In an epidemiological population study 87 subjects were studied with home sleep recordings. Nineteen subjects had minor psychiatric disorders: six subjects had a minor depression, six subjects had a generalized anxiety disorder, and seven subjects had a mild vegetative discomfort syndrome. Syndrome profiles of the three groups, using the AMDP system, showed a significantly higher degree of insomnia in the anxiety group than in the depressive group. The mean rapid eye movement (REM) latency in the anxiety group was significantly longer than in the other groups, including normals. The study showed a slight tendency towards a reduced REM latency in the minor depressives, but no statistical significance was obtained.
This study investigated health-related quality of life, expressed as subjective wellbeing and the prevalence of depressive symptoms and insomnia, among elderly pre-lingually deaf persons using sign language. Comparisons were made with elderly hearing people. Forty-five pre-lingually deaf persons, 65 years or older, took part (a response rate of 46%). Subjective wellbeing was assessed with the Gothenburg Quality of Life (GQL) instrument. Depressive symptoms were rated with the 15-item version of the geriatric depression scale (GDS), and insomnia was measured with Livingston's sleep scale. Ratings of subjective wellbeing among elderly pre-lingually deaf people were generally high. One third of the deaf persons demonstrated depressive symptoms and nearly two thirds suffered from insomnia. There was substantial correlation between insomnia, depressive symptoms and lower subjective wellbeing. The results strengthened the assumption that depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance are more frequent among elderly pre-lingually deaf people using sign language than among hearing people. On the other hand, and contrary to our expectations, this did not imply significantly lower perceived subjective wellbeing compared with hearing elderly people. Results must be interpreted with caution due to limitations in the study.
Norwegian Competence Center for Sleep Disorders, Haukeland University Hospital, Norway.; Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Norway.. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Major age and sex differences are reported in bedroom habits and bedroom characteristics. However, few studies have investigated whether such bedroom habits and characteristics differ between patients with chronic insomnia disorder and good sleepers.
We assessed the association between several bedroom habits (i.e. electronic media use, bed sharing) and bedroom characteristics (i.e. bedroom temperature, blackout curtains) and chronic insomnia disorder among 1001 randomly selected adults responding to a telephone survey in Norway. Response rate was 63%. Insomnia symptoms were evaluated with the validated Bergen Insomnia Scale (with ICSD-3/DSM-5 criteria).
Chronic insomnia disorder was associated with reporting worse bed comfort, having newer beds, more noise stemming from both within and outside the building, higher bedroom temperature during the summer, and not preferring the supine position when trying to sleep. However, we found no associations between chronic insomnia disorder and electronic media use in bed, reading in bed, how important the mattress, pillow and comforter were rated, bed sharing, bedroom temperature during winter, open or closed bedroom window, use of blackout curtains, and most self-reported preferred body positions for sleep.
We found few and small differences in bedroom habits and bedroom characteristics between respondents with and without chronic insomnia disorder. Future studies with experimental and longitudinal designs should investigate whether and how such habits and characteristics are causally and temporally linked to insomnia.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in schoolchildren is often associated with troublesome relationships with family members and peers as well as difficulties in the classroom. The aims of this study were to assess the associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), recurrent subjective health complaints, and bullying in the peer group in schoolchildren.
Cohort study of 577 fourth graders (10-year-olds) in 1 municipality in Stockholm County, Sweden. All children were screened for attention and behavior problems through interviews with their parents and teachers. Children with high scores underwent further clinical and cognitive assessments. Information about health complaints and bullying was collected from the children themselves in a classroom questionnaire. The 516 children for whom there was information from all 3 data sources were included in the final study population.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was associated with a 2-fold increased risk for recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), sleeping problems, and tiredness, while there was no association with headache. Bullying other students as well as being bullied were strongly associated with ADHD. There was a 2-fold increased risk for all kinds of health complaints among children being bullied, while bullies were more likely to report tiredness than other children.
Evaluation and treatment strategies for ADHD need to include an effective evaluation and treatment of RAP, tiredness, and sleeping disturbances as well as assessment and effective interventions for bullying. Evaluation of ADHD should be considered in children with recurrent health complaints and in children involved in bullying. Antibullying interventions are important to prevent health problems in all children.
Associations between traffic noise and sleep problems have been detected in experimental studies, but population-level evidence is scarce.
We studied the relationship between the levels of nighttime traffic noise and sleep disturbances and identified vulnerable population groups.
Noise levels of nighttime-outdoor traffic were modeled based on the traffic intensities in the cities of Helsinki and Vantaa, Finland. In these cities, 7,019 public sector employees (81% women) responded to postal surveys on sleep and health. We linked modeled outdoor noise levels to the residences of the employees who responded to the postal survey. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of noise levels with subjectively assessed duration of sleep and symptoms of insomnia (i.e., difficulties falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night, waking up too early in the morning, nonrestorative sleep). We also used stratified models to investigate the possibility of vulnerable subgroups.
For the total study population, exposure to levels of nighttime-outside (L(night, outside)) traffic noise > 55 dB was associated with any insomnia symptom = 2 nights per week [odds ratio (OR) = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.65]. Among participants with higher trait anxiety scores, which we hypothesized were a proxy for noise sensitivity, the ORs for any insomnia symptom at exposures to L(night, outside) traffic noises 50.1-55 dB and > 55 dB versus = 45 dB were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.80) and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.42), respectively.
Nighttime traffic noise levels > 50 dB L(night, outside) was associated with insomnia symptoms among persons with higher scores for trait anxiety. For the total study population, L(night, outside) > 55 dB was positively associated with any symptoms.
