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38 records – page 1 of 4.

Among the Chiglit Eskimos. Translation of Les Grands Esquimaux by E.O. Höhn.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1947
Source
Boreal Institute for Northern Studies, Edmonton, Alberta. Occasional Studies 10. 202 pp.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
1981
Author
Petitot, E.
Source
Boreal Institute for Northern Studies, Edmonton, Alberta. Occasional Studies 10. 202 pp.
Date
1981
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Epidemics
Tobacco
Labrets
Skin infections
Sanitation
Personal hygiene
Eye diseases
Pediculosis
Tattoos
Infant care
Incest
Dropsy
Measles
Health services
Skin ulcer
Homicide
Sorcery
Shaman
Shamanic healing
Traditional surgery
Trauma
Notes
Alaska Medical Library - From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 372.
UAA/APU Consortium, Alaskana Collection E99 E7 P452 1981
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An outbreak of community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections in southwestern Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30882
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003 Jun;24(6):397-402
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2003
Author
Henry C Baggett
Thomas W Hennessy
Richard Leman
Cindy Hamlin
Dana Bruden
Alisa Reasonover
Patricia Martinez
Jay C Butler
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA.
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003 Jun;24(6):397-402
Date
Jun-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alaska - epidemiology
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Methicillin Resistance
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Retrospective Studies
Rural Population
Staphylococcal Skin Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology
Staphylococcus aureus - isolation & purification
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We investigated a large outbreak of community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in southwestern Alaska to determine the extent of these infections and whether MRSA isolates were likely community acquired. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Rural southwestern Alaska. PATIENTS: All patients with a history of culture-confirmed S. aureus infection from March 1, 1999, through August 10, 2000. RESULTS: More than 80% of culture-confirmed S. aureus infections were methicillin resistant, and 84% of MRSA infections involved skin or soft tissue; invasive disease was rare. Most (77%) of the patients with MRSA skin infections had community-acquired MRSA (no hospitalization, surgery, dialysis, indwelling line or catheter, or admission to a long-term-care facility in the 12 months before infection). Patients with MRSA skin infections were more likely to have received a prescription for an antimicrobial agent in the 180 days before infection than were patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus skin infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the epidemiology of MRSA in rural southwestern Alaska has changed and suggest that the emergence of community-onset MRSA in this region was not related to spread of a hospital organism. Treatment guidelines were developed recommending that beta-lactam antimicrobial agents not be used as a first-line therapy for suspected S. aureus infections.
Notes
Comment In: Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003 Jun;24(6):392-612828313
PubMed ID
12828314 View in PubMed
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Antibiotic use among twelve Canadian First Nations communities: a retrospective chart review of skin and soft tissue infections.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature306981
Source
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 10; 20(1):118
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-10-2020
Author
Dahn Jeong
Ha Nhan Thi Nguyen
Mark Tyndall
Yoko S Schreiber
Author Affiliation
School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventative Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 10; 20(1):118
Date
Feb-10-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Canada - epidemiology - ethnology
Community-Acquired Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - ethnology
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Indigenous peoples
Male
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - isolation & purification
Middle Aged
Minority Health
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Soft Tissue Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - ethnology
Staphylococcal Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - ethnology
Staphylococcal Skin Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Previous publications indicated an emerging issue with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), particularly skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), in Indigenous communities in Canada. The objectives of this analysis were to explore the prevalence of SSTIs due to CA-MRSA and patterns of antimicrobial use in the community setting.
A retrospective chart review was conducted as part of an environmental scan to assess antibiotic prescriptions in 12 First Nations communities across five provinces in Canada including Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and Québec. Charts were randomly selected from nursing stations and patients who had accessed care in the previous 12?months and were?=?18?years were included in the review. Data was collected from September to December, 2013 on antibiotic prescriptions, including SSTIs, clinical symptoms, diagnostic information including presence of CA-MRSA infection, and treatment.
A total of 372 charts were reviewed, 60 from Alberta, 70 from Saskatchewan, 120 from Manitoba, 100 from Ontario, and 22 from Québec. Among 372 patients, 224 (60.2%) patients had at least one antibiotic prescription in the previous 12?months and 569 prescriptions were written in total. The prevalence of SSTIs was estimated at 36.8% (137 cases of SSTIs in 372 charts reviewed). In 137 cases of SSTIs, 34 (24.8%) were purulent infections, and 55 (40.2%) were due to CA-MRSA.
