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Analysis of non-compliance with smoke-free legislation in Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300287
Source
Int J Public Health. 2019 Apr; 64(3):413-422
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2019
Author
Liudmila Zasimova
Author Affiliation
Department of Applied Economics, Faculty of Economic Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), 28/2, Room 2214 Shabolovka Str., Moscow, Russian Federation, 119049. Lzasimova@hse.ru.
Source
Int J Public Health. 2019 Apr; 64(3):413-422
Date
Apr-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Guideline Adherence - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Restaurants - statistics & numerical data
Russia
Smoke-Free Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Socioeconomic Factors
Universities - statistics & numerical data
Workplace - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
The study examined the smokers' non-compliance rates in indoor public places in Russia and the sociodemographic factors associated with non-compliance.
Univariate analysis and logistic regression models were performed using cross-sectional data from a representative sample of Russian adults (N?=?4006).
27.2% of Russian smokers did not comply with smoke-free bans. Non-compliance was attributed to sociodemographic characteristics of smokers, mainly to the number of cigarettes smoked per day, regular alcohol consumption, being aged between 15 and 34 years, being in the highest income group and living in an urban area. Neither the sex, nor the family status of smokers exerted a statistically significant affiliation with non-compliance. Higher rates of non-compliance were observed in restaurants, cafes, bars and nightclubs, common domestic premises of apartment buildings and indoor workplaces. Violations on public transport, in governmental buildings, health and sport facilities, colleges and universities were less common.
There is a need to revise the methods of enforcement with respect to sociodemographic characteristics of smokers associated with non-compliance in public places where violations are widespread.
PubMed ID
30734060 View in PubMed
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Analyzing exposure, use, and policies related to tobacco use on campus for the development of comprehensive tobacco policies at Canadian post-secondary institutions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112757
Source
J Community Health. 2013 Dec;38(6):1081-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
Lauren E Wallar
Sarah Croteau
Amy Estill
Liz Robson
Andrew Papadopoulos
Author Affiliation
Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.
Source
J Community Health. 2013 Dec;38(6):1081-9
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Female
Health Policy
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Organizational Policy
Questionnaires
Smoke-Free Policy
Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control
Students - psychology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution
Universities
Young Adult
Abstract
Canadians in their early twenties represent the highest prevalence of reported tobacco use among all age groups. With the majority of Canadian young adults accessing post-secondary education, post-secondary institutions can facilitate targeting of health promotion efforts to curb tobacco use among young adults. Effective targeting requires clear comprehensive campus tobacco policies. However, the development and implementation of comprehensive campus tobacco policies has been lacking among Canadian post-secondary institutions. As the first step towards the development of a comprehensive campus tobacco policy at the University of Guelph, an on-line survey of students, faculty and staff was conducted in November 2012. The objectives of this survey were two-fold: (1) Determine the current level of exposure to second-hand smoke on campus, the type and frequency of tobacco use, opinions on seven different tobacco policy options, and the level of awareness of current tobacco policies and programs and; (2) Determine if any associations between opinions on tobacco policy options and exposure to second-hand smoke and tobacco use existed. The results of this survey demonstrate that tobacco use is associated with opinions on tobacco policy options and that the level of awareness of tobacco policies and programs is relatively low and is not associated with tobacco use. This study represents one of the first studies to examine the association between tobacco use and support of policy options and awareness of tobacco policies and programs. As other post-secondary institutions develop comprehensive tobacco policies, these findings will serve as a comparison for other similar institutions.
PubMed ID
23800956 View in PubMed
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The association between smoking bans and nicotine dependence: a longitudinal analysis of current smokers in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107376
Source
Addict Behav. 2013 Dec;38(12):2817-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
Sunday Azagba
Mark Asbridge
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, 5790 University Avenue, Halifax, NS B3H 1V7, Canada. Electronic address: s.azagba@dal.ca.
