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38 records – page 1 of 4.

Alaskans voice strong support for tobacco tax increase.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3528
Source
Alaska Med. 1996 Jan-Mar;38(1):41-2
Publication Type
Article
Author
A M Holen
Author Affiliation
Tobacco Project, Alaska Native Health Board Trampling, Anchorage 99508, USA.
Source
Alaska Med. 1996 Jan-Mar;38(1):41-2
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Health planning
Humans
Public Opinion
Smoking - adverse effects - economics - prevention & control
Taxes
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects - prevention & control
PubMed ID
8936106 View in PubMed
Less detail

Apportionment in asbestos-related disease for purposes of compensation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187226
Source
Ind Health. 2002 Oct;40(4):295-311
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2002
Author
Tee L Guidotti
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Source
Ind Health. 2002 Oct;40(4):295-311
Date
Oct-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asbestos - adverse effects
Asbestosis - diagnosis - economics
Canada
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced
Mesothelioma - chemically induced - diagnosis - economics
Occupational Exposure - economics
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - chemically induced - diagnosis - economics
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - economics
Workers' Compensation - organization & administration
Abstract
Workers' compensation systems attempt to evaluate claims for occupational disease on an individual basis using the best guidelines available to them. This may be difficult when there is more than one risk factor associated with the outcome, such as asbestos and cigarette smoking, and the occupational exposures is not clearly responsible for the disease. Apportionment is an approach that involves an assessment of the relative contribution of work-related exposures to the risk of the disease or to the final impairment that arises for the disease. This article discusses the concept of apportionment and applies it to asbestos-associated disease. Lung cancer is not subject to a simple tradeoff between asbestos exposure and smoking because of the powerful biological interaction between the two exposures. Among nonsmokers, lung cancer is sufficiently rare that an association with asbestos can be assumed if exposure has occurred. Available data suggest that asbestos exposure almost invariably contributes to risk among smokers to the extent that a relationship to work can be presumed. Thus, comparisons of magnitude of risk between smokers and nonsmokers are irrelevant for this purpose. Indicators of sufficient exposure to cause lung cancer are useful for purposes of establishing eligibility and screening claims. These may include a chest film classified by the ILO system as 1/0 or greater (although 0/1 does not rule out an association) or a history of exposure roughly equal to or greater than 40 fibres/cm3 x y. (In Germany, 25 fibres/cm3 x y is used.) The mere presence of pleural plaques is not sufficient. Mesothelioma is almost always associated with asbestos exposure and the association should be considered presumed until proven otherwise in the individual case. These are situations in which only risk of a disease is apportioned because the impairment would be the same given the disease whatever the cause. Asbestosis, if the diagnosis is correct, is by definition an occupational disease unless there is some source of massive environmental exposure; it is always presumed to be work-related unless proven otherwise. Chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD) accompanies asbestosis but may also occur in the context of minimal parenchymal fibrosis and may contribute to accelerated loss of pulmonary function. In some patients, particularly those with smoking-induced emphysema, this may contribute significantly to functional impairment. An exposure history of 10 fibre x years is suggested as the minimum associated with a demonstrable effect on impairment, given available data. Equity issues associated with apportionment include the different criteria that must be applied to different disorders for apportionment to work, the management of future risk (eg. risk of lung cancer for those who have asbestosis), and the narrow range in which apportionment is really useful in asbestos-associated disorders. Apportionment, attractive as it may be as an approach to the adjudication of asbestos-related disease, is difficult to apply in practice. Even so, these models may serve as a general guide to the assessment of asbestos-related disease outcomes for purposes of compensation.
PubMed ID
12502232 View in PubMed
Less detail

Avoidable portion of tobacco-attributable acute care hospital days and its cost due to implementation of different intervention strategies in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148633
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 Aug;6(8):2179-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2009
Author
Svetlana Popova
Jayadeep Patra
Jürgen Rehm
Author Affiliation
Public Health and Regulatory Policies, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada. jaydeep_patra@gmail.com
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 Aug;6(8):2179-92
Date
Aug-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Cost of Illness
Female
Hospitalization - economics
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Economic
Public Policy
Smoking - adverse effects - economics - epidemiology
Smoking Cessation - economics - methods
Young Adult
Abstract
The impact of four effective population-based interventions, focusing on individual behavioural change and aimed at reducing tobacco-attributable morbidity, was assessed by modeling with respect to effects on reducing prevalence rates of cigarette smoking, population-attributable fractions, reductions of disease-specific morbidity and its cost for Canada. Results revealed that an implementation of a combination of four tobacco policy interventions would result in a savings of 33,307 acute care hospital days, which translates to a cost savings of about $37 million per year in Canada. Assuming 40% coverage rate for all individually based interventions, the two most effective interventions, in terms of avoidable burden due to morbidity, would be nicotine replacement therapy and physicians' advice, followed by individual behavioural counselling and increasing taxes by 10%. Although a sizable reduction in the number of hospital days and accumulated costs could be achieved, overall these interventions would reduce less than 3% of all tobacco-attributable costs in Canada.
Notes
Cites: Health Econ. 2000 Apr;9(3):235-5110790702
Cites: Stat Methods Med Res. 2001 Jun;10(3):159-9311446147
Cites: Lancet. 2002 Nov 2;360(9343):1347-6012423980
Cites: BMJ. 2003 Jul 19;327(7407):154-712869461
Cites: Lancet. 2003 Jul 26;362(9380):271-8012892956
Cites: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD00014615266423
Cites: J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2007 Nov;68(6):886-9517960307
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1974 May;99(5):325-324825599
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1976 Dec;104(6):587-92998606
Cites: Biometrics. 1976 Dec;32(4):829-491009228
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1980 Sep;112(3):409-167424889
Cites: Addiction. 1998 Jul;93(7):991-10069744130
Cites: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(3):CD00285016855992
Cites: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(4):CD00016515494989
PubMed ID
19742154 View in PubMed
Less detail

