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526 records – page 1 of 53.

Acceptance, avoidance, and ambiguity: conflicting social values about childhood disability.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170909
Source
Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2005 Dec;15(4):371-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2005
Author
Carol Levine
Author Affiliation
Families and Health Care Project, United Hospital Fund, New York, NY, USA.
Source
Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2005 Dec;15(4):371-83
Date
Dec-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Caregivers - psychology
Child
Chronic Disease - psychology
Data Collection
Dependency (Psychology)
Disabled Children - psychology
Family Relations
Home Nursing - psychology
Humans
Parents - psychology
Quebec
Respiration, Artificial - ethics - psychology
Siblings - psychology
Social Isolation
Social Justice
Social Values
Ventilators, Mechanical
Abstract
Advances in medical technology now permit children who need ventilator assistance to live at home rather than in hospitals or institutions. What does this ventilator-dependent life mean to children and their families? The impetus for this essay comes from a study of the moral experience of 12 Canadian families--parents, ventilator-dependent child, and well siblings. These families express great love for their children, take on enormous responsibilities for care, live with uncertainty, and attempt to create "normal" home environments. Nevertheless, they experience social isolation, sometimes even from their extended families and health care providers. Their lives are constrained in many ways. The challenges faced by parents of technology-dependent children raise questions of justice within society and within families.
PubMed ID
16453960 View in PubMed
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ADHD treatment and diagnosis in relation to children's birth month: Nationwide cohort study from Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283440
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2017 Jun;45(4):343-349
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Øystein Karlstad
Kari Furu
Camilla Stoltenberg
Siri E Håberg
Inger Johanne Bakken
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2017 Jun;45(4):343-349
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Child
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk
Siblings
Abstract
Studies from several countries have reported that children youngest in grade are at higher risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and treatment. Norwegian children start school the year they turn six, making children born in December youngest in their grade. We used data on medication, specialist healthcare diagnoses, and primary healthcare diagnoses from national registers to investigate associations between birth month and ADHD.
All children born in Norway between 1998 and 2006 ( N=509,827) were followed from age six until 31 December 2014. We estimated hazard ratios for ADHD medication and diagnoses by birth month in Cox proportional-hazards models. We compared risk among siblings to control for potentially confounding socioeconomic factors, and assessed risk of receiving ADHD medication by birth month while attending different grades in cross-sectional time-series analyses.
At end of follow-up, 5.3% of boys born in October-December had received ADHD medication, compared with 3.7% of boys born in January-March. Corresponding numbers for girls were 2.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio for ADHD medication for children born in October-December (reference: January-March) was 1.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-1.5) for boys and 1.8 (1.7-2.0) for girls. Analyses with diagnoses as outcome showed consistent results, and analyses restricted to siblings within the study population also supported the findings. Analysis by grade revealed an increased risk for children born late in the year from grade 3 onwards, with most marked differences in higher grades.
Children youngest in grade had the highest risk of receiving ADHD treatment. Differences were most marked among older children.
PubMed ID
28482754 View in PubMed
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Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274880
Source
J Health Econ. 2014 Sep;37:25-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Petter Lundborg
Anton Nilsson
Dan-Olof Rooth
Source
J Health Econ. 2014 Sep;37:25-40
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent health
Adult
Aged
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Health status
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Military Personnel
Siblings
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial.
PubMed ID
24915636 View in PubMed
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Source
Int J Addict. 1982 Jul;17(5):749-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1982
Author
M. Penning
G E Barnes
Source
Int J Addict. 1982 Jul;17(5):749-91
Date
Jul-1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Age Factors
Canada
Cannabis
Child Rearing
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology
Female
Humans
Internal-External Control
Male
Marijuana Abuse - epidemiology - psychology
Models, Psychological
Peer Group
Religion
Self Concept
Sex Factors
Sibling Relations
Socioeconomic Factors
United States
Abstract
The adolescent marijuana literature is reviewed. Studies show that the prevalence of marijuana use is generally quite low in elementary schools. In junior and senior high samples, findings vary greatly from place to place. The prevalence of use increased dramatically during the 1970s although the use patterns may have peaked already in some areas. The use of marijuana increases with age, but some evidence suggests that a slight drop-off in use occurs near the end of high school. Female use seems to be increasing more than male use. Use seems to be somewhat more prevalent in middle- and upper-middle-class homes and in broken homes. Mixed support has been found for the hypothesis that marijuana users have parents that are more permissive. Parents of marijuana users are generally characterized as being less warm and supportive, and more inclined toward the use of drugs themselves. Peer and sibling use of marijuana seem to be particularly important predictors of adolescent marijuana use. Findings on personality characteristics of marijuana users are not extensive and are somewhat contradictory. There is some evidence that users tend to be somewhat alienated, external in their locus of control, and possibly higher on anxiety. Users are also characterized by a higher value on independence vs achievement and more positive attitudes toward marijuana use. Behavioral correlates of marijuana use include greater use of alcohol and other drugs, and poorer school performance.