Source
Addict Behav. 2013 Dec;38(12):2817-20
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude to Health
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Smoke-Free Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Smoking - legislation & jurisprudence
Social Control, Informal
Tobacco Use Disorder - epidemiology
Workplace - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
While a substantial body of research has examined the effects of smoking bans on smoking behavior, little is known about the relationship between smoking bans and nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to examine whether home and workplace smoking bans are associated with reduced nicotine dependence among continuing smokers.
We used longitudinal data of 1073 adult daily smokers from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (2004-2010). Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between smoking bans and nicotine dependence.
Smokers living in homes where smoking is restricted were less likely to be nicotine dependent (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.32-0.50) than smokers living in homes with no such smoking restriction. Workplace smoking policies had no significant association with nicotine dependence (complete ban: OR=0.79, 95% CI=0.56-1.11; partial ban: OR=0.82, 95% CI=0.57-1.16). There was some evidence that workplace smoking bans were significantly associated with nicotine dependence when single items of the Fagerstrom test were considered.
This paper demonstrates that the presence of a home smoking ban was associated with lower nicotine dependence among continuing smokers. The relationship of workplace bans with nicotine dependence was less clear and was contingent on the measure of nicotine dependence employed. These findings further confirm the importance of bans on smoking in the home, workplace, and other public places on reducing tobacco-related harms.
PubMed ID
24018223 View in PubMed
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Changes in objectively measured smoking in pregnancy by time and legislative changes in Finland: a retrospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287297
Source
BMJ Open. 2016 11 28;6(11):e013296
Publication Type
Article
Date
11-28-2016
Author
T. Männistö
A. Bloigu
A. Heino
M. Gissler
H M Surcel
Source
BMJ Open. 2016 11 28;6(11):e013296
Date
11-28-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cotinine - blood
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Pregnancy
Pregnancy outcome
Pregnant Women
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Self Report
Smoke-Free Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Smoking - blood - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence
Smoking Cessation
Young Adult
Abstract
To study the changes in prevalence, characteristics and outcomes of pregnant smokers over time and legislative changes.
Retrospective nationwide cohort.
Our study consisted of 9627 randomly selected pregnancies from the Finnish Maternity Cohort (1987-2011), with demographic characteristics and pregnancy and perinatal data obtained from the Medical Birth Registry and early pregnancy serum samples analysed for cotinine levels. Women were categorised based on their self-reported smoking status and measured cotinine levels (with =4.73 ng/mL deemed high). Data were stratified to three time periods based on legislative changes in the Tobacco Act.
Prevalence of pregnant smokers and demographics, and perinatal and pregnancy outcomes of pregnant smokers over time.
Overall, 71.6% of women were non-smokers, 16.2% were active cigarette smokers, 7.7% undisclosed smoking but had high cotinine levels and 4.5% were inactive cigarette smokers. The prevalence of active cigarette smokers decreased from mid-1990s onwards among women aged =30 years, probably due to the ban of cigarette smoking in most workplaces. We observed no changes in the prevalence of inactive smokers or women who undisclosed smoking by time or legislative changes.Women who undisclosed smoking had similar characteristics and perinatal outcomes as inactive and active smokers. Compared with non-smokers, women who undisclosed smoking were more likely to be young, unmarried, have a socioeconomic status lower than white-collar worker and have a preterm birth.
Women who undisclosed smoking were very similar to pregnant cigarette smokers. We observed a reduction in the prevalence of active pregnant cigarette smokers after the ban of indoor smoking in workplaces and restaurants, mostly among women aged =30 years.
