia (67 [46.9%]), and current smoking (53 [37.1%]). Almost one-half of the patients fulfilled the criteria of metabolic syndrome. The median (interquartile range) number of uncontrolled modifiable risk factors was 2 (2;4) and only seven (4.9%) patients fulfilled all modifiable health measure targets.
Among the youngest patients with CAD, there remains a potential to improve the cardiovascular risk profile.
To study smoking habits among men with abdominal aortic aneurysm at screening at 65 years of age, and during follow-up, as a base-line study to evaluate future interventions.
Nested case-control study.
Between 2006 and 2011, 8150 65-year-old men (compliance 85%) were screened for AAA in Uppsala County, Sweden. Among 292 men with an aortic diameter of at least 25 mm, 77 were active smokers at the time of screening. At follow-up of smoking habits in 2012, 53 men (69%) participated in this study, 28 had an AAA of at least 30 mm and 25 a sub-aneurysmal aorta (SAA) 25-29 mm at baseline. For each case, one control was randomly selected, all active smokers with aortic diameter less than 25 mm at baseline, matched for age and year of screening. Telephone interviews were performed at a median 34 months (range: 4-67) after screening.
Men with AAA had hypertension more often than controls (68% vs. 23%, p
To characterize pregnant women who engage in binge drinking and to identify other risk behaviour that these women engage in.
Observational study based on retrospective review of records.
A telephone and outpatient counselling service in Toronto that advises pregnant women about exposure to drugs, chemicals, radiation and infections during pregnancy and lactation.
All pregnant women who sought counselling concerning fetal risk of exposure to binge drinking from 1985 to 1994 as well as those counselled by telephone from 1993 to 1994, and an equal number of control women who sought counselling.
Information about binges, demographic factors, history of elective and spontaneous abortion, and use of psychotropic drugs and cigarettes as well as marijuana, cocaine and other illicit drugs.
Of the 3800 women seen in the clinic, 119 (3.1%) reported binge drinking during pregnancy; of the 19,991 women counselled by telephone, 153 (0.8%) reported binge drinking during pregnancy. The mean number of drinks per binge was 7.2 (standard deviation 2.5). None of the women was an alcoholic; 83.1% had binged fewer than 10 times during their pregnancy. A large majority (84.0%) of the women had a binge early in the first trimester (before 6 weeks' gestation). In comparison with control women, the women who had engaged in binge drinking were significantly younger (mean 30.0 v. 27.9 years, p
To compare smoking behaviour, attitudes and opinions towards smoking and smoking cessation among Estonian and Finnish physicians.
A cross-sectional postal survey using a self-administered questionnaire was carried out among 2,480 Estonian and 2,075 Finnish physicians.
Daily smoking prevalence was higher among Estonian physicians than among their Finnish counterparts in both male (18.6% and 6.7%) and female (6.6% and 3.6%). Compared to Estonia, physicians in Finland more often agreed that smoking is very harmful to their health, that trying to convince people to stop smoking is their responsibility and that smoking prevention should be part of the normal and special training of health professionals. In both countries, non-smoking physicians held more unfavourable attitudes towards smoking than those who were smoking.
Physicians' own smoking patterns and quitting behaviour are important because physicians serve as models for their patients and play a key role in the reinforcement of smoke-free health facilities. These results remain a challenge to medical educators, especially in Estonia. Estonia needs to improve medical education in terms of motivating physicians to ask about the smoking patterns of their patients and of training medical students and resident physicians to counsel their patients to stop smoking.
This paper reports on results of a study that examined consumers' evaluation of health warning labels on cigarette packages in Canada. Some health warning labels were rated, overall, as more effective as well as more believable, convincing and reasonable than others. Analysis of the differences in responses by smokers and non-smokers is also presented.
A significant reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular disease, including abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), has been observed in the past decades. In this study, a small but geographically well defined and carefully characterized population, previously screened for AAA and risk factors, was re-examined 11 years later. The aim was to study the reduction of AAA prevalence and associated factors.
All men and women aged 65 to 75 years living in the Norsjö municipality in northern Sweden in January 2010 were invited to an ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta, registration of body parameters and cardiovascular risk factors, and blood sampling. An AAA was defined as an infrarenal aortic diameter =30 mm. Results were compared with a corresponding investigation conducted in 1999 in the same region.
A total of 602 subjects were invited, of whom 540 (90%) accepted. In 2010, the AAA prevalence was 5.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8%-8.5%) among men compared with 16.9% (95% CI, 12.3%-21.6%) in 1999 (P