BACKGROUND: It has been suggested earlier that parental loss could be an important risk factor for alcoholism in adulthood. We explored the association between different types of childhood families with later alcohol-related problems of the offspring, in particular drunk driving. METHODS: We used a large, prospectively collected general population birth cohort database (n = 10,934), the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. Linked with the National crime register, it provided information on drunk driving offenses known to the police that involved persons 15 to 32 years of age (n = 432). Type of family was categorized into five subgroups: two-parent family and four types of single-parent families (single-parent all the time, single-parent at birth, parental death, parental divorce). The information about family type was obtained from questionnaires given to the mothers during mid-pregnancy and at the time of the 14-year follow-up. RESULTS: Single-parent family during childhood significantly increased the risk of drunk driving in adulthood among both males and females. Males who were born in single-mother families were at the highest risk of drunk driving offenses in adulthood (adjusted OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.2). The association between single-parent family and drunk driving among males was seen in all types of single-parent families except for parental death. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that growing up in a single-parent family is a potentially powerful predictor of adult alcohol-related problems, i.e., early-onset, late-onset, and recidivistic drunk driving.
The study compared anxiety and depression prevalence between parents and non-parents in a society with family- and parenthood-friendly social politics, controlling for family status and family history, age, gender, education and social class.
All participants aged 30-49 (N = 24,040) in the large, non-sampled Norwegian HUNT2 community health study completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales.
The slightly elevated anxiety and depression among non-parents compared to parents in the complete sample was not confirmed as statistically significant within any subgroups. Married parents and (previously unmarried) cohabiting parents did not differ in portraying low anxiety and depression prevalence. Anxiety was associated with single parenthood, living alone or being divorced, while elevated depression was found only among those living alone.
Burdening selection and cultural/political context are suggested as interpretative perspectives on the contextual and personal influences on the complex relationship between parenthood and mental health.
Cites: J Nerv Ment Dis. 2000 Nov;188(11):741-5011093376
The influence of family structure on criminality in adolescents is well acknowledged in population based studies of delinquents, but not regarding adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The association of family structure to criminality was examined among 508 adolescents receiving psychiatric inpatient treatment between 2001 and 2006. Family structure and DSM-IV based psychiatric diagnoses were based on the K-SADS-PL-interview and criminality on criminal records provided by the Finnish Legal Register Centre. After adjusting for socio-demographic, clinical and family factors, the adolescents from single parent families, child welfare placements and those not living with their biological parents showed an increased risk of committing crimes at an earlier age than adolescents from two parent families. Lack of a safe and stable family environment has important implications for adolescents with severe mental disorder. When these adolescents are discharged from hospital, special attention should be focused on organizing stable and long term psychosocial support which compensates for the lack of stable family environment and seeks to prevent future adversities.
Identifying factors that can influence young peoples' physical activity and sedentary behaviors is important for the development of effective interventions. The family structure in which children grow up may be one such factor. As the prevalence of single parent and reconstituted families have increased substantially over the last decades, the objective of this study was to examine whether these family structures are differentially associated with young people's MVPA, participation in organized sports and screen-time activities (screen-based passive entertainment, gaming, other screen-based activities) as compared to traditional nuclear families.
The data stem from the 2013/2014 "Health Behaviour in School- aged Children (HBSC) study". A large Norwegian sample of 11-16?years old students (n =?4509) participated. Cluster-adjusted regression models were estimated using full information maximum likelihood with robust standard errors (MLR).
After adjusting for covariates, living with a single parent was negatively associated with days/week with 60?min MVPA (b?=?-.39, 95%CI: -.58, -.20), and positively associated with hours/weekday of total screen time (b?=?.50, 95%CI: .08, .93). Young people living with a single parent were also more likely to report no participation in organized sports (OR?=?1.40, 95%CI: 1.09, 1.79). Living in a reconstituted family was negatively associated with days/week with 60?min MVPA (b?=?-.31, 95%CI: -.53, -.08), and positively associated with hours/weekday of total screen time (b?=?.85, 95%CI: .37, 1.33). For all outcomes, the interaction effects of family structure with sex, and with having siblings were not statistically significant. For material affluence, a significant interaction effect was found for participation in organized sports (?2  =13.9, p =?.008). Those living in a reconstituted family with low or high material affluence had an increased risk for not participating in organized sports whereas those with medium material affluence did not.
This study suggests that living with a single parent or in reconstituted families was unfavorably associated with physical activity, sport participation and screen-based behaviors among Norwegian youth. The findings indicate that family structure could be an important factor to take into account in the development and testing of interventions. More in-depth research is needed to identify the mechanisms involved.
