The primary aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate associations between chronic non-cancer pain with or without opioid treatment and the alcohol and smoking behavior. The secondary aims were to investigate self-reported quality of life, sleeping problems, oral health and the use of different health care providers. The Danish health survey of 2005 was based on a region-stratified random sample of 10.916 individuals. Data were collected via personal interviews and self-administrated questionnaires. Respondents suffering from chronic pain were identified through the question 'Do you have chronic/long-lasting pain lasting 6 months or more?' The question concerning alcohol intake assessed the frequency of alcohol intake and binge drinking. Smoking behavior assessed the daily number of cigarettes. Individuals reporting chronic pain were stratified into two groups (opioid users and non-opioid users). In all, 7275 individuals completed a personal interview and 5552 individuals completed and returned the self-administrated questionnaire. Responders with a self-reported earlier or present cancer diagnosis were excluded from the study. Hence, the final study population consisted of 5292 individuals. We found, that individuals suffering from chronic pain were less likely to drink alcohol. In opioid users alcohol consumption was further reduced. Cigarette smoking was significantly increased in individuals suffering from chronic pain and in opioid users smoking was further increased. Poor oral health, quality of life and sleep were markedly associated with chronic pain and opioid use. The use of opioids was associated with significantly more contacts to healthcare care providers.
To determine the prevalence of snoring in young children and to assess age, growth, previous surgery therapy, respiratory problems and sleep-related symptoms in relation to child's snoring, and to evaluate the relationship between child's snoring and parents' snoring and smoking.
A cross-sectional study evaluated 2100 children 1-6 years of age in Helsinki, Finland. Child's frequency of snoring on a five-point scale (never to every night) and age, height, weight and body mass index, previous adenotonsillectomies, tympanostomies, allergic rhinitis and respiratory infections were determined as was frequency of parental snoring and smoking. Sleep problems were determined based on Finnish or Swedish modified version of the sleep disturbance scale for Children.
Of the 2100 eligible children, 1471 (71%) returned questionnaires. Children always or often snoring numbered 92 (6.3%), sometimes snoring, 183 (12.4%), and never or occasionally snoring, 1196 (81.3%). No difference in age (p=0.06) or gender (p=0.39) existed between snorers and non-snorers. History of previous adenotonsillectomies (p
In an epidemiological population study 87 subjects were studied with home sleep recordings. Nineteen subjects had minor psychiatric disorders: six subjects had a minor depression, six subjects had a generalized anxiety disorder, and seven subjects had a mild vegetative discomfort syndrome. Syndrome profiles of the three groups, using the AMDP system, showed a significantly higher degree of insomnia in the anxiety group than in the depressive group. The mean rapid eye movement (REM) latency in the anxiety group was significantly longer than in the other groups, including normals. The study showed a slight tendency towards a reduced REM latency in the minor depressives, but no statistical significance was obtained.
To determine the influence of breast-feeding on the prevalence and persistence of sleeping problems in southern Finland (SF) and southern Germany (SG).
Prospective binational population study of infants admitted to special care units (SCUs) in geographically defined areas in SF and SG.
In SF, the number of SCU infants was 1057 (very preterm, 47; preterm, 258; term, 752); 485 term infants were control subjects. In SG, the number of SCU infants was 4427 (very preterm, 284; preterm, 1419; term, 2724).
Parent reports of child sleeping problems at 5, 20, and 56 months of age.
Night waking at 5 months of age was less frequent for SCU very preterm (25.5%), preterm (40.6%), and term infants (48%) than for term control subjects (56.7% to 59.9%) in SF. No differences in sleeping behavior according to gestation were found at 20 and 56 months. Sleeping problems were greater in SF infants (25.5% to 48%) than in SG infants (15.1% to 19.1%) at 5 months of age and were explained by a higher rate of breast-feeding in SF. Breast-feeding had no long-term effects on night waking or on co-sleeping in SF. In contrast, breast-fed infants continued to wake more often in SG.
Breast-feeding rather than gestational age is strongly related to night waking. More support for dealing with night waking might prevent early termination of breast-feeding.
The increased incidence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), are serious public health issues, and several studies link sleeping disorders with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (IR). This study explore how self-reported lack of sleep and low vitality, are associated with IGT in a representative Swedish population.
A cross-sectional survey conducted in two municipalities in South-western Sweden. Participants aged 30-75 were randomly selected from the population in strata by sex and age. Altogether, 2,816 participants were surveyed with a participation rates at 76%. Participants with normal glucose tolerance (n=2,314), and those with IGT (n=213) were retained for analyses. The participants answered a questionnaire before the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Associations for questions concerning sleeping disorders, vitality and IGT were analysed using logistic regression and were expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI.
In men a statistically significant age-adjusted association was found between self-reported lack of sleep and IGT: OR 2.4 (95% CI: 1.1-5.4). It did not weaken after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), smoking, education, and leisure time physical activity 2.3 (1.0-5.5, p=0.044). No such associations were found in females. Corresponding age-adjusted associations between low vitality and IGT in both men 2.8 (1.3-5.8), and women 2.0 (1.2-3.4) were successively lost with increasing adjustment.
Insufficient sleep seems independently associated with IGT in men, while low vitality was not independently associated with IGT neither in men nor women, when multiple confounders are considered. IGT should be considered in patients presenting these symptoms, and underlying mechanisms further explored.