Notes
Cites: BMJ Open. 2015 Jun 01;5(6):e00739026033946
Cites: Lancet. 2015 Mar 14;385(9972):966-7625784347
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Feb 1;173(3):355-921178103
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Cites: Tob Control. 2001 Dec;10(4):368-7411740030
Cites: MMWR Surveill Summ. 2013 Nov 8;62(6):1-1924196750
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Jun;114(6):853-816759984
Cites: Chest. 2015 Sep;148(3):607-1725741773
PubMed ID
27895067 View in PubMed
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Disproportionate organizational injustice: a close look at facilities exempted from indoor smoking laws in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107876
Source
Healthc Policy. 2012 Nov;8(2):24-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Mohammed Al-Hamdani
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Saint Mary’s University, 923, Robie Street, Halifax, NS. alhamdani.mohammed@gmail.com
Source
Healthc Policy. 2012 Nov;8(2):24-9
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Humans
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence
Occupational Health
Residential Facilities - legislation & jurisprudence - manpower
Smoke-Free Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Smoking - adverse effects - legislation & jurisprudence
Social Justice
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
Federal and provincial legislation bans smoking in indoor public spaces and workplaces, yet exemptions exist for residential facilities such as nursing homes and addiction treatment centres. In relying on ventilated smoking rooms, however, these organizations are failing to protect the health of their employees and clients. Increased use of risk messages regarding the harms of second- and third-hand smoke, together with enhanced nicotine replacement therapies for smokers, would rectify this disproportionate injustice. Such an approach must also recognize and counteract the efforts of the tobacco industry to block total indoor smoking bans.
Notes
Cites: J Subst Abuse Treat. 1993 Mar-Apr;10(2):125-318389892
Cites: J Addict Dis. 1991;11(2):67-771667365
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2003 Apr;93(4):585-9212660202
Cites: CMAJ. 2011 Dec 13;183(18):E1334-4422042991
Cites: J Subst Abuse Treat. 2005 Jun;28(4):331-4015925267
Cites: Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Apr;11(4):381-619346510
Cites: Tob Control. 2008 Apr;17(2):123-718285386
Cites: J Appl Psychol. 1991 Oct;76(5):698-7071960142
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 17;362(24):2319-2520554988
PubMed ID
23968612 View in PubMed
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Economic Evaluation of Five Tobacco Control Policies Across Seven European Countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature309328
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 06 12; 22(7):1202-1209
Publication Type
Evaluation Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-12-2020
Author
Teresa Leão
Julian Perelman
Luke Clancy
Martin Mlinaric
Jaana M Kinnunen
Paulien A W Nuyts
Nora Mélard
Arja Rimpelä
Vincent Lorant
Anton E Kunst
Author Affiliation
Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 06 12; 22(7):1202-1209
Date
06-12-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Evaluation Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Belgium - epidemiology
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Health Policy - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Health Promotion - economics - methods
Humans
Ireland - epidemiology
Italy - epidemiology
Male
Netherlands - epidemiology
Portugal - epidemiology
Smoke-Free Policy - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Social Control Policies - legislation & jurisprudence
Tobacco Smoking - economics - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
Economic evaluations of tobacco control policies targeting adolescents are scarce. Few take into account real-world, large-scale implementation costs; few compare cost-effectiveness of different policies across different countries. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of five tobacco control policies (nonschool bans, including bans on sales to minors, bans on smoking in public places, bans on advertising at points-of-sale, school smoke-free bans, and school education programs), implemented in 2016 in Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Italy, and Portugal.
Cost-effectiveness estimates were calculated per country and per policy, from the State perspective. Costs were collected by combining quantitative questionnaires with semi-structured interviews on how policies were implemented in each setting, in real practice. Short-term effectiveness was based on the literature, and long-term effectiveness was modeled using the DYNAMO-HIA tool. Discount rates of 3.5% were used for costs and effectiveness. Sensitivity analyses considered 1%-50% short-term effectiveness estimates, highest cost estimates, and undiscounted effectiveness.
Nonschool bans cost up to €253.23 per healthy life year, school smoking bans up to €91.87 per healthy life year, and school education programs up to €481.35 per healthy life year. Cost-effectiveness depended on the costs of implementation, short-term effectiveness, initial smoking rates, dimension of the target population, and weight of smoking in overall mortality and morbidity.
All five policies were highly cost-effective in all countries according to the World Health Organization thresholds for public health interventions. Cost-effectiveness was preserved even when using the highest costs and most conservative effectiveness estimates.
