The risk of oil spills is an ongoing societal concern. Whereas several decision support systems exist for predicting the fate and drift of spilled oil, there is a lack of accurate models for assessing the amount of oil spilled and its temporal evolution. In order to close this gap, this paper presents an online platform for the fast assessment of tanker grounding accidents in terms of structural damage and time-dependent amount of spilled cargo oil. The simulation platform consists of the definition of accidental scenarios; the assessment of the grounding damage and the prediction of the time-dependent oil spill size. The performance of this integrated online simulation environment is exemplified through illustrative case studies representing two plausible accidental grounding scenarios in the Gulf of Finland: one resulting in oil spill of about 50?t, while in the other the inner hull remained intact and no spill occurred.
The growth of maritime oil transportation in the Gulf of Finland (GoF), North-Eastern Baltic Sea, increases environmental risks by increasing the probability of oil accidents. By integrating the work of a multidisciplinary research team and information from several sources, we have developed a probabilistic risk assessment application that considers the likely future development of maritime traffic and oil transportation in the area and the resulting risk of environmental pollution. This metamodel is used to compare the effects of two preventative management actions on the tanker collision probabilities and the consequent risk. The resulting risk is evaluated from four different perspectives. Bayesian networks enable large amounts of information about causalities to be integrated and utilized in probabilistic inference. Compared with the baseline period of 2007-2008, the worst-case scenario is that the risk level increases 4-fold by the year 2015. The management measures are evaluated and found to decrease the risk by 4-13%, but the utility gained by their joint implementation would be less than the sum of their independent effects. In addition to the results concerning the varying risk levels, the application provides interesting information about the relationships between the different elements of the system.
The suitability of determining aluminum in serum or urine as a form of biological monitoring was critically assessed.
Airborne and internal aluminum exposure was assessed for 12 aluminum welders in a shipyard and 5 manufacturers of aluminum sulfate. Particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Aluminum in air and biological samples was analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Basic toxicokinetic features were inferred from the data.
The mean 8-hour time-weighted average concentration of aluminum was 1.1 (range 0.008-6.1) mg/m(3) for the shipyard and 0.13 (range 0.02-0.5) mg/m(3) for the aluminum sulfate plant. Welding fume contained aluminum oxide particles
Critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) is a method used successfully to reduce suffering from stress-related ailments such as insomnia, depression, anger, headaches etc. The resources of the shipping company are very limited and, thus, networking with existing organizations and specialists is necessary to carry out CISD effectively. The present company model has been adopted to take into account various situations and levels of disaster. The model has been adopted at three levels of events:Level 1. Serious accidents on shore, sudden deaths, severe events and threats. Events involving one or only few persons. Level 2. Life-threatening occupational accidents on board ship, suicide of a workmate, sudden death and fire on board ship. Events involving one person or limited group of persons. Level 3. Disasters at sea. Severe events involving all or nearly all persons on board ship. Actions at different levels: Level 1: A leaflet describing CISD, situations where it would be appropriate and where it is available, is given to each sailor. The victim is encouraged to seek CISD from public health care centres, most of which have their own services in Finland. Level 2. Training of about 8 hours is carried out by an experienced crisis psychologist for supervisors and officers on board ship. After the training they are able to identify stressful situations. At each harbour, the shipping company has made agreements with experienced crisis psychologists to act as specialists and contact persons on shore. These nominated psychologists will initiate CISD actions when necessary. If they need extra manpower they will turn to other psychologists. Level 3. In such serious accidents, the company's own resources alone are insufficient to provide effective CISD. All available public and private resources will he needed (health care organizations, Red Cross, Church etc.).
In this study the effects on hearing induced by occupational exposure to impulse noise were compared with those induced by exposure to continuous steady state noise. Three groups exposed to impulse noise, one group exposed to continuous steady state noise, and an unexposed control group were studied. The hearing thresholds of the groups were measured by a puretone audiometer three times in two workdays. None of the groups showed significant differences between the hearing thresholds measured in the morning, at midday, and in the afternoon. Group 1 with the shortest duration of exposure and group 2 with the intermediate duration of exposure to impulse noise had the highest thresholds at 6000 Hz in both ears. Group 3 with the longest duration of exposure to impulse noise had the highest thresholds asymmetrically, at 4000 Hz in the left ear and at 6000 Hz in the right ear. The group exposed to continuous steady state noise also had the highest thresholds asymmetrically, in the left ear at 6000 Hz. It was concluded that the longer the duration of exposure to impulse noise the wider the region of the frequencies that showed raised threshold shifts in both ears. Impulse noise seemed to produce permanent threshold shifts at 4000 and 6000 Hz after a shorter duration of exposure than continuous steady state noise.
This article describes co-operation between three psychiatric hospitals in different parts of the world. Twin- and friendship-hospital work is a way to increase the status of psychiatric hospitals and psychiatric patients in society. Direct contacts between hospital workers of these hospitals is now part of everyday life. It has been an innovative addition to 'normal' psychiatric work.
Seafarers' free time activities on board ship and on shore were investigated by means of a questionnaire sent to 507 seafarers working on 35 ships. All the seafarers were Finnish citizens and all the ships in Finnish ownership. The questionnaire was returned by 245 seafarers (22 of them were women) from a total of 34 ships. Reading was the most popular way of spending free time while on board ship. Next came watching television or listening to the radio; then chatting with friends and sleeping/keeping to oneself. About one in four put physical exercise and sauna baths among the three most common ways of spending free time. The most common ways of spending free time on shore were meeting friends and acquaintances and watching TV or listening to the radio. In third place were "other ways of spending leisure time", most of which included being out of door, hunting, going to the summer cottage and gardening. Physical exercise activity was greater on shore than on board ship. The respondents were grouped into four categories: A) reader/student/hobbyist: B) sociable: C) exercise enthusiast D) TV watcher/radio listener Group A considered the ship's atmosphere and the spirit of solidarity on board better than the others. Group B had more often a good friend on board ship and less often suffered from anxiety or depression. Group C more often considered their health and working capacity good. Group D had no positive differences over the other groups. More attention should be paid to developing the ways in which free time is spent not only on board but also during the compensatory free time on shore.
In autumn 1997 a pilot project was started in Finland to develop methods for promoting the health of sailors. Four Finnish shipping companies, (4 cargo ships and 2 passenger-cruise ferries), with altogether 730 sailors participated in the project. Special attention was paid to individuals with health problems and those who generally did not take care of their own health or fitness. Three-quarters of the respondents saw their health as good and one fifth as fair. Thirty-four persons responded that their working capacity was poor. 154 sailors were selected into further physical fitness evaluations. The main task of the project team was to activate sailors to take care of their own health and well-being. The health-promoting activities were directed especially at those persons who needed it. Information lectures concerning healthier eating habits and meals were given. Anti-smoking and anti-alcohol drinking information was given. On board one cruise ferry a project was started on how to react as early as possible to alcohol abuse among seafarers. Courses on shore for sailors were arranged to improve their physical fitness and to increase their resting benefit between working periods at sea. The intervention time was one year. Information about smoking and alcohol led to reduced alcohol consumption. The sailors had started to exercise more often both on board ship and on shore. Those who had increased their physical exercise during free time more often found their own health and working ability to have improved than those who had not changed their exercise habits. It appeared that health intervention projects are really needed especially by older sailors. The results also showed that positive effects could be achieved in the fitness of sailors. Better fitness was good for their health and also increased the work safety.