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Abstention from smoking extends life and compresses morbidity: a population based study of health expectancy among smokers and never smokers in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67416
Source
Tob Control. 2001 Sep;10(3):273-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2001
Author
H. Brønnum-Hansen
K. Juel
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark. hbh@niph.dk
Source
Tob Control. 2001 Sep;10(3):273-8
Date
Sep-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Comparative Study
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Health status
Humans
Interviews
Life expectancy
Life tables
Male
Population Surveillance
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - mortality
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate health expectancy--that is, the average lifetime in good health--among never smokers, ex-smokers, and smokers in Denmark. DESIGN: A method suggested by Peto and colleagues in 1992 for estimating smoking attributable mortality rates was used to construct a life table for never smokers. This life table and relative risks for death for ex-smokers and smokers versus never smokers were used to estimate life tables for ex-smokers and smokers. Life tables and prevalence rates of health status were combined and health expectancy was calculated by Sullivan's method. SETTING: The Danish adult population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The expected lifetime in self rated good health or without longstanding illness for never smokers and smokers. RESULTS: The expected lifetime of a 20 year old man who will never begin to smoke is 56.7 years, 48.7 (95% confidence interval (CI), 46.8 to 50.7) years of which are expected to be in self rated good health. The corresponding figures for a man who smokes heavily are 49.5 years, 36.5 (95% CI 35.0 to 38.1 ) years of which are in self rated good health. A 20 year old woman who will never begin to smoke can expect to live a further 60.9 years, with 46.4 (95% CI 44.9 to 47.8) years in self rated good health; if she is a lifelong heavy smoker, her expected lifetime is reduced to 53.8 years, 33.8 (95% CI 31.7 to 35.9) years of which are in self rated good health. Health expectancy based on long standing illness is reduced for smokers when compared with never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking reduces the expected lifetime in good health and increases the expected lifetime in poor health.
PubMed ID
11544393 View in PubMed
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Burn injury during long-term oxygen therapy in Denmark and Sweden: the potential role of smoking.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286298
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017;12:193-197
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Hanan A Tanash
Thomas Ringbaek
Fredrik Huss
Magnus Ekström
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017;12:193-197
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Burns - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Hypoxia - diagnosis - mortality - physiopathology - therapy
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Oxygen Inhalation Therapy - adverse effects - contraindications - mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - diagnosis - mortality - physiopathology - therapy
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) increases life expectancy in patients with COPD and severe hypoxemia. Smoking is the main cause of burn injury during LTOT. Policy regarding smoking while on LTOT varies between countries. In this study, we compare the incidence of burn injury that required contact with a health care specialist, between Sweden (a country with a strict policy regarding smoking while on LTOT) and Denmark (a country with less strict smoking policy).
This was a population-based, cohort study of patients initiating LTOT due to any cause in Sweden and Denmark. Data on diagnoses, external causes, and procedures were obtained from the Swedish and Danish National Patient Registers for inpatient and outpatient care. Patients were followed from January 1, 2000, until the first of the following: LTOT withdrawal, death, or study end (December 31, 2009). The primary end point was burn injury during LTOT.
A total of 23,741 patients received LTOT in Denmark and 7,754 patients in Sweden. Most patients started LTOT due to COPD, both in Sweden (74%) and in Denmark (62%). The rate of burn injury while on LTOT was higher in Denmark than in Sweden; 170 (95% confidence interval [CI], 126-225) vs 85 (95% CI, 44-148) per 100,000 person-years; rate ratio 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0-4.1). The risk remained higher after adjustment for gender, age, and diagnosis in multivariate Cox regression, hazard ratio 1.8 (95% CI, 1.0-3.5). Thirty-day mortality after burn injury was 8% in both countries.
Compared to Sweden, the rate of burn injury was twice as high in Denmark where smoking is not a contraindication for prescribing LTOT.
Notes
Cites: Respiration. 2016;91(2):151-526812246
Cites: Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015 Nov 13;10 :2479-8426622175
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Cites: J Am Coll Surg. 2014 Jun;218(6):1182-624698489
Cites: J Burn Care Res. 2016 Jan-Feb;37(1):25-3126284642
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Cites: Dan Med Bull. 2006 Aug;53(3):310-2517092451
Cites: J Burn Care Res. 2012 Nov-Dec;33(6):e268-7422878494
Cites: Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(7 Suppl):30-321775347
Cites: Thorax. 2015 Jun;70(6):589-9125918120
PubMed ID
28123292 View in PubMed
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Causes of death behind low life expectancy of Danish women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81358
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2006;34(4):432-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Jacobsen Rune
Keiding Niels
Lynge Elsebeth
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. ruj@niph.dk
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2006;34(4):432-6
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Life expectancy
Middle Aged
Mortality
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - mortality
Abstract
AIMS: The authors examined causes of death contributing to the relatively high mortality of Danish women born 1915-45, and evaluated the impact of smoking related causes of death. METHODS: Age-period-cohort analysis of mortality of Danish women aged 40-89 in 1960-98. Estimate of the negative curvature in parabola patterns for 50 causes of death. RESULTS: A total of 34 causes of death contributed to the relatively high mortality for women born 1915-45. The main contribution came from smoking-related causes of death. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a high smoking prevalence to be the main explanation behind the relatively low life expectancy of Danish women born 1915-45.