The carcinogenic and toxic effects of tobacco smoke: are women particularly susceptible?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195184
Source
J Gend Specif Med. 1999 Nov-Dec;2(6):45-51
Publication Type
Article
Author
M. Pope
M J Ashley
R. Ferrence
Author Affiliation
Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, Centre for Health Promotion, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Gend Specif Med. 1999 Nov-Dec;2(6):45-51
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Canada - epidemiology
Cause of Death
Female
Health Care Costs - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Sex Characteristics
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Women's health
Abstract
Smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature death and disability in Canadian women. Lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive lung disease, and stroke account for two-thirds or more of the smoking-attributable deaths in women. Lung cancer now exceeds breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death in women, and both incidence and mortality rates continue to climb. Strong evidence suggests that for the same number of cigarettes smoked, women are more susceptible than men to the carcinogenic effects on their lungs. Evidence also is growing that lung function in women is more adversely affected by smoking and that smoking may be a stronger risk factor for myocardial infarction in women than it is in men. More research into the mechanisms underlying these gender-related susceptibilities is needed. Policies and programs to prevent girls from starting to smoke and to facilitate quitting in women of all ages must be public health priorities.
PubMed ID
11279871 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
CMAJ. 2001 May 1;164(9):1275; author reply 1275-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2001
Author
B. Leistikow
Source
CMAJ. 2001 May 1;164(9):1275; author reply 1275-6
Date
May-1-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child Welfare
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Health Surveys
Humans
Parents
Poverty - economics
Prevalence
Smoking - adverse effects - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Starvation - economics - epidemiology
Notes
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000 Aug;54(8):566-7410890867
Cites: J Biosoc Sci. 2000 Jan;32(1):63-8810676060
Cites: Prev Med. 2000 May;30(5):353-6010845743
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1992 Jan;82(1):29-321536330
Cites: Pediatrics. 2000 Oct;106(4):748-5511015518
Cites: CMAJ. 2000 Oct 17;163(8):961-511068567
Comment On: CMAJ. 2000 Oct 17;163(8):961-511068567
PubMed ID
11341132 View in PubMed
Less detail

The combined effects of overweight and smoking in late adolescence on subsequent disability pension: a nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148553
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Jan;34(1):75-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
K. Neovius
M. Neovius
F. Rasmussen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Norrbacka, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Jan;34(1):75-82
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Disability Evaluation
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Obesity - complications - economics - epidemiology
Overweight - complications - economics - epidemiology
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - economics - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Smoking and obesity are two of the most important risk factors for chronic disease today. Their combined effect on the risk of disability pension is not known.
A nationwide cohort of 45 920 Swedish men (18.7 + or - 0.5 years) were followed for 38 years. The body mass index (BMI), based on measured height and weight, was used to define underweight ( or = 30.0). The hazard ratios (HRs) associated with BMI and smoking status at baseline for receiving disability pension were adjusted for socio-economic index (SEI), muscular strength, geographic region and place of residence.
During 1.6 million person-years, 4631 disability pensions and 2897 deaths occurred. After adjustment, overweight (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.19-1.51) and obesity (HR 1.55, 1.18-2.05) were associated with an increased risk of disability pension, independent of smoking, whereas underweight (18.5; HR 1.07, 0.97-1.17) was not compared with normal weight. Similarly, smoking 1-10 (HR 1.37, 1.27-1.49) or >10 cigarettes per day (HR 2.01, 1.86-2.17) showed independent risk increases versus non-smoking. Although obese individuals smoking >10 daily cigarettes were at greatly increased risk (HR 2.98, 1.98-4.47), no evidence of interaction between the two risk factors could be detected.
Both increased adiposity and smoking are strong and independent predictors of disability pension, but they do not act synergistically.
PubMed ID
19752877 View in PubMed
Less detail

Commentary. monitoring tobacco use in canada: the need for a surveillance strategy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197128
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2000;21(2):50-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
R. Ferrence
T. Stephens
Author Affiliation
Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2S1, Canada. roberta.ferrence@utoronto.ca
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2000;21(2):50-3
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Humans
Population Surveillance - methods
Reproducibility of Results
Smoking - adverse effects - economics - epidemiology
Abstract
Smoking behaviour has been monitored nationally through population surveys for 35 years in Canada, but these surveys have not been as consistent or rigorous as the magnitude of the smoking problem demands. Inconsistent methods and irregular survey intervals are just two of the characteristics that have made it difficult to know exactly how smoking is changing. Further, an absence of routine data on tobacco control policies (other than the price of cigarettes) has hampered understanding of the determinants of changing prevalence. The advent of two survey series--Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (CTUMS) and Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) promises to change this situation for the better. We suggest that both are critical elements of a national smoking surveillance system and that, with a commitment to CTUMS in particular, Health Canada could set a new international standard for surveillance.
PubMed ID
11007654 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Confirmed-by-law producer responsibility of tobacco industry can reduce the societal costs for the injuries]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78007
Source
Lakartidningen. 2007 Mar 14-20;104(11):880
Publication Type
Article
Author
Nordenstam Gunnar R
Author Affiliation
gunnarnordenstam@telia.com
Source
Lakartidningen. 2007 Mar 14-20;104(11):880
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Humans
Smoking - adverse effects - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Sweden
Tobacco Industry - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
PubMed ID
17447585 View in PubMed
Less detail

38 records – page 1 of 4.