The effect of a selective 5-HT(1A) antagonist, 4-(2'-methoxy-)phenyl-1-[2'-(N-2"-pyridinyl)-p-iodobenzamino-]ethyl-piperazine (p-MPPI), on acute ethanol-induced hypothermia, sleep and suppression of acoustic startle reflex in C3H/He mice and Wistar rats was studied. Administration of p-MPPI at the doses of 0.4, 0.7 and 1.0 mg/kg reduced in a dose-dependent manner the ethanol-induced hypothermia and the sleep time and attenuated the ethanol-induced decrease of acoustic startle reflex magnitude in mice. Similar p-MPPI (0.4 mg/kg) effects on ethanol-induced sleep and hypothermia were obtained in rats. It was concluded that 5-HT(1A) receptors were involved in the mechanisms of the ethanol-induced hypothermia and sleep, and that 5-HT(1A) antagonist increased acute ethanol tolerance.
Previous studies indicate that shift work tolerance may be associated with individual factors including genetic variability in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter 5-HTT (SLC6A4). The present study aimed to explore the interaction between work schedule (shift work versus non-shift work), genetic variability in SLC6A4 and insomnia symptoms.
The study was based on a national probability sample survey of 987 Norwegian employees drawn from The Norwegian Central Employee Register by Statistics Norway. Insomnia symptoms were assessed by three items reflecting problems with sleep onset, sleep maintenance, and early morning awakenings. Genotyping concerning SLC6A4 (the 5-HTTLPR S versus L and the SNP rs25531 A versus G) was carried out using a combination of gel-electrophoresis and TaqMan assay.
Using the LALA genotype as a reference a main effect of the SS genotype (B = 0.179; 95% CI = 0.027-0.330) was found. In addition, a main effect of work schedule (0 = non shift, 1 = shift work) was found (B = 0.504; 95% CI = 0.185-0.823). The genotype x work schedule interaction was significant for all genotypes; SLA (B = -0.590; 95% CI = -0.954-0.216), LALG (B = -0.879; 95% CI = -1.342-0.415), SLG (B = -0.705; 95% CI = -1.293-0.117) and SS (B = -0.773; 95% CI = -1.177-0.369) indicating higher insomnia symptom scores among LALA-participants compared to participants with other genotypes when working shifts.
The ability to cope with shift work is associated with the combination of the SLC6A4 variants 5-HTTLPR and SNP rs25531. Our findings demonstrated that the LALA-genotype increases the risk of insomnia symptoms among shift workers.
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is independently associated with an increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can reduce mortality and morbidity, but low compliance rates are seen.
To explore and describe the experiences of CPAP-treatment in a young male patient with severe OSAS during a 6-month period from the couple's perspective. METHODS AND THE CASE: A single case study with a phenomenographic approach was employed. Diagnostic procedures of OSAS and initiation of treatment with Auto-CPAP, humidifier and a nasal mask were performed during 4 visits. Conceptions were collected at 4 different occasions during the 6-month period (before, and 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment initiation) by means of interviews with a 33-year old male patient and his female partner.
Totally 17 different structural aspects were found to fluctuate during the 6-month period in relation to; influence of stressors, social reactions and adaptation to increase compliance.
An increased knowledge about the influence of stressors, the social reactions, and the adaptation can help healthcare personnel to identify and better understand concerns of other patients and spouses during different time phases of the initial 6-month period of CPAP-treatment.
The onset of action of antidepressants often takes 4 to 6 weeks. The antidepressant effect of wake therapy (sleep deprivation) comes within hours but carries a risk of relapse. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a new chronotherapeutic intervention combining wake therapy with bright light therapy and sleep time stabilization could induce a rapid and sustained augmentation of response and remission in major depressive disorder.
75 adult patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder, recruited from psychiatric wards, psychiatric specialist practices, or general medical practices between September 2005 and August 2008, were randomly assigned to a 9-week chronotherapeutic intervention using wake therapy, bright light therapy, and sleep time stabilization (n = 37) or a 9-week intervention using daily exercise (n = 38). Patients were evaluated at a psychiatric research unit. The study period had a 1-week run-in phase in which all patients began treatment with duloxetine. This phase was followed by a 1-week intervention phase in which patients in the wake therapy group did 3 wake therapies in combination with daily morning light therapy and sleep time stabilization and patients in the exercise group began daily exercise. This phase was followed by a 7-week continuation phase with daily light therapy and sleep time stabilization or daily exercise. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was the primary outcome measure, and the assessors were blinded to patients' treatment allocation.
Both groups responded well to treatment. Patients in the wake therapy group did, however, have immediate and clinically significantly better response and remission compared to the exercise group. Thus, immediately after the intervention phase (week 2), response was obtained in 41.4% of wake therapy patients versus 12.8% of exercise patients (odds ratio [OR] = 4.8; 95% CI, 1.7-13.4; P = .003), and remission was obtained in 23.9% of wake therapy patients versus 5.4% of exercise patients (OR = 5.5; 95% CI, 1.7-17.8; P = .004). These superior response and remission rates obtained by the wake therapy patients were sustained for the whole study period. At week 9, response was obtained in 71.4% of wake therapy patients versus 47.3% of exercise patients (OR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.3; P = .04), and remission was obtained in 45.6% of wake therapy patients and 23.1% of exercise patients (OR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.3, P = .04). All treatment elements were well tolerated.
