A population based cohort study investigates the association between alcohol intake and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease and cancer. The design is prospective with baseline assessment of intake of beer, wine and spirits, smoking habits, educational level, physical activity, and body mass index and a total of 257,859 person-years follow-up on mortality. A total of 4,833 participants died, of these 1,075 from coronary heart disease and 1,552 of cancer. Compared with non-drinkers, light drinkers who avoided wine, had a relative risk of death from all causes of 0.90 (0.82-0.99) and those who drank wine had a relative risk of 0.66 (0.55-0.77). Heavy drinkers who avoided wine were at higher risk of death from all causes than were heavy drinkers who included wine in their alcohol intake. Wine drinkers had significantly lower mortality from both coronary heart disease and cancer than did non-wine drinkers (p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. This effect may be attributable to a reduction in death from both coronary heart disease and cancer.
We analysed data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study to study the prevalence, possible risk factors for, and inter-relations between bronchial hypersecretion (BH) and chronic airflow limitation. The study sample consisted of 12,698 subjects between 20 years and 90 years of age, randomly selected from the population of the city of Copenhagen. The age-adjusted overall prevalence of BH in the population of Copenhagen was estimated to be 10.1%; 12.5% in men and 8.2% in women. The overall prevalence of clinically relevant chronic airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 s less than 60% of that predicted) was 3.7% and not significantly different between sexes. Both airflow limitation and BH increased with age, smoking, alcohol consumption, short education, and low income. However, the association of airflow limitation with alcohol consumption, education and income was much weaker than the association with smoking. Regardless of smoking habits, the majority of subjects with airflow limitation did not report symptoms of bronchial hypersecretion.
In order to illustrate whether there is a connection between smoking and the degree of wrinkles on the face, the authors investigated an age-stratified random sample of 4,485 women and 2,485 men aged 40-69 years. The degree of wrinkles lateral to the canthus of the right eye was described without the investigator being aware of the smoking habits of the individual concerned. For both sexes, the prevalence of deep wrinkles increased with increasing age and with decreasing household income but no significant association with body mass index was demonstrated. In men, a significant association was demonstrated between the cumulated cigarette consumption and the degree of deep wrinkles while this was not the case in women. No definite explanation of this difference between the sexes could be found but a difference in exposure to sunlight and use of face cream may be the reasons.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cigarette smoking and changes in smoking habits on the decline of forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1). We studied 7,764 men and women for 5 yrs. The subjects were grouped according to self-reported smoking habits during the observation period. We found that persistent cigarette smoking, in particular heavy smoking, accelerated the decline in FEV1. In 310 subjects who quitted smoking during the observation period, the decline of FEV1 was less pronounced than the decline observed in persistent smokers. In subjects younger than 55 yrs of age, smoking reduction was associated with a less pronounced FEV1 decline, while in the elderly subjects smoking reduction had no effect on the FEV1 decline. An increase in the number of cigarettes smoked was generally associated with a more rapid decline of FEV1, while the beginning of smoking during the 5 yrs of observation did not seem to influence the decline of FEV1. We conclude that smoking cessation or reduction may lead to a demonstrable beneficial effect on the FEV1 decline within a few years.
BACKGROUND: The less favorable trend in smoking prevalence in women compared to men may be due to lower cessation rates. We analyzed determinants of spontaneous smoking cessation with particular reference to gender differences. METHODS: Data on smoking were collected by questionnaire in three samples of the adult population, examined for the first time at intervals between 1976 and 1984. In total 11,802 (59%) subjects were smokers, and 9085 of them attended a reexamination after 5 years. Ten to 16 years later 6053 were examined once again. Logistic regression was performed to study the relation of determinants to having quit after 5 and 10-16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of quitting was 12 and 22% at first and second follow-up, respectively. At both reexaminations, quitting smoking was positively associated with male sex and cigar smoking and negatively associated with the amount of tobacco smoked, inhalation, and alcohol consumption. Furthermore, in women, smoking cessation was positively associated with level of education and body mass index (BMI). Smoking cessation was not affected by cohabitation status, leisure activity, or bronchitis symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation initiatives should be targeted at heavy cigarette smokers, and at women, in particular the lean and poorly educated.
