Skip header and navigation

Refine By

53 records – page 1 of 6.

Affective responses to changes in day length in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45723
Source
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005 Jun;30(5):438-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
Brian J Prendergast
Randy J Nelson
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. prendergast@uchicago.edu
Source
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005 Jun;30(5):438-52
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anxiety - psychology
Attention - physiology
Behavior, Animal - physiology
Body Weight - physiology
Conflict (Psychology)
Cricetinae
Depression - psychology
Emotions - physiology
Exploratory Behavior - physiology
Female
Light
Motor Activity - physiology
Muscle, Skeletal - physiology
Phodopus
Photoperiod
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Smell - physiology
Startle Reaction - physiology
Swimming - psychology
Abstract
The goal of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that day length influences anxious- and depressive-like behaviors in reproductively photoperiodic rodents. Male and female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were exposed to long (16 h light/day; LD) or short (8 h light/day; SD) photoperiods beginning at the time of weaning (day 18). Two weeks later hamsters were subjected to a series of behavioral tests to quantify anxiety-and depressive-like behaviors. In an elevated plus maze, SD males exhibited longer latencies to enter an open arm, entered fewer open arms, and spent less time exploring open arms relative to LD hamsters. SD males were likewise slower to enter either of the distal arms of a completely enclosed T-maze, and in a hunger-motivated exploratory paradigm SD males were slower to enter an open arena for food as compared to LD males. In a forced-swimming model of behavioral despair, SD males exhibited immobility sooner, more often, and for a greater total amount of time relative to LD males. Total activity levels, aversiveness to light, olfactory function, and limb strength were unaffected by SD, suggesting that the behavioral changes consequent to SD are not attributable to sensory or motor deficits, but rather may arise from changes in general affective state. The anxiogenic and depressive effects of SD were largely absent in female hamsters. Together the results indicate that adaptation to short photoperiods is associated with increased expression of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors relative to those observed under LD photoperiod conditions.
PubMed ID
15721056 View in PubMed
Less detail

An epidemiological study on the prevalence of hallucinations in a general-population sample: Effects of age and sensory modality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300137
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2019 02; 272:707-714
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2019
Author
Frank Larøi
Josef J Bless
Julien Laloyaux
Bodil Kråkvik
Einar Vedul-Kjelsås
Anne Martha Kalhovde
Marco Hirnstein
Kenneth Hugdahl
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway; NORMENT - Norwegian Center of Excellence for Mental Disorders Research, University of Oslo, Norway; Psychology and Neuroscience of Cognition Research Unit, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium. Electronic address: Frank.Laroi@uib.no.
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2019 02; 272:707-714
Date
02-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Hallucinations - epidemiology
Hearing
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Smell
Touch
Vision, Ocular
Young Adult
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown that a significant minority of the general population have experienced hallucinations, however, a potential effect of age on the prevalence of hallucinations in the general population has never been previously examined in a specific study. The aim of the present study was thus to examine the effects of age and sensory modality on hallucination prevalence in a general population sample. A large, randomly selected and representative sample of the Norwegian population completed measures assessing different hallucination modalities (auditory, visual, olfactory, and tactile) and types (sensed presence and hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations). Three age groups were identified and compared: young (19-30 years), middle (31-60) and old (61-96). There was a significant main-effect of age for all hallucination modalities and types, whereby hallucination prevalence significantly decreased with age. We also found that anxiety partially mediated the effect of age on hallucinations whilst depression was a partial suppressor. Concerning the co-occurrence of hallucination modalities, there was very little co-occurrence of auditory and visual hallucinations in all three age groups. In summary, a main-effect of age for hallucination prevalence was observed. Furthermore, individuals reported a more diverse variety of hallucination modalities compared to what is commonly reported in clinical populations.
PubMed ID
30832190 View in PubMed
Less detail

Annoyance and performance during the experimental chemical challenge of subjects with multiple chemical sensitivity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186307
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2003 Feb;29(1):40-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
Kai Osterberg
Palle Orbaek
Björn Karlson
Bengt Akesson
Ulf Bergendorf
Author Affiliation
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden. kai.osterberg@ymed.lu.se
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2003 Feb;29(1):40-50
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetates - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Fatigue - chemically induced
Female
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity - physiopathology - psychology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Psychological Tests
Smell - physiology
Sweden
Toluene - adverse effects
Abstract
This study explored the subjective reactions and psychological test performance of smell-intolerant subjects during consecutive challenges to chemicals with contrasting neurotoxic properties.
Women with symptoms compatible with multiple chemical sensitivity (N=10) and healthy referents (N=20) were individually challenged in an exposure chamber. All the subjects attended two separate 2-hour sessions of exposure to n-butyl acetate and toluene, in counterbalanced sequence. After an initial phase without exposure, air concentrations were increased in steps ranging from 3.6 to 57 mg/m3 for n-butyl acetate and from 11 to 180 mg/m3 for toluene. The response measures comprised ratings of annoyance and smell intensity and also neurobehavioral test performance.
Both groups showed an increase in annoyance ratings and a decrease in test performance in the initial unexposed chamber phase and also in the first phase of the chemical exposure, these results indicating slight immediate expectancy or "suggestion" effects. During the six chamber phases, the ratings of mucous membrane irritation and fatigue showed a steeper increase in the group with multiple chemical sensitivity than among the referents, while the ratings of smell intensity and smell annoyance were similar in the two groups. A reduction in test performance was observed during the chamber phases, particularly in the group with multiple chemical sensitivity. No relation was found between the ratings or performance and chemical substance.
Stronger immediate expectancy or "suggestion" reactions than normal did not characterize the group with multiple chemical sensitivity. This group showed a stronger than normal gradual build-up of fatigue, mucous membrane irritation, and reduced performance during chemical exposure. The results offer the most support to an irritative basis for multiple chemical sensitivity.
PubMed ID
12630435 View in PubMed
Less detail