PubMed ID
16861194 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 Nov 16;160(47):6791-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-16-1998
Author
T I Sørensen
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 Nov 16;160(47):6791-2
Date
Nov-16-1998
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
Longevity
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - mortality
PubMed ID
9835785 View in PubMed
Less detail

Impact of smoking on the social gradient in health expectancy in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67232
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004 Jul;58(7):604-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
Henrik Brønnum-Hansen
Knud Juel
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark. hbh@niph.dk
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004 Jul;58(7):604-10
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Denmark - epidemiology
Educational Status
Female
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Life expectancy
Life tables
Male
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - mortality
Abstract
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Health expectancy is arrived at by dividing life expectancy into average lifetime in different states of health. The purpose of the study was to estimate health expectancy among never smokers and smokers in groups at high, medium, and low educational levels in Denmark. DESIGN: Life tables for never smokers and smokers with a high, medium, and low educational level were constructed on the basis of Statistics Denmark registers and combined with data from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2000. Health expectancy was calculated by Sullivan's method. MAIN RESULTS: Life expectancy at age 30 differs on average by 8.5 years between never smokers and heavy smokers. Expected lifetime in self rated good health was 39.4 years for a never smoking man corresponding to 82.0% of the rest of his life. For male lifelong heavy smokers these figures were reduced to 27.3 years and 69.2%. The proportion of expected lifetime in self rated good health was 89.5% and 71.3% among male never smokers and lifelong heavy smokers with a high educational level, respectively; and the proportion among male never smokers and heavy smokers with a low educational level was 73.4% and 63.6%, respectively. Similar results were seen as regards expected lifetime without longstanding illness. For women the social gradient in health expectancy was intensified among smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Within each educational group smoking reduces expected lifetime in a healthy state. The social gradient in health expectancy cannot be explained by a reverse social gradient in smoking prevalence.
PubMed ID
15194724 View in PubMed
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A prospective study of smoking and risk of prostate cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22478
Source
Int J Cancer. 1996 Sep 17;67(6):764-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-17-1996
Author
H O Adami
R. Bergström
G. Engholm
O. Nyrén
A. Wolk
A. Ekbom
A. Englund
J. Baron
Author Affiliation
Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Source
Int J Cancer. 1996 Sep 17;67(6):764-8
Date
Sep-17-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Prostatic Neoplasms - complications - epidemiology - mortality
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
We evaluated the hypothesis that smoking increases the incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer. High-quality smoking information was collected in 1971-1975 in a nation-wide cohort of 135,006 male construction workers in Sweden. We achieved virtually complete follow-up through record linkages and ascertained as of December 1991 2,368 incident cases of prostate cancer and 709 deaths due to this disease. Rate ratios (RR) of prostate cancer incidence and mortality, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), were estimated in Poisson-based age-adjusted models, with amount and duration of smoking as independent variables. We found no convincing association between current smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked or years since onset and risk of prostatic cancer. The age-adjusted incidence RR among previous smokers was 1.09 and among current smokers 1.11 compared with non-smokers. Weak and inconsistent trends were seen with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day and increasing duration among current smokers. Smokers of 15 or more cigarettes daily for at least 30 years experienced an incidence RR of 1.30. Mortality in ex-smokers was similar to that in never-smokers; it was, however, slightly increased among current smokers without any trend with amount smoked or duration. The weak and inconsistent associations between smoking and prostate cancer could easily have arisen due to bias or confounding. We therefore conclude that smoking is most likely not causally linked to the occurrence of prostate cancer.
PubMed ID
8824546 View in PubMed
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[Quitting smoking brings quick health benefits].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124986
Source
Lakartidningen. 2012 Mar 14-20;109(11):554-7
Publication Type
Article

Smoking-attributable mortality and expected years of life lost in Canada 2002: conclusions for prevention and policy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162531
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2007;27(4):154-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Dolly Baliunas
Jayadeep Patra
Jürgen Rehm
Svetlana Popova
Murray Kaiserman
Benjamin Taylor
Author Affiliation
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. dolly_baliunas@camh.net
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2007;27(4):154-62
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada - epidemiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology - mortality
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - etiology - mortality
Prevalence
Respiratory Tract Diseases - etiology - mortality
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - mortality - prevention & control
Abstract
Cigarette smoking is one of the most important risk factors for burden of disease. Our objective was to estimate the smoking-attributable deaths and the years of life lost for Canada 2002. For Canada in 2002, 37,209 of all deaths aged 0 to 80+ years were attributable to smoking, 23,766 in men and 13,443 in women. This constituted 16.6 percent of all deaths in Canada, 21 percent for men and 12.2 percent for women. Main causes of smoking-attributable death were malignant neoplasms (17,427), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (10,275) and respiratory diseases (8,282). Lung cancer (13,401) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (7,533) were the single largest disease contributors to deaths caused by smoking. 515,608 years of life were lost prematurely in Canada in that year, 316,417 years in men and 199,191 years in women. Cigarette smoking is a major contributor to mortality in Canada and its impact on Canadian society continues to be an unacceptable burden.