Economic evaluations using real-world data on tobacco control policies implemented at a large scale are scarce, especially considering nonschool bans targeting adolescents. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of five tobacco control policies implemented in 2016 in Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Italy, and Portugal. This study shows that all five policies were highly cost-effective considering the World Health Organization threshold, even when considering the highest costs and most conservative effectiveness estimates.
PubMed ID
31350556 View in PubMed
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Effect of tobacco control policies on the Swedish smoking quitline using intervention time-series analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307669
Source
BMJ Open. 2019 12 15; 9(12):e033650
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-15-2019
Author
Xingwu Zhou
Alessio Crippa
Anna-Karin Danielsson
Maria R Galanti
Nicola Orsini
Author Affiliation
Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
BMJ Open. 2019 12 15; 9(12):e033650
Date
12-15-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Consumer Health Information - methods
Humans
Product Labeling
Restaurants
Smoke-Free Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Smoking Prevention
Sweden - epidemiology
Taxes
Tobacco Products - economics
Abstract
To coherently examine the responsiveness of the Swedish National Tobacco Quitline (SNTQ) to different types of anti-smoking policies over an extended period of calendar time.
Quasi-experimental design with an intervention time-series analysis based on 19 years series of data collected between January 1999 and August 2017 (224 months). Statistical inference on calling rates and rate ratios was obtained using intervention time-series models (Poisson regression and transfer functions).
A total of 179?851 phone calls to the SNTQ.
Recent application of the 2014/40/ European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive in 2016. Historical interventions such as a campaign on passive smoking in January 2001; introduction of larger text warnings on cigarette packages since September 2002; banning smoking in restaurants since June 2005; and tobacco tax increase by 10% since January 2012.
Calling rates to the SNTQ expressed per 100?000 smokers.
Sweden.
The introduction of large pictorial warnings together with text warnings on cigarette packages (May 2016) was associated with a 35% increase in SNTQ calling rate (95% CI 1.16 to 1.57). The campaign on passive smoking (Jan 2001) was associated with a 61% higher calling rate (95% CI 1.06 to 2.45). Larger text warnings on cigarette packs (Sept 2002) conferred a 28% increment in the calling rate (95% CI 1.15 to 1.42); and prohibition to smoke in restaurants (Jun 2005) was associated with a 15% increase in the calling rate (95% CI 1.01 to 1.30). The 10% tobacco tax increase (Jan 2012) was associated with a 3% higher calling rate (95% CI 0.90 to 1.19).
Within an overall decreasing trend of daily smoking in Sweden, we found that the recent introduction of pictorial warnings together with text warnings and referral text had a discernible positive impact on the calling rates to the smoking quitline. We were also able to detect a likely impact of earlier nationwide interventions.
PubMed ID
31843849 View in PubMed
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Effects of the X:IT smoking intervention: a school-based cluster randomized trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276666
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Dec;44(6):1900-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2015
Author
Anette Andersen
Rikker Krølner
Lotus Sofie Bast
Lau Caspar Thygesen
Pernille Due
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Dec;44(6):1900-8
Date
Dec-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Male
Odds Ratio
Parents
Prevalence
School Health Services
Schools
Smoke-Free Policy
Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Uptake of smoking in adolescence is still of major public health concern. Evaluations of school-based programmes for smoking prevention show mixed results. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of X:IT, a multi-component school-based programme to prevent adolescent smoking.
Data from a Danish cluster randomized trial included 4041 year-7 students (mean age: 12.5) from 51 intervention and 43 control schools. Outcome measure 'current smoking' was dichotomized into smoking daily, weekly, monthly or more seldom vs do not smoke. Analyses were adjusted for baseline covariates: sex, family socioeconomic position (SEP), best friend's smoking and parental smoking. We performed multilevel, logistic regression analyses of available cases and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses, replacing missing outcome values by multiple imputation.