Applicability of the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test: a Finnish-Swedish comparison.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52274
Source
Acta Otolaryngol. 2002 Apr;122(3):294-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2002
Author
S. Nordin
M. Nyroos
E. Maunuksela
T. Niskanen
H. Tuorila
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden. steven.nordin@psy.umu.se
Source
Acta Otolaryngol. 2002 Apr;122(3):294-7
Date
Apr-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Comparative Study
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Odors
Olfaction Disorders - diagnosis
Perception
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smell - physiology
Sweden
Abstract
The possibility of using the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test (SOIT), developed for clinical purposes for use with Swedish subjects, for assessment of another northern European population was studied by comparing test performance between 127 Finnish and 127 Swedish participants, who were matched for age (19-85 years) and gender. The results showed very similar performance between countries and demonstrated, as expected, age- and gender-related differences in performance. Test-retest reliability was as good in Finnish as in Swedish subgroups of participants and no significant difference between countries in terms of diagnostic distribution (normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia) was found when using existing cut-off scores. The findings suggest that the SOIT, with its diagnostic cut-off scores, is reliable and valid for use with Finnish populations.
PubMed ID
12030577 View in PubMed
Less detail

Canadian medical experiments on Shuttle flight 41-G.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature238341
Source
Can Aeronaut Space J. 1985 Sep;31(3):215-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1985
Author
D G Watt
K E Money
R L Bondar
R B Thirsk
M. Garneau
P. Scully-Power
Author Affiliation
McGill University.
Source
Can Aeronaut Space J. 1985 Sep;31(3):215-26
Date
Sep-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Arm - physiology
Canada
Eye Movements - physiology
Humans
Leg - physiology
Male
Muscle Contraction - physiology
Otolithic Membrane - physiology
Proprioception - physiology
Psychomotor Performance - physiology
Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular - physiology
Sensation - physiology
Smell - physiology
Space Flight
Space Motion Sickness - etiology - physiopathology
Taste - physiology
Vestibule, Labyrinth - physiology
Visual Fields
Weightlessness
Abstract
During the 41-G mission, two payload specialist astronauts took part in six Canadian medical experiments designed to measure how the human nervous system adapts to weightlessness, and how this might contribute to space motion sickness. Similar tests conducted pre-flight provided base-line data, and post-flight experiments examined re-adaptation to the ground. No changes were detected in the vestibulo-ocular reflex during this 8-day mission. Pronounced proprioceptive illusions were experienced, especially immediately post-flight. Tactile acuity was normal in the fingers and toes, but the ability to judge limb position was degraded. Estimates of the locations of familiar targets were grossly distorted in the absence of vision. There were no differences in taste thresholds or olfaction. Despite pre-flight tests showing unusual susceptibility to motion sickness, the Canadian payload specialist turned out to be less susceptible than normal on-orbit. Re-adaptation to the normal gravity environment occurred within the first day after landing.
PubMed ID
11538834 View in PubMed
Less detail