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between sleep disturbance and headache type and frequency, in a random sample of participants in the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey. The headache diagnoses were set by neurologists using the ICHD-2 criteria performing a semi structured face-to-face interview. Sleep problems were measured by the two validated instruments Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Among 297 participants, 77 subjects were headache-free, whereas 135 were diagnosed with tension-type headache (TTH), 51 with migraine, and 34 with other headache diagnoses. In the multivariate analyses, using logistic regression, excessive daytime sleepiness, defined as ESS >or= 10, was three times more likely among migraineurs compared with headache-free individuals (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.0-10.2). Severe sleep disturbances, defined as KSQ score in the upper quartile, was five times more likely among migraineurs (OR = 5.4, 95% CI 2.0-15.5), and three times more likely for subjects with TTH (OR = 3.3, 1.4-7.3) compared with headache-free individuals. Subjects with chronic headache were 17 times more likely to have severe sleep disturbances (OR = 17.4, 95% CI 5.1-59.8), and the association was somewhat stronger for chronic migraine (OR = 38.9, 95% CI 3.1-485.3) than for chronic TTH (OR = 18.3, 95% CI 3.6-93.0). In conclusion, there was a significant association between severe sleep disturbances and primary headache disorders, most pronounced for those with chronic headache. Even though one cannot address causality in the present study design, the results indicate an increased awareness of sleep problems among patients with headache.
BACKGROUND: Research and theory suggest that the symptom pair of chronic pain and insomnia may be maintained by shared cognitive-behavioral processes and consequences. PURPOSE: This investigation describes the psychometric properties of an instrument designed to assess the way people think about symptoms of pain and poor sleep. METHOD: A pool of 12 items was generated from existing and validated measures. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on item responses from a community sample of respondents who reported having had a problem with pain or sleep (n = 1702) during the three months previous to the survey. Multinomial regression analyses (MRA) were used to describe derived subscale responses for distinct groups reporting different degrees of perceived symptom severity and overlap. RESULTS: EFA suggested the existence of three distinct dimensions: safety behaviors of behavioral orientation, safety behaviors of cognitive orientation, and catastrophizing. MRA analyses indicated that catastrophizing appears to be a shared psychological process and that both types of safety behaviors may be enhanced in co-morbid problems with persistent pain and insomnia. CONCLUSION: Cognitions pertaining to avoidant safety behaviors and catastrophizing are associated with symptom severity and overlap in co-morbid pain and sleep disorders. More research is needed to explore the importance of shared psychological processes and consequences when studying and treating ill health.
This study investigated levels of burnout in the general population irrespective of occupation and relations between burnout and psychosocial work factors. A cross-sectional survey featuring sleep problems, psychological distress, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey), and psychosocial factors at work, was mailed to a random sample of 3,000 participants, aged 20-60. Response rate was 61%. A high level (18%), a low level (19%), and an intermediate group (63%) for burnout were constructed. The high level group was associated with those who were > 50 years old, women, those experiencing psychological distress, and those with a poor psychosocial work climate. The analyses on variables significant in previous analyses showed that the high level group was strongly related to high demands, low control, lack of social support, and disagreeing about values at the workplace even when accounting for age, gender, and psychological distress. We conclude that psychosocial work factors are important in association to burnout regardless of occupation.
This article compares and describes changes in sleep problems in 3- to 5-year-old Icelandic children referred and unreferred for sleep problems in infancy and explores changes in parents' distress and the impact of children's sleep problems on families over time. The sample consisted of a clinical group (n = 31) that had been referred to a sleep-disorder clinic in infancy, and a comparative group (n = 150) of age-matched unreferred community children. Self-report scales assessed infant/child sleep pattern, the impact of the sleep problem on family life and parents' distress. Results showed that about half the children in the community group have had a sleep problem in infancy. Nightwakings improved in both the referred and unreferred group over time but remained more frequent in the unreferred group. The referred group had significantly more settling problems in infancy than the other group but settling improved markedly over time. Parents of referred children were more fatigued compared with others despite improvement of children's sleep problems over time. Mothers of referred children were however, less likely to perceive the sleep problem as troublesome for family life than the others. It is concluded that parents of referred children are more fatigued than parents of unreferred children and nightwakings are more likely to persist in children who had sleep problems in infancy than in those with no such problems.
Little is known about changes over time in multiple dimensions of the symptom experience in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiation therapy (RT).
This study evaluated for changes in and predictors of occurrence, severity, and distress of six common symptoms (lack of energy, worrying, difficulty sleeping, feeling drowsy, sweats, and pain) during RT for breast cancer.
Patients (n = 188) completed the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale before, during, and after the completion of RT, over a six-month period. Changes in symptom occurrence were evaluated using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Changes in severity and distress scores were evaluated using multilevel proportional odds ordinal logistic regression. The impact of five demographic and clinical characteristics (age, functional status, comorbidities, axillary lymph node dissection, and previous chemotherapy) was evaluated in these analyses.
The trajectories for occurrence, severity, and distress for the six symptoms followed similar patterns. For three of the six symptoms (lack of energy, feeling drowsy, and worrying), all three dimensions changed over time. For the other three symptoms (difficulty sleeping, sweats, and pain), no changes over time occurred for any of the symptom dimensions. The overall effect of the five covariates was to increase symptom burden across all three dimensions.
Findings from this study provide a more complete picture of the symptom experience of women who undergo RT for breast cancer. These findings can be used to identify patients at higher risk for more severe symptoms before, during, and after RT.