This study has identified a high prevalence of antibiotic use and SSTIs due to CA-MRSA in remote and isolated Indigenous communities across Canada. This population is currently hard to reach and under-represented in standard surveillance system and randomized retrospective chart reviews can offer complimentary methodology for monitoring disease burden, treatment and prevention.
PubMed ID
32041554 View in PubMed
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Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolates from skin and soft tissue infections.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268395
Source
Curr Microbiol. 2015 May;70(5):698-703
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
Jakub Kwiecinski
Gunnar Kahlmeter
Tao Jin
Source
Curr Microbiol. 2015 May;70(5):698-703
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Biofilms - growth & development
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Soft Tissue Infections - microbiology
Staphylococcal Skin Infections - microbiology
Staphylococcus aureus - isolation & purification - physiology
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Many diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus are associated with biofilm formation. However, the ability of S. aureus isolates from skin and soft tissue infections to form biofilms has not yet been investigated. We tested 160 isolates from patients with various skin infections for biofilm-forming capacity in different growth media. All the isolates formed biofilms, the extent of which depended on the type of growth medium. The thickest biofilms were formed when both plasma and glucose were present in the broth; in this case, S. aureus incorporated host fibrin into the biofilm's matrix. There were no differences in the biofilm formation between isolates from different types of skin infections, except for a particularly good biofilm formation by isolates from diabetic wounds and a weaker biofilm formation by isolates from impetigo. In conclusion, biofilm formation is a universal behavior of S. aureus isolates from skin infections. In some cases, such as in diabetic wounds, a particularly strong biofilm formation most likely contributes to the chronic and recurrent character of the infection. Additionally, as S. aureus apparently uses host fibrin as part of the biofilm structure, we suggest that plasma should be included more frequently in in vitro biofilm studies.
PubMed ID
25586078 View in PubMed
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The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program: results of the first 18 months of surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Canadian hospitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209003
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1997 Mar 15;23(6):41-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-1997

Clonal spread of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to oxacillin in a dermatological hospital unit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169220
Source
Acta Derm Venereol. 2006;86(3):230-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Marianne Kragh Thomsen
Mads Rasmussen
Kurt Fuursted
Henrik Westh
Lisbeth Nørum Pedersen
Mette Deleuran
Jens Kjølseth Møller
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. mkt@dadlnet.dk
Source
Acta Derm Venereol. 2006;86(3):230-4
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Cross Infection - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Denmark - epidemiology
Dermatology
Disease Outbreaks
Drug Resistance, Bacterial - genetics
Female
Hospital Units
Humans
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Oxacillin - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Staphylococcal Skin Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Staphylococcus aureus - drug effects - genetics
Abstract
In November 2000, we became aware of isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with borderline resistance to oxacillin (BORSA) from patients in the Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital. The objective was to describe the isolates phenotypically and genotypically and to assess possible transmission routes in order to intervene and prevent further spread. Clonality of the isolates was confirmed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Several breaches in infection control procedures were revealed suggesting both direct and indirect transmission between patients. Defective skin barriers, high carrier rates of S. aureus in dermatological patients and high consumption rates of dicloxacillin in the department might facilitate transmission. Following improvement of the general infection control measures, and after reassessment of the antibiotic policy in the department, the outbreak has disappeared.
PubMed ID
16710581 View in PubMed
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Colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southwestern Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature226524
Source
Can Dis Wkly Rep. 1991 Apr 6;17(14):72-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-6-1991

Colonization with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children with atopic dermatitis: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134360
Source
Int J Dermatol. 2011 Jun;50(6):682-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Alexandra Balma-Mena
Irene Lara-Corrales
Jeanne Zeller
Susan Richardson
Martin J McGavin
Miriam Weinstein
Elena Pope
Author Affiliation
Division of Pediatric Dermatology, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Source
Int J Dermatol. 2011 Jun;50(6):682-8
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Proteins - genetics
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dermatitis, Atopic - microbiology
Female
Genetic Variation
Humans
Infant
Male
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - genetics - isolation & purification
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Severity of Illness Index
Staphylococcal Skin Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Abstract
Bacterial infection with Staphylococcus aureus is a common complication of atopic dermatitis (AD). The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection (MRSA) in the AD population is unknown.