This study aimed to explore attitudes towards family formation in single or cohabiting childless women of advanced age. The design comprised semi-structured qualitative interviews of 20 women aged 34-39 years attending the Fertility Assessment and Counselling Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen. A sample of 10 single women and 10 cohabiting women was chosen with equal distribution of postgraduate education length. Data were analysed using content analysis following the method of Graneheim and Lundman and consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ). The general attitude towards family formation was characterized by a fear of the consequences of choosing motherhood on one hand, and a 'ticking biological clock' and a wish to establish a nuclear family on the other. The women idealized the perception of perfect mothering in terms of uncompromising expectations of child rearing and showed an increasing awareness of solo motherhood as a possible solution to advanced age, the wish of a child and single status compared to earlier studies. Our study contributes to knowledge and understanding of personal considerations related to childbearing in nullipara women in their mid- to late 30s and may be useful in a fertility assessment and counselling setting.
Peanut allergy accounts for most severe food-related allergic reactions, and accidental exposures are frequent. Delayed administration of epinephrine and the allergic individual's failure to personally carry epinephrine contribute to fatal outcomes.
To describe epinephrine autoinjector availability at school and to determine factors that might affect autoinjector availability in children allergic to peanut.
Two hundred seventy-one children with peanut allergy living in Quebec were queried about their autoinjector. Logistic regression models were used to select factors associated with device availability.
Four of 271 children diagnosed as having peanut allergy were not prescribed autoinjectors. Forty-eight percent of the children did not carry the autoinjector with them at school. In 78.0% of those, the autoinjector was located in the nurse's or another school office, which was staffed by a full-time nurse only in 18.5%. Of all the respondents, those administered epinephrine for a previous reaction (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-5.7), older children (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2), and those living only with their mother (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.0-11.0) were more likely to carry the autoinjector with them at school. Of children 7 years or older, those who experienced a severe reaction were more likely to carry their autoinjector (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4-8.1).
Almost 50% of children allergic to peanut might experience a delay in anaphylaxis treatment due to limited access to their device. More education is required regarding the importance of a readily available autoinjector.
The present study aimed to analyse changes in meal pattern among Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008 in general; to analyse associations between meal pattern and gender, parental educational level and number of parents in the household; and to analyse the association between intake of unhealthy snacks, meal pattern and the mentioned variables.
Within the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) project, two cross-sectional studies were conducted, one in 2001 and one in 2008, where participants from the same schools filled in a questionnaire on meals eaten the previous day.
Participants were 6th and 7th grade pupils, n 1488 in 2001 and n 1339 in 2008.
Twenty-seven elementary schools in two Norwegian counties.
There were no significant changes in children's meal pattern from 2001 to 2008. For both years more than 90 % of the participants reported that they had breakfast yesterday, while 95 % had lunch, 94 % had dinner and 82 % had supper. More girls than boys reported that they had lunch yesterday (96 % v. 94 %, P = 0·03). More children with higher v. lower educated parents reported that they had breakfast yesterday (93 % v. 88 %, P
BACKGROUND: The association between childhood family structure and sociodemographic characteristics and personality disorders (PDs) in a general population sample was studied. METHODS: This study is a substudy of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Project with 1588 young adult subjects. The case-finding methods according to the DSM-III-R criteria for PDs were: (1) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) for 321 cases who participated in a 2-phase field study, (2) Finnish Hospital Discharge Register data, and (3) analysis of the patient records in public outpatient care in 1982-1997. Statistical analyses were performed on the association between PDs and family background factors. RESULTS: Altogether 110 (7.0%) of the subjects had at least one probable or definite PD. After adjusting for confounders (gender, parental social class and parental psychiatric disorder) the results indicated that single-parent family type in childhood was associated with cluster B PDs in adulthood. Being an only child in childhood was associated with cluster A PDs. No special childhood risk factors were found for cluster C PDs. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that single-parent family type at birth and being an only child in the 1960s are associated with PD in adulthood. Further studies are needed to explore the psychosocial aspects of family environment which may nowadays promote vulnerability to PDs in adulthood.
To study childhood predictors for late adolescence criminality.
The follow-up sample included 2,713 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boy' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. The follow-up information about criminal offenses was based on the national police register between the years 1998 and 2001 when the subjects were 16 to 20 years old.
According to the national police register, 22.2% of boys had at least one criminal offense other than a minor traffic violation during the 4-year study period. Living in nonintact family, low parental education level, parent reports of conduct problems, and teacher reports of hyperkinetic problems when the child was 8 independently predicted a high level (more than five) of offenses. Living in nonintact family at age 8 predicted all types of criminal offenses. Low parental education level and parent or teacher reports of conduct problems independently predicted violence, property, traffic, and drunk driving offenses. Teacher reports of hyperkinetic problems independently predicted all types of criminal offenses except drunk driving. Self-reports of bullying others independently predicted violent offenses.
Living in a broken home, low parental education level, conduct problems, and hyperactivity in middle childhood predict criminal offenses in late adolescence. Efforts to prevent later criminality already in childhood are emphasized.