A cohort of 839 young girls at the ages of 14 and 15 years was screened for total antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) and, if positive, for specific antibodies to HSV-2, by means of a sensitive, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cohort was followed from 1972-1987. Blood samples were obtained on six occasions during these 16 years. In total, 2270 blood samples were taken. The number of sero-converting girls was studied in relation to calendar time. Two methods were constructed for the statistical analyses. The first of these gave an estimate of the sero-prevalence at different points in time. This analysis showed that the sero-prevalence which was 23% against HSV-1 in 1972 had increased to 36% in 1976. At the end of the study in 1987, 50% of the cohort had sero-converted against HSV-1. The proportion of girls who had sero-converted against HSV-2 was 0.4% in the 14-15-year-olds and had reached 22% by the end of the study. The second statistical method used all the available information implicit in the observations so as to obtain a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate of the prevalence. The ML estimates were slightly more precise, but the two estimates did not differ significantly. The observations were further analysed by the Mantel-Haenszel test in order to see if there was any dependence between positivity to HSV-1 and HSV-2 respectively but none was found.
127 patients with suspected herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) were entered in a prospective randomised study of acyclovir 10 mg/kg 8-hourly versus vidarabine 15 mg/kg daily for 10 days. The patients were consecutive and nearly all Swedish cases of HSE were included; they were treated in six university infectious diseases departments. The diagnosis of HSE was verified by brain biopsy and/or antibody responses in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Of 53 confirmed cases of HSE (corresponding to 2 X 3 cases per million inhabitants per year in Sweden), 51 (27 acyclovir, 24 vidarabine) were evaluable for analysis of efficacy. The mortality was 19% in the acyclovir-treated group versus 50% in the vidarabine group (p = 0.04). At 6 months of observation 15 (56%) of 27 acyclovir-treated patients had returned to normal life compared with 3 (13%) of 24 vidarabine-treated patients (p = 0.002); and the numbers who died or had severe sequelae were 9 (33%) and 19 (76%), respectively (p = 0.005). No important or new adverse events were recognised.
Comment In: Lancet. 1995 Dec 9;346(8989):15537491057
The prevalence of anti-EBV antibodies was studied in a group of 144 patients with multiple sclerosis and 170 age, sex, and area matched controls from the county of Hordaland, western Norway. The prevalence of three other herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV), were also included.
Antibodies to various virus antigens were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunfluorescence (IIF) in serum samples from 144 patients with multiple sclerosis and 170 controls.
All of the 144 patients with multiple sclerosis had IgG antibodies to EBV compared with 162 of 170 controls (p=0.008). The frequency of IgG antibodies to EBV capsid antigen (VCA), nuclear antigen (EBNA), and early antigen (EA) was significantly higher in patients with multiple sclerosis compared with the controls (p
Antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) capsid antibody were determined in 333 children from the Faroe Islands, aged 4, 8 and 13 years. An analysis of multi-way frequency tables was performed, testing seropositivity for each virus against combinations of the following variables: sibship size, birth order, mother's age at birth, birth weight, actual height and weight, age and sex. HSV-seropositivity was associated to sibship size, height and age, while EBV-seropositivity was related only to age.--It is discussed how the findings fit into epidemiological patterns described for Hodgkin's disease and multiple sclerosis, which are both supposed to be of viral origin. Our results suggest that HSV, but not EBV, may be among the candidates to be considered.
A case control study on immunity to two Epstein-Barr virus-associated antigens, and to herpes simplex virus and adenovirus in a population-based group of patients with Hodgkin's disease in Denmark, 1971-73.
One hundred and eighty-five patients with untreated Hodgkin's disease (HD) comprising 86% of all new cases diagnosed in Denmark over a 2-year period, were individually matched with healthy controls of the same age, sex, and social class. In comparison to controls, HD patients showed significantly elevated mean antibody titres to Epstein-Barr viral capsid antierences in mean titres were found for adenovirus common antigen. Subdivision of the patients by age, sex, social class, HL-A antigens, stage of disease and histology did not alter this pattern, except that significant case-control differences in EB-VCA titres could be demonstrated only for the nodular sclerosis and lymphocyte predominance subgroups. After 1 year of treatment, a significant rise in EB-VCA mean titre had taken place. Splenectomy seemed to promote this titre elevation. Neither the initial titres to EB-VCA and EBV-EA nor changes in titres over time were related to prognosis. The results of our study, which are more representative of a population of HD patients and controls than previously reported studies, confirm that the reported relationship between EBV and HD exists, but that the elevated EBV titres are probably not of etiologic significance in most HD patients.