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Night work has been reported to be associated with various mental disorders and complaints. We investigated relationships between night work and anxiety, depression, insomnia, sleepiness and fatigue among Norwegian nurses.
The study design was cross-sectional, based on validated self-assessment questionnaires. A total of 5400 nurses were invited to participate in a health survey through the Norwegian Nurses' Organization, whereof 2059 agreed to participate (response rate 38.1%). Nurses completed a questionnaire containing items on demographic variables (gender, age, years of experience as a nurse, marital status and children living at home), work schedule, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) and fatigue (Fatigue Questionnaire). They were also asked to report number of night shifts in the last 12 months (NNL). First, the parameters were compared between nurses i) never working nights, ii) currently working nights, and iii) previously working nights, using binary logistic regression analyses. Subsequently, a cumulative approach was used investigating associations between NNL with the continuous scores on the same dependent variables in hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Nurses with current night work were more often categorized with insomnia (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.10-1.99) and chronic fatigue (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02-3.11) than nurses with no night work experience. Previous night work experience was also associated with insomnia (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.04-2.02). NNL was not associated with any parameters in the regression analyses.
Nurses with current or previous night work reported more insomnia than nurses without any night work experience, and current night work was also associated with chronic fatigue. Anxiety, depression and sleepiness were not associated with night work, and no cumulative effect of night shifts during the last 12 months was found on any parameters.
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This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether body fat distribution, physical activity levels and dietary intakes are associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea among overweight middle-aged men. Participants were 211 Finnish men aged 30-65 years. Among the 163 overweight or obese participants, 40 had insomnia only, 23 had obstructive sleep apnea only, 24 had comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea and 76 were without sleep disorder. The remaining 48 participants had normal weight without sleep disorder. Fat mass, levels of physical activity and diet were assessed by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, physical activity questionnaire and 3-day food diary, respectively. Among the overweight participants, we found that: (i) groups with sleep disorders had higher fat mass in trunk and android regions than the group without sleep disorder (P = 0.048-0.004); (ii) the insomnia-only group showed a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (436.9 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.009) and higher intake of saturated fatty acids (14.8 versus 12.7 E%, P = 0.011) than the group without sleep disorder; and (iii) the comorbid group had a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (344.4 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.007) and lower folate intake (118.9 versus 152.1 µg, P = 0.002) than the group without sleep disorder, which were independent of body mass index. The results suggest that central obesity is associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, low levels of leisure-time physical activity and poor dietary intakes are related to insomnia or comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea among overweight men.
The aims were to investigate the prevalence of perceived sleep quality and insufficient sleep complaints, and to analyze whether self-reported bruxism was associated with perceptions of sleep, and awake consequences of disturbed sleep, while controlling confounding factors relative to poor sleep.
A standardized questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (n = 750) and to an equal number of randomly selected controls in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work.
The response rate in the irregular shift work group was 82.3% (56.6% men) and in the regular daytime work group 34.3% (46.7% men). Self-reported bruxism occurred frequently (often or continually) in 10.6% of all subjects. Altogether 16.8% reported difficulties initiating sleep (DIS), 43.6% disrupted sleep (DS), and 10.3% early morning awakenings (EMA). The corresponding figures for non-restorative sleep (NRS), tiredness, and sleep deprivation (SLD) were 36.2%, 26.1%, and 23.7%, respectively. According to logistic regression, female gender was a significant independent factor for all insomnia symptoms, and older age for DS and EMA. Frequent bruxism was significantly associated with DIS (p = 0.019) and DS (p = 0.021). Dissatisfaction with current work shift schedule and frequent bruxism were both significant independent factors for all variables describing insufficient sleep consequences.
Self-reported bruxism may indicate sleep problems and their adherent awake consequences in non-patient populations.
About 50% of the elderly population report being dissatisfied with their sleep. Although benzodiazepines are the most prescribed drugs to treat sleep complaints, the effectiveness of their use on the quality of sleep is not well documented.
This study aimed to assess the association between benzodiazepine use and global sleep quality, as well as six components of sleep quality.
Data from the cross-sectional Quebec Survey on Seniors' Health (n = 2798) conducted in 2005-2006 were used. Quality of sleep was self-reported and use of benzodiazepines was assessed during the previous year.
Benzodiazepine users reported poorer quality of sleep than non-users. The association between benzodiazepine use and each of the six quality of sleep components studied were similar except for the daytime dysfunction component.
The results suggest that there is no evidence that using benzodiazepines is associated with better quality of sleep than non-users in the elderly population. Future longitudinal population-based studies are needed to assess improvements in quality of sleep in the elderly associated with the use of benzodiazepines.
Depression and insomnia are closely linked, yet our understanding of their prospective relationships remains limited. The aim of the current study was to investigate the directionality of association between depression and insomnia.
Data were collected from a prospective population-based study comprising the most recent waves of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) (the HUNT2 in 1995-1997 and the HUNT3 in 2006-2008). A total of 24,715 persons provided valid responses on the relevant questionnaires from both surveys. Study outcomes were onset of depression or insomnia at HUNT3 in persons not reporting the other disorder in HUNT2.
Both insomnia and depression significantly predicted the onset of the other disorder. Participants who did not have depression in HUNT2 but who had insomnia in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 had an odds ratio (OR) of 6.2 of developing depression at HUNT3. Participants who did not have insomnia in HUNT2 but who had depression in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 had an OR of 6.7 of developing insomnia at HUNT3. ORs were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for potential confounding factors.
The results support a bidirectional relationship between insomnia and depression. This finding stands in contrast to the previous studies, which have mainly focused on insomnia as a risk factor for the onset of depression.