Characteristic odour in the blood reveals ovarian carcinoma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139072
Source
BMC Cancer. 2010;10:643
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
György Horvath
Håkan Andersson
Gunnar Paulsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden. gyorgy.horvath@oncology.gu.se
Source
BMC Cancer. 2010;10:643
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Behavior, Animal
Carcinoma - blood - diagnosis - pathology
Case-Control Studies
Dogs
Early Detection of Cancer
Female
Humans
Neoplasm Staging
Odors
Ovarian Neoplasms - blood - diagnosis - pathology
Predictive value of tests
Sensitivity and specificity
Smell
Sweden
Abstract
Ovarian carcinoma represents about 4% of all cancers diagnosed in women worldwide. Mortality rate is high, over 50%, mainly due to late diagnosis. Currently there are no acceptable screening techniques available, although ovarian cancer belongs to the group of malignancies for which mortality could be dramatically reduced by early diagnosis.In a recently published study, we clearly demonstrated that human ovarian carcinoma tissues can be characterized by a specific odour, detectable by a trained dog. Another recent study confirmed these results using an electronic nose.
In the present work, we examined whether the cancer-specific odour can also be found in the blood. Two specially trained dogs were used. Both ovarian cancer tissues and blood from patients with ovarian carcinoma were tested.
The tissue tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 95%, while the blood tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98%.
The present study strongly suggests that the characteristic odour emitted by ovarian cancer samples is also present in blood (plasma) taken from patients with the disease. This finding opens possibilities for future screening of healthy populations for early diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. A future challenge is to develop a sensitive electronic nose for screening of ovarian carcinoma by testing the blood/plasma to detect the disease at a stage early enough for treatment to be effective.
Notes
Cites: J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 Sep 5;808(2):269-7715261821
Cites: BMJ. 2004 Sep 25;329(7468):71215388612
Cites: CA Cancer J Clin. 2005 Mar-Apr;55(2):74-10815761078
Cites: Cancer. 2005 Oct 1;104(7):1398-40716116591
Cites: Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Mar;5(1):30-916484712
Cites: Future Oncol. 2010 Jun;6(6):1043-920528240
Cites: Integr Cancer Ther. 2008 Jun;7(2):76-8018505901
Cites: Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Apr;113(4):775-8219305319
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jul 7;106(27):10912-619549846
Cites: Small. 2009 Nov;5(22):2618-2419705367
Cites: J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):61-718199013
PubMed ID
21106067 View in PubMed
Less detail

Chemosensory changes experienced by patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy: a qualitative interview study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84609
Source
J Pain Symptom Manage. 2007 Oct;34(4):403-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2007
Author
Bernhardson Britt-Marie
Tishelman Carol
Rutqvist Lars Erik
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institute, R & D Unit, Stockholms Sjukhem Foundation, Mariebergsgatan 22, 112 35 Stockholm, Sweden. britt-marie.bernhardson@ki.se
Source
J Pain Symptom Manage. 2007 Oct;34(4):403-12
Date
Oct-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Antineoplastic Agents - administration & dosage
Comorbidity
Female
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - drug therapy - epidemiology
Prevalence
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Sensation Disorders - epidemiology
Smell - drug effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Taste - drug effects
Abstract
Few studies explore patients' experiences of smell and taste changes during cytotoxic chemotherapy. Issues, such as how such changes impact daily life, their consequences, and how patients respond to chemotherapy-induced chemosensory changes, have not previously been systematically addressed. The aim of this study was to examine these questions by exploring experiences of chemotherapy-induced chemosensory changes. In this qualitative longitudinal study, semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 women and 7 men with a variety of cancer diagnoses, who were known to have smell and taste changes. The participants were chosen for heterogeneity in regard to factors that might impact on experiences of chemotherapy. Participants were followed monthly until chemosensory changes ceased. There was great individual variation in patterns, intensity and impact of smell and/or taste changes, with changes reported to have ceased in all participants within 3.5 months after treatment ended. While not all participants found reported changes "bothersome," those who did reported predominantly emotional and social consequences. Smell and taste changes were said to be influenced by, or to influence, other symptoms, for example, appetite loss, early satiation, nausea, and oral problems. Although participants said they lacked ways to manage chemosensory changes, coping strategies described included frequent oral hygiene, searching for tolerable food, relying on smell and taste memory, and acceptance of changes. Although chemosensory changes resolved in all participants within several months after completed chemotherapy, the reported variation in experiences of taste and smell changes makes these side effects especially challenging to assess and alleviate.
PubMed ID
17616338 View in PubMed
Less detail

Consumers' views on food quality. A qualitative interview study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34690
Source
Appetite. 1996 Aug;27(1):1-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1996
Author
L. Holm
H. Kildevang
Author Affiliation
Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Denmark.
Source
Appetite. 1996 Aug;27(1):1-14
Date
Aug-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude
Consumer Satisfaction
Denmark
Food - standards
Food Preferences
Food Technology
Humans
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smell
Taste
Abstract
The study investigated the themes consumers discuss when describing their everyday considerations about food quality. Twenty Copenhagen families with young children were interviewed open-endedly concerning daily food-related practices and thoughts, making particular use of narrative descriptions of specific meals. Respondents expressed both positive and negative opinions about a broad variety of processed and unprocessed foods. Positive opinions about food quality related mainly to personal criteria such as taste or convenience. Negative comments mainly related to how foods were processed or distributed. The study suggests that concerns about food safety are integrated in everyday concepts of food quality, and that consumers individually develop strategies to deal with this. However, feelings of uncertainty, helplessness and self reproach were frequently reported. The results suggest that choices of foods often reflect compromises in everyday life rather than the consumers' preferences.
PubMed ID
8879415 View in PubMed
Less detail

53 records – page 1 of 6.