The incidence of cervical cancer has been found to vary between populations. Risk factors of cervical cancer include early age at first marriage, multiple marriages and antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The interrelatedness of these risk factors was examined by comparing data collected from 428 cancer cases and 947 control women selected from 6 populations having standardized cervical cancer incidence rates varying from 9.3 to 85.1 per 100,000. Logistic regression analysis revealed that multiple marriages, early age at first marriage or pregnancy and HSV-2 antibodies were all associated with significant risk when all 3 factors were entered into the model. Cervical cancer incidence rates were best predicted by the occurrence of HSV-2 antibodies among control women. To further assess the relation between cervical cancer rates and HSV-2 antibody, 2,306 additional sera representing an 0.8% random sample of females over 9 years of age residing in the Republic of Panama were assayed for antibodies to the virus, and the occurrence of antibodies was correlated with invasive cervical cancer rates specific to each Province. Data from both the random sample and the other study populations yielded a linear relation between the occurrence of HSV-2 antibodies and the incidence of cervical cancer. An exception was found for women living in Herrera Province, Republic of Panama, who had a higher cancer rate than predicted by HSV-2 antibody occurrence. The data suggested that infection with HSV-2 is a co-variable of venereal factors, although a role for the virus in the genesis of a certain proportion of cervical cancers is not excluded.
Strains (338) of herpes simplex virus (HSV) were isolated in Stockholm during 1965-1974. By immunoelectroosmophoresis it was possible to identify all strains as either HSV type 1 (HSV-1) or 2 (HSV-2). No strains of intermediate antigenic type or with untypable characteristics were found. The antigenic type of HSV was correlated with body site and clinical features of infection. A case of severe, recurrent, abdominal pain in association with HSV-2 infection is described. In one patient with acute aseptic meningitis, both coxsackievirus A9 and HSV-2 were isolated from the same specimen of cerebrospinal fluid. Serology suggested a primary infection with coxsackievirus A9 and a recurrent HSV-2 infection. HSV-1 was isolated from specimens of cerebrospinal fluid. Serology suggested a primary infection with coxsackievirus A9 and a recurrent HSV-2 infection. HSV-1 was isolated from specimens of cerebrospinal fluid from two of four adults with HSV encephalitis.
The prevalence of antibody to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) was determined, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques, in a cross-sectional serologic survey of an isolated northern Canadian Inuit (Eskimo) community. The population studied included 155 Inuit and 11 Caucasian residents. By 6 years of age, 80% of the Inuit population were seropositive for CMV and 100% for herpes simplex virus. While only 7/63 Inuit greater than 20 years were seronegative for CMV, 5/11 Caucasian residents were seronegative (p = 0.01). For the Inuit population, no association between seropositivity for CMV and seropositivity for hepatitis A or hepatitis B was observed. This prevalence survey shows a serologic profile for infection with CMV and HSV in this northern Inuit community with an early age of acquisition and high prevalence of infection characteristic of socioeconomically deprived populations throughout the world, and is distinct from that observed in many other North American populations.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2023.
Identification of clinico-epidemiologic features of pareneteral hepatites (HB and HC) and herpesvirus infections (cytomegalovirus, CMVand herpes simplexvirus, HSV) duringpregnancy.
Two hundred pregnant women as well as 150 women--blood donors who comprised a control group were tested in Cheboksary (Chuvash Republic). There were no persons vaccinated against HB in both groups. Diagnostics of the HB and HC as well as CMV and HSV infections was performed by ELISA--HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc IgM and IgG, anti-HCV as well as IgM and IgG to CMV and HSV were determined; PCR was used to detect HBV DNA and HCV RNA.
Moderate prevalence of HB and HC markers in pregnant (31% and 3% respectively) and donor women (34% and 2% respectively) as well as widespread prevalence of herpesvirus infections' markers (from 71% to 94.5%) was established. The studied women had no clinical manifestations of HB or HC as well as CMV or HSV infections at the time of the study. The study revealed the following: association between complications of pregnancy and detected markers of HB, HC, and herpesvirus infections according to trimester; detection rate of HBV and HCV markers in combination with CMV and HSV markers in pregnant women; association of pregnancy complications with presence of HB and HC markers with combination of herpesvirus infection markers.
It was shown that pregnant women with presence of markers of studied infections present a risk group for development of miscarriage threat, inflammatory processes in placenta and amniotic membranes, and untrauterine fetal growth retardation.