PubMed ID
17623561 View in PubMed
Less detail

Stroke incidence and case fatality in two populations: the Auckland Stroke Study and the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67578
Source
Neuroepidemiology. 1998;17(3):132-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
T. Truelsen
R. Bonita
M. Grønbaek
P. Sehnohr
G. Boysen
Author Affiliation
Danish Epidemiology Science Center, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. truelsen@post3.tele.dk
Source
Neuroepidemiology. 1998;17(3):132-8
Date
1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cerebrovascular Disorders - epidemiology - mortality
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Confidence Intervals
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Morbidity - trends
New Zealand - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Random Allocation
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - mortality
Abstract
Comparison of stroke incidence and case fatality in different parts of the world provides information that may lead to a better understanding of the disease. In this report we have investigated these two aspects in two large populations, one in Auckland, New Zealand, and the other in Copenhagen, Denmark (the Copenhagen City Heart Study, CCHS). Incidence rates of stroke are higher for men than women in both studies. The stroke incidence rate ratios between Auckland men and CCHS men are significantly different in most age groups, whereas in women the incidence rates differ only in one age group. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates are higher in the CCHS for both men and women as compared to the Auckland Stroke Study. The age-adjusted incidence rate ratio is higher for men than women in both studies: 1.29 in the Auckland Stroke Study and 1.54 in the CCHS. The 28-day case fatality is also higher in the CCHS than in Auckland and is higher for women than men in both studies. The incidence rate of stroke and the 28-day case fatality is higher in the CCHS as compared to the Auckland Stroke Study in both men and women. A very high proportion of smokers in CCHS may explain some of the differences in incidence rates in the two populations.
PubMed ID
9648118 View in PubMed
Less detail

Substance-attributable morbidity and mortality changes to Canada's epidemiological profile: measurable differences over a ten-year period.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162499
Source
Can J Public Health. 2007 May-Jun;98(3):228-34
Publication Type
Article
Author
Jayadeep Patra
Benjamin Taylor
Jürgen T Rehm
Dolly Baliunas
Svetlana Popova
Author Affiliation
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON. Jayadeep_Patra@camh.net
Source
Can J Public Health. 2007 May-Jun;98(3):228-34
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcoholism - complications - epidemiology - mortality
Canada - epidemiology
Databases as Topic
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Morbidity - trends
Mortality - trends
Prevalence
Risk
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - mortality
Street Drugs - adverse effects
Substance-Related Disorders - complications - epidemiology - mortality
Time Factors
Abstract
Substance use is responsible for a large burden of disease in Canada, however updated data are needed for health care planning and policy development. This study replicates and makes improvements on 1992 estimates of substance-attributable morbidity and mortality for the year 2002. There are two objectives, the main one being to compare the substance-attributable morbidity and mortality in 1992 with 2002 using the same methods of calculation, and the second, to compare the two different methods of estimating the substance-attributable mortality and morbidity in 2002.
Estimates of substance-attributable burden were made by combining relative risk data with exposure prevalence data and disease-related mortality and morbidity information from national databases. First, identical relative risk estimates for 1992 were used with the 2002 data in order to draw direct comparisons. In a second analysis, updated relative risk and attributable disease information (post-1992) was used to better estimate the mortality and morbidity for Canada in 2002.
Overall, from 1992 to 2002, there were relative increases in substance-attributable mortality estimates for alcohol and illegal drugs, where the latter relatively increased more; and a relative decrease in tobacco-attributable mortality. In terms of absolute numbers in combined risk factors, deaths and hospital days for those under 70 years of age decreased mainly due to tobacco. Comparisons of the two methods showed that the updated method resulted in more conservative numbers than previous calculations.
There is an unacceptably high burden of substance-attributable disease in Canada in the early 2000s. Exposure changes and epidemiological shifts in population and diseases over the last 10 years have affected where the burden lies, but it is still vital to incorporate policy-based initiatives that have proven to be effective in reducing substance-attributable burden in practice.
PubMed ID
17626390 View in PubMed
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12 records – page 1 of 2.