Patients treated with wake therapy in combination with bright light therapy and sleep time stabilization had an augmented and sustained antidepressant response and remission compared to patients treated with exercise, who also had a clinically relevant antidepressant response.
Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7807, N-5020 Bergen, Norway; Norwegian Competence Center for Sleep Disorders, Jonas Lies vei 65, 5021 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: email@example.com.
We aimed to investigate the 10-year trend in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms, insomnia cases, and use of hypnotic agents in the adult Norwegian population.
Data from two representative surveys assessing identical insomnia symptoms in the adult population of Norway, one conducted in 1999-2000 (N=2001) and one conducted in 2009-2010 (N=2000), were compared.
Controlling for basic demographic variables, significant increases were found over the 10-year study period in the prevalence of sleep-onset insomnia from 13.1% to 15.2%, dissatisfaction with sleep from 8.2% to 13.6%, daytime impairment from 14.8% to 18.8%, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) insomnia cases from 11.9% to 15.5%, and hypnotic agent use from 6.9% to 11.1%. No secular trend was found for maintenance insomnia or for early morning awakening insomnia. Across the two surveys, women reported a higher prevalence of insomnia than men. Age was positively associated with the prevalence of nocturnal sleep problems and use of hypnotic agents but was inversely associated with daytime impairment. Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) reported a higher prevalence of several insomnia symptoms.
Insomnia seems to be on the rise in the general adult population, which gives reason for concern. Prevention of insomnia and cost-effective interventions should receive higher priority in the future.
This dedicated issue of Chronobiology International is devoted to the selected proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Shift Work and Working Time held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28 June to 1 July 2011. It constitutes the fifth such issue of the journal since 2004 dedicated to the selected proceedings to the meetings of the Working Time Society. The key theme of the 20th Symposium was "Biological Mechanisms, Recovery, and Risk Management in the 24-h Society." The collection of papers of this dedicated issue represents the best of contemporary research on the effects of night and rotating shift schedules on worker health and safety. The contents cover such topics as sleep restriction, injuries, health, and performance of night work and rotating shiftwork, plus light treatment as a countermeasure against the circadian disruption of shiftwork. The majority of the papers are observational field studies, including some of large sample size, and three studies are well-designed laboratory experiments.
The 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure (HF) Guidelines Focused Update reviews the recently published clinical trials that will potentially impact on management. Also reviewed is the less studied but clinically important area of sleep apnea. Finally, patients with advanced HF represent a group of patients who pose major difficulties to clinicians. Advanced HF therefore is examined from the perspectives of HF complicated by renal failure, the role of palliative care, and the role of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). All of these topics are reviewed from a perspective of practical applications. Important new studies have demonstrated in less symptomatic HF patients that cardiac resynchronization therapy will be of benefit. As well, aldosterone receptor antagonists can be used with benefit in less symptomatic HF patients. The important role of palliative care and the need to address end-of-life issues in advanced HF are emphasized. Physicians need to be aware of the possibility of sleep apnea complicating the course of HF and the role of a sleep study for the proper assessment and management of the conditon. Patients with either acute severe or chronic advanced HF with otherwise good life expectancy should be referred to a cardiac centre capable of providing MCS. Furthermore, patients awaiting heart transplantation who deteriorate or are otherwise not likely to survive until a donor organ is found should be referred for MCS.
Comment In: Can J Cardiol. 2011 Nov-Dec;27(6):871.e721885242
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the long-term effect of a campaign to avoid prone sleeping on the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) mortality rate and on parents' choice of sleeping position for young infants. Before the campaign, 64% of infants usually slept prone and the SIDS rate was 3.5 (95% CI, 2.64 to 4.36) per 1000 live births. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based case reference study of infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly at the ages of 1 week to 1 year, and of 493 healthy infants between 2 and 6 months of age, starting 4 years after an intervention program to avoid prone sleeping. RESULTS: The SIDS rate was 0.3 per 1000 live births (95% CI, 0.05 to 0.54). One of five (20%) SIDS victims usually slept prone, three of five (60%) were placed prone for their last sleep, and five of six were found dead in the prone position. Of the reference infants, 1.4% were usually placed prone to sleep, although all had previously accepted a non-prone position. Nearly half of the infants (49.1%) were usually placed supine, 22.7% usually on the side, and 26.8% in variable positions of which 2.0% occasionally included prone. The side position was the least stable position. After the age of 1 week, 59.4% of infants had been found with their heads covered on at least one occasion. CONCLUSIONS: SIDS is rare when prone sleeping is avoided. Infants at the age of particular risk for SIDS may spontaneously turn from the side to the prone position, and they commonly slip under the bedding during sleep.