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in pediatric patients with AD, to compare disease severity, and to characterize the clonal diversity of the isolates.
We carried out a prospective, cross-sectional study of 200 patients with AD. The severity of AD was defined as mild, moderate, or severe depending on a composite AD severity score. A swab was taken from the nares of each patient and another from affected skin or folds. Genotyping of all S. aureus isolates was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the S. aureus protein A (spa) gene.
According to the severity score, 66.5% of subjects were ranked as having mild AD, 29.5% as having moderate and 4% as having severe AD. Staphylococcus aureus colonization was seen in 61.5% of all patients, represented by 43.7% of skin swabs and 48% of nares swabs. Only one of the isolations represented MRSA. Older age and higher AD severity scores were associated with S. aureus colonization (P = 0.03 and P
PubMed ID
21595661 View in PubMed
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Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an emerging pathogen in orthopaedics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93675
Source
J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008 Feb;16(2):98-106
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Marcotte Anthony L
Trzeciak Marc A
Author Affiliation
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Grandview Hospital and Medical Center, Dayton, OH, USA.
Source
J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008 Feb;16(2):98-106
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Community-Acquired Infections - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology - surgery
Diagnosis, Differential
Disease Progression
Humans
Methicillin Resistance
Orthopedics
Prevalence
Risk factors
Soft Tissue Infections - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology - surgery
Staphylococcal Infections - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology - surgery
Staphylococcal Skin Infections - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology - surgery
Staphylococcus aureus - pathogenicity
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) remains one of the most common pathogens for skin and soft-tissue infections encountered by the orthopaedic surgeon. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S aureus (CA-MRSA) has become increasingly prevalent, particularly among athletes, children in day care, homeless persons, intravenous drug users, men who have sex with men, military recruits, certain minorities (ie, Alaskan Natives, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders), and prison inmates. Risk factors include antibiotic use within the preceding year, crowded living conditions, compromised skin integrity, contaminated surfaces, frequent skin-to-skin contact, shared items, and suboptimal cleanliness. When a patient presents with a skin or soft-tissue infection, the clinician should determine whether an abscess or other infection needs to be surgically incised and drained. Cultures should be performed. When the patient is a member of an at-risk group or has any of the risk factors for CA-MRSA, beta-lactam antibiotics (eg, methicillin) are no longer a reasonable choice for treatment. Empiric treatment should consist of non-beta-lactam antibiotics active against CA-MRSA.
PubMed ID
18252840 View in PubMed
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Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174258
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jun;11(6):844-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
Michael R Mulvey
Laura MacDougall
Brenda Cholin
Greg Horsman
Melanie Fidyk
Shirley Woods
Author Affiliation
National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. michael_mulvey@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jun;11(6):844-50
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Bacterial Proteins - genetics
Bacterial Toxins
Child
Communicable Diseases, Emerging - epidemiology - microbiology
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Exotoxins
Humans
Leukocidins - genetics
Methicillin Resistance
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Saskatchewan - epidemiology
Soft Tissue Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Staphylococcal Skin Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Staphylococcus aureus - classification - drug effects - genetics
Abstract
A total of 184 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were collected from patients who sought treatment primarily for skin and soft tissue infections from January 1, 1999, to March 31, 2002, in east-central Saskatchewan, Canada. Molecular subtyping analysis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed 2 major clusters. Cluster A (n = 55) was composed of a multidrug-resistant MRSA strain associated with a long-term care facility and was similar to the previously reported nosocomial Canadian epidemic strain labeled CMRSA-2. Cluster B (n = 125) was associated with cases identified at community health centers and was indistinguishable from a community-associated (CA)-MRSA strain identified previously in the United States (USA400). Cluster B remained susceptible to a number of classes of antimicrobial agents and harbored the lukF-PV and lukS-PV toxin genes. Over 50% of both clonal groups displayed high-level resistance to mupirocin. This is the first report of the USA400 strain harboring the lukF-PV and lukS-PV toxin genes in Canada.
Notes
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PubMed ID
15963278 View in PubMed
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38 records – page 1 of 4.