Our aim was to compare risk of lung cancer associated with smoking by gender and histologic type. A total of 30,874 subjects, 44% women, from three prospective population-based studies with initial examinations between 1964 and 1992 were followed until 1994 through the National Cancer Registry. There were 867 cases of lung cancer, 203 among women and 664 among men. Rates among female and male never-smokers were similar, although confidence intervals around rates were wide. Rate ratios (RRs) increased with number of pack-years for both men and women to a maximum of approximately 20 in inhaling smokers with more than 60 pack-years of tobacco exposure. RRs did not differ much between men and women: adjusted for pack-years, age, and study population, the ratio between female and male smokers' RRs of developing lung cancer was 0.8 (95% confidence interval = 0.3-2.1). All histologic types were associated with smoking, with the largest RR seen for squamous cell carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma. This prospective population-based study does not confirm previous reports from case-control studies of a higher relative risk in women than in men for lung cancer associated with smoking.
BACKGROUND: Two recent much cited publications have raised the concern that risk associated with cigarette smoking has so far been underestimated. In this study we wish to determine whether excess all-cause mortality associated with smoking has increased during the last 20-30 years in a study population representative of the general Danish population and whether any such changes relate to changes in smoking behaviour. METHODS: Pooled data from three prospective population studies conducted in Copenhagen with detailed information on smoking habits. A total of 31,194 subjects, 17,669 males and 13,525 females, initially examined between 1964 and 1992 with examinations repeated at intervals from 1-10 years, were followed until 1995 for all-cause mortality. Relative mortality risk in smokers versus never-smokers was calculated within periods of five calendar years and compared throughout the study period. RESULTS: Male smokers' exposure did not change during the study period whereas female smokers' exposure to tobacco increased in terms of age at smoking onset, quantity smoked and depth of inhalation. During follow-up 5744 males and 2900 females died. In males, death rate ratios (comparing continuous smokers with never-smokers) did not change in the study period. In females, ratios increased from 1964-1978 to 1979-1994 by a factor of 1.3 (95% confidence interval 1.0-1.8). CONCLUSIONS: In agreement with the observed changes in smoking habits, excess mortality in male smokers did not increase whereas excess mortality in female smokers increased slightly.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and all cause mortality associated with light smoking and inhalation habits in men and women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with follow up of MI and all cause mortality through record linkage. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, a cardiovascular study based on a sample of the general population established in 1976. PARTICIPANTS: 6505 women and 5644 men followed up until 1998 for first MI and for death from all causes. Main results: During follow up 476 women and 872 men suffered a MI whereas 2305 women and 2883 men died. After adjusting for major cardiovascular risk factors there was a dose-response relation between smoking with and without inhaling and both MI and all cause mortality. Among inhaling smokers significantly increased risks were found in women at a consumption of only 3-5 grams of tobacco per day with relative risks (RR) of MI and all cause mortality of 2.14 (95% CI 1.11 to 4.13) and 1.86 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.51), respectively. In men increased risks were seen when smoking 6-9 grams per day with RR of MI and all cause mortality of 2.10 (95% CI 1.40 to 3.14) and 1.76 (95% CI 1.39 to 2.23), respectively. Risks were also increased in non-inhaling smokers, although in men only significantly so for all cause mortality. After adjusting for inhalation and quantity smoked, cigarette smokers had a higher risk of all cause mortality (RR 1.16 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.26)) but not of MI (RR 1.11 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.30)). The RR associated with smoking were significantly higher in women than in men for both MI and all cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking as little as 3-5 grams of tobacco per day or not inhaling the smoke was shown to carry a significantly increased risk of developing MI and of all cause mortality with higher RR found in women than in men. The study emphasises the importance of recognising that even very limited tobacco consumption has detrimental health effects.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between self reported alcohol intake and subsequent mortality from all causes and if the effect of alcohol intake on the risk of death is modified by sex, age, body mass index, and smoking. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--7234 women and 6051 men aged 30-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--A total of 2229 people died, 1398 being men. A U shaped curve described the relation between alcohol intake and mortality. The lowest risk was observed at one to six alcoholic beverages a week (relative risk set at 1). Abstainers had a relative risk of 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.56) whereas those drinking more than 70 beverages a week had a relative risk of 2.29 (1.75 to 3.00). Among the drinkers, the risk was significantly increased only among those drinking more than 42 beverages a week. Sex, age, body mass index, and smoking did not significantly modify the risk function. The risk among heavy drinkers was slightly reduced when smoking was controlled for. The risk function was similar in the first and second period of six years of observation. CONCLUSION--Alcohol intake showed a U shaped relation to mortality with the nadir at one to six beverages a week. The risk function was not modified by sex, age, body mass index, or smoking and remained stable over 12 years.