PubMed ID
6752049 View in PubMed
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Adult body height of twins compared with that of singletons: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115100
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2013 May 1;177(9):1015-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2013
Author
Willy Eriksen
Jon M Sundet
Kristian Tambs
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2013 May 1;177(9):1015-9
Date
May-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Birth Certificates
Body Height - genetics
Cohort Studies
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Military Personnel - statistics & numerical data
Norway
Regression Analysis
Siblings
Twins
Young Adult
Abstract
In the present study, we evaluated whether childhood differences in body height between singletons and twins persist into adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. This study used data on the 457,999 males who were born alive and without physical anomalies in single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years; 1985-2003). For sibling comparisons, the authors selected the 1,721 sibships of full brothers that included at least 1 male born in a single birth and at least 1 male born in a twin birth (4,520 persons, including 2,493 twins and 2,027 singletons). An analysis of the total study population using generalized estimating equations showed that the twins were 0.6 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.7) shorter than were the singletons after adjustment for a series of background factors. The fixed-effects regression analysis of the sibships that included both twins and singletons showed that the twins were 0.9 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.2) shorter than were their singleton brothers. The study suggests that male twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 were slightly shorter in early adulthood than were singletons.
PubMed ID
23543161 View in PubMed
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Advanced Maternal Age and the Risk of Low Birth Weight and Preterm Delivery: a Within-Family Analysis Using Finnish Population Registers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287605
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Dec 01;186(11):1219-1226
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-01-2017
Author
Alice Goisis
Hanna Remes
Kieron Barclay
Pekka Martikainen
Mikko Myrskylä
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Dec 01;186(11):1219-1226
Date
Dec-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Birth Certificates
Family
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Age
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Premature Birth - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Siblings
Social Class
Young Adult
Abstract
Advanced maternal age at birth is considered a major risk factor for birth outcomes. It is unclear to what extent this association is confounded by maternal characteristics. To test whether advanced maternal age at birth independently increases the risk of low birth weight (
PubMed ID
29206985 View in PubMed
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Advancing our understanding of sibling supervision and injury risk for young children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107263
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2013 Nov;96:208-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Barbara A Morrongiello
Stacey L Schell
Bethany Keleher
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, Canada N1G 2W1. Electronic address: bmorrong@uoguelph.ca.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2013 Nov;96:208-13
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Home - prevention & control
Canada
Caregivers - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Male
Risk assessment
Sibling Relations
Siblings - psychology
Video Recording
Wounds and injuries - prevention & control
Abstract
Sibling supervision has been shown to increase the risk of supervisee's unintentional injury in the home. Both poorer supervision by the older sibling and noncompliance by the younger sibling have been shown to contribute to this risk. Previous studies have shown that informing older siblings that they are responsible for the behavior of their younger sibling improves their supervision. The present study, conducted in Canada, examined whether informing both children the older child is in charge would improve both older sibling supervisory practices and compliance by the younger child. Younger and older siblings were initially placed in a room containing contrived hazards, and their interactions were unobtrusively recorded. In a second contrived hazards room, both children were then informed that the older sibling was in charge, and the supervisor was privately told not to let the supervisee touch hazardous objects. Results revealed that sibling supervisors showed improved supervision but supervisee behavior did not vary across conditions. Implications for injury prevention and future research directions are discussed.