At baseline, 4.7% and 6.8% of the students at the intervention and the control schools smoked, respectively. After 1 year of the intervention, the prevalence was 7.9% and 10.7%, respectively. At follow-up, 553 students (13.7%) did not answer the question on smoking. Available case analyses: crude odds ratios (OR) for smoking at intervention schools compared with control schools: 0.65 (0.48-0.88) and adjusted: 0.70 (0.47-1.04). ITT analyses: crude OR for smoking at intervention schools compared with control schools: 0.67 (0.50-0.89) and adjusted: 0.61 (0.45-0.82).
Students at intervention schools had a lower risk of smoking after a year of intervention in year 7. This multi-component intervention involving educational, parental and context-related intervention components seems to be efficient in lowering or postponing smoking uptake in Danish adolescents.
PubMed ID
26210612 View in PubMed
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'Neighbour smoke'--exposure to secondhand smoke in multiunit dwellings in Denmark in 2010: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123485
Source
Tob Control. 2013 May;22(3):190-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Brian Køster
Anne-Line Brink
Inge Haunstrup Clemmensen
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society, Department of Prevention and Documentation, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark. koester_brian@yahoo.com
Source
Tob Control. 2013 May;22(3):190-3
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Attitude to Health
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - analysis - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Female
Housing - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Smoke-Free Policy
Smoking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - analysis - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
'Neighbour smoke' is transfer of secondhand smoke between apartments including shared areas, such as hallways, community rooms and stairwells in multiunit dwellings and is an emerging issue for public health and health equity.
To describe the prevalence of exposure to neighbour smoke in Denmark.
A population-based sample of 5049 respondents (2183 in multiunit dwellings) living in Denmark aged =15 years completed a questionnaire in 2010 on tobacco-related behaviour and exposure to secondhand smoke. The authors examined the relations between exposure to neighbour smoke, own smoking, smoking inside the home, type of residence and demographic factors with descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis.
In this sample, 22% of those living in multiunit dwellings reported exposure to neighbour smoke. Of respondents living in apartments, 41% preferred to live in a building in which smoking is banned. Smoke-free buildings were preferred by 58% of persons exposed to neighbour smoke compared with 37% of persons not exposed. Of the smokers (daily and occasional), 14% preferred to live in a smoke-free building; 31% never smoked indoors in their own home.
The only way to avoid absorbing tobacco smoke from neighbours is to live in a smoke-free multiunit dwelling. There is great demand for such dwellings, especially by young people, people with children and people exposed to neighbour smoke, as well as by people who smoke.
PubMed ID
22693208 View in PubMed
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Prevalence and predictors of smoking, quit attempts and total smoking ban at the University of Turku, Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311508
Source
Cent Eur J Public Health. 2021 Mar; 29(1):45-55
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2021
Author
Walid El Ansari
Abdul Salam
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
Source
Cent Eur J Public Health. 2021 Mar; 29(1):45-55
Date
Mar-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Prevalence
Smoke-Free Policy
Smoking - epidemiology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Universities
Abstract
The current study employed socio-demographic, health and lifestyle, and academic variables to assess the prevalence and independent predictors of daily smoking, attempts to quit smoking, and agreement with total smoking ban at university.
Students at the University of Turku (1,177) completed an online questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic, health and lifestyle, and academic characteristics, and three smoking variables (smoking, attempts to quit, agreement with total smoking ban at university). Bivariate relationships and multiple logistic regression assessed relationships between student characteristics and the three smoking variables before and after controlling for all other variables.
Slightly 1 of the three smoking variables. Age, health awareness, importance of achieving good grades, academic performance compared to peers, study burden, and mother's educational level were significant independent predictors of one of the three variables examined.
Universities need to assess smoking, with specific focus on the modifiable independent predictors that were associated with > 1 the variables examined, to encourage physical activity and pay attention to reduce alcohol consumption and illicit drug/s and daily smoking, whilst targeting at-risk students. University strategies should be part of the wider country-wide effective tobacco control policies.
PubMed ID
33831286 View in PubMed
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15 records – page 1 of 2.