PubMed ID
24034969 View in PubMed
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Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: a sibling-comparison study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122731
Source
Dev Psychopathol. 2012 Aug;24(3):739-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Ralf Kuja-Halkola
Yudi Pawitan
Brian M D'Onofrio
Niklas Långström
Paul Lichtenstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 281, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden. ralf.kuja-halkola@ki.se
Source
Dev Psychopathol. 2012 Aug;24(3):739-53
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology - genetics
Crime - psychology
Criminals - psychology
Fathers
Humans
Male
Paternal Age
Registries
Risk
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - genetics
Siblings - psychology
Sweden
Violence - psychology
Abstract
Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly because of increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Because severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers' age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born from 1958 to 1979 (N = 2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-family analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22781852 View in PubMed
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Advancing paternal age and risk of autism: new evidence from a population-based study and a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138993
Source
Mol Psychiatry. 2011 Dec;16(12):1203-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
C M Hultman
S. Sandin
S Z Levine
P. Lichtenstein
A. Reichenberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Mol Psychiatry. 2011 Dec;16(12):1203-12
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Autistic Disorder - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Cohort Studies
Databases, Factual - statistics & numerical data
Family Health - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Maternal Age
Middle Aged
Paternal Age
Risk factors
Siblings - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Advanced paternal age has been suggested as a risk factor for autism, but empirical evidence is mixed. This study examines whether the association between paternal age and autism in the offspring (1) persists controlling for documented autism risk factors, including family psychiatric history, perinatal conditions, infant characteristics and demographic variables; (2) may be explained by familial traits associated with the autism phenotype, or confounding by parity; and (3) is consistent across epidemiological studies. Multiple study methods were adopted. First, a Swedish 10-year birth cohort (N=1?075?588) was established. Linkage to the National Patient Register ascertained all autism cases (N=883). Second, 660 families identified within the birth cohort had siblings discordant for autism. Finally, meta-analysis included population-based epidemiological studies. In the birth cohort, autism risk increased monotonically with increasing paternal age. Offspring of men aged =50 years were 2.2 times (95% confidence interval: 1.26-3.88: P=0.006) more likely to have autism than offspring of men aged =29 years, after controlling for maternal age and documented risk factors for autism. Within-family analysis of discordant siblings showed that affected siblings had older paternal age, adjusting for maternal age and parity (P
PubMed ID
21116277 View in PubMed
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Affected sib-pair analysis of the contribution of HLA class I and class II loci to development of cervical cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature17622
Source
Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Sep 1;13(17):1951-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-2004
Author
Malin Engelmark
Anna Beskow
Jessica Magnusson
Henry Erlich
Ulf Gyllensten
Author Affiliation
Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, University of Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Sep 1;13(17):1951-8
Date
Sep-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Female
Gene Frequency
Genes, MHC Class I - genetics
Genes, MHC Class II - genetics
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genotype
Haplotypes - genetics
Humans
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Siblings
Sweden
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - genetics
Abstract
Cervical cancer is a multifactorial disease and infection by oncogenic human papilloma viruses represents the main environmental risk factor. Only a subset of infections becomes persistent and develops into cancer, implying that genetic susceptibility factors are needed for malignant progression. Here, we use a population-based cohort of affected sib-pairs (ASPs) to examine the role of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II loci in cervical cancer susceptibility. Analysis of 278 ASPs revealed significant excess genetic sharing for all three HLA class II loci studied, DPB1, DQB1 and DRB1, with the strongest evidence for DQB1 and DRB1. No evidence of excess sharing was observed for the HLA class I HLA-B and HLA-A loci. When the material was stratified on the basis of the DQB1*0602/DRB1*1501 susceptibility haplotype, carriers showed significant sharing for all loci, whereas non-carriers showed no evidence of excess genetic sharing at any of the loci. However, for the DPB1 locus there was no difference in allele frequency between carriers and non-carriers indicating that the effect seen in DPB1 is not simply due to linkage disequilibrium. Our results show that the HLA class II represents a major genetic susceptibility locus to cervical cancer in contrary to the class I that do not appear to have a significant impact on predisposition to the disease. The strongest class II effects are coming from the DQB1 and DRB1 loci, but the DPB1 locus also contributes to the susceptibility to cervical cancer.
Notes
Erratum In: Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Jan 15;15(2):375
PubMed ID
15238505 View in PubMed
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526 records